Leukocyte Count
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2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Fereshte Sheybani ◽  
Diederik van de Beek ◽  
Matthijs C. Brouwer

Objectives: To study the differential diagnosis of HIV-infected patients with suspected central nervous system (CNS) infections and the association of CD4 counts with the final diagnosis.Methods: We analyzed HIV-infected patients from a prospective cohort study on the diagnostic accuracy of clinical and laboratory characteristics in adults with suspected CNS infections in an academic hospital in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, who underwent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination.Results: Thirty-four (9.4%) out of 363 patients with suspected CNS infections were HIV-positive of whom 18 (53%) were diagnosed to have CNS infection, with median CD4 counts of 255 cells/μl. The spectrum of CNS infections consisted of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in three patients (17%); cryptococcal meningoencephalitis, toxoplasma encephalitis, angiostrongylus eosinophilic meningitis, and HIV encephalitis each in two (11%); and cytomegalovirus encephalitis, neurosyphilis, tuberculous meningoencephalitis, histoplasma encephalitis, and varicella-zoster virus meningitis each in one (6%). Clinical characteristics and blood parameters did not differ between HIV-infected patients with CNS infections and other diagnoses. The best predictor for CNS infections was the CSF leukocyte count (AUC = 0.77, 95 CI% 0.61–0.94). The diagnosis of CNS infection was not associated with the CD4 count (median 205 vs. 370, p = 0.21). Two patients (11%) with CNS infections died and two (11%) had neurological sequelae.Conclusions: Half of the patients with suspected CNS infections are diagnosed with a CNS infection, and this was not related to CD4 counts. The best predictor for CNS infections was the CSF leukocyte count.

2021 ◽  
Yen-Wei Li ◽  
Tung-Wei Kao ◽  
Chao-Yin Kuo ◽  
Pi-Kai Chang ◽  
Wei-Liang Chen ◽  

Abstract Cardiovascular disease whose correlation with metabolic syndrome and diabetes has been well established. As an aspect of preventive medicine, we conducted a 9-year longitudinal study to identify the relationship between easily measured hematologic parameters, future metabolic syndrome (MetS), hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) according to age distribution. Divided into three groups according to age (young age: <40, middle age: ≧40 and <65 and old age: ≧65), 10,328 participants, receiving general medical inspection at the health management centre of Tri-Service General Hospital (TSGH) in Taiwan from 2007 to 2015, had been enrolled in the present study. Through multivariate regression analyses, the hazard ratio (HR) of total and subtype leukocyte count for MetS along with its components, hypertension and T2DM were demonstrated. All MetS components revealed significant association with total leukocyte count in multivariate regression models. Total leukocyte count was associated with future MetS, hypertension and T2DM despite of age at first, but failed in adjusted HR for the old group. Additionally, monocyte count showed significant association with all the aforementioned diseases only in middle-aged subjects but failed in the other two groups. Our results explore the promising value of total leukocyte count and monocyte count to identify the high-risk subjects, especially meddle-aged ones, having MetS, hypertension, and T2DM whether in the present or future.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Moritz Mirna ◽  
Lukas Schmutzler ◽  
Albert Topf ◽  
Uta C. Hoppe ◽  
Michael Lichtenauer

AbstractNeutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) are associated with the severity of various diseases. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the relationship of NLR and MLR with the severity of myocarditis. 202 consecutive patients with myocarditis were retrospectively enrolled in this study. Laboratory parameters and clinical data were extracted from hospital records and discharge letters. Median NLR was 2.48 (IQR 1.55–4.58) and median MLR was 0.42 (IQR 0.39–0.58). NLR and MLR correlated with HF, CRP and leukocyte count, MLR further correlated inversely with LV systolic function (rs = − 0.379, p = 0.030). Both ratios correlated better with length of hospital stay (NLR: rs = 0.435, p = 0.003; MLR: rs = 0.534, p < 0.0001) than CRP, leukocyte count, IL-6 or procalcitonin. AUCs for the prediction of prolonged hospital stay (NLR = 0.75, MLR = 0.80), and optimal cut-offs therefor were calculated. Patients who had in-hospital complications showed a higher NLR, however, this remained statistically insignificant. NLR and MLR correlated with the length of stay, as well as with several clinical and laboratory parameters in patients with myocarditis. Since white blood cell differentials are relatively easy and fast to perform, both ratios could facilitate further risk stratification in affected patients.

2021 ◽  
pp. 118-124
Abdurrahman Sarmis ◽  
Mehmet Agirbasli ◽  
Esra Kocoglu ◽  
Hasan Guclu ◽  
Tuncer Ozekinci ◽  

Objective: Quick diagnosis of COVID-19 has been an important factor to manage the ongoing pandemic at hospitals and other health facilities.We aimed to investigate the effects of PCR test on hemogram parameters in COVID-19 patients. Materials and Methods: We collected hemogram data of 120 nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal combo swab PCR positive and 119 PCR negative patients admitted to our hospital’s COVID-19 clinics with COVID-19 symptoms between 1 April 2020 and 24 June2020. Results: Age, MPV and NLR were found to be higher; hemoglobin, neutrophil, lymphocytes, basophil, platelet, PCT, WBC levels were lower in PCR positive cases.The highest sensitivity, 75 % is found on WBC count with cut off 7.15. Conclusion: Lower leukocyte count than 7.15, lower neutrophil count than 4.91, greater NLR than 2.95, lower platelet than 221.5 may give an idea about the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.20(5) 2021 p.118-124

2021 ◽  
feifei cui ◽  
Xiu-jun Tian ◽  
De-li Xin ◽  
Xiao-hua Han ◽  
Liang-yu Wang ◽  

Abstract Background: To investigate the drug resistance and clinical characteristics of hospitalized children with drug-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MRMP).Methods: Sixty patients with MPP admitted to the Second Pediatric Respiratory Ward of Shengjing Hospital, Affiliated to China Medical University from November 2016 to February 2017 were enrolled in the study.Results: Of these 53/60 (88.3%) patients had Mycoplasma pneumoniae nucleic acid identified by throat swab. 23S rRNA V region gene sequencing was performed, 47/49 (95.9%) had mutation sites, including 46 cases of A2063G, one case of A2064G, two cases of no mutation, and a final drug resistance rate of 95.9%. The summary characteristics of the 47 cases of drug-resistant MPP were based on 22 male and 25 female patients. The onset age was 6.9 ± 2.5 years and the total fever duration was 9.8 ± 3.7 days. The leukocyte count during the acute phase was (8,300 ± 4,200) cells/mm3, C-reactive Protein (CRP) was 18.2 (8.2–32.5) mg/L, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) was 2.1 (1.5–3.3), There was no significant difference between the acute phase and the convalescent phase for leukocyte count, P = 0.336. The NLR and CRP levels were significantly higher during the acute phase compared to the recovery period (P < 0.05). The level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) increased in 65.7% of patients, with a median of 248.5 (200.0–299.7) U/L. D-dimer levels were elevated in 59.4% of patients, with a median of 301.0 (188.5–545.0) mg/L. A total of 23/47 (48.9%) patients were diagnosed with severe MPP. The incidence of extra-pulmonary complications was 38.2%. Conclusions: In summary, MRMP patients had a fever of long duration, higher inflammatory index, higher LDH and D-dimer levels, and an increased incidence of extra-pulmonary complications.

Cureus ◽  
2021 ◽  
Muhammad Bilal ◽  
Atif Yusufzai ◽  
Neelam Asghar ◽  
Ahmed Sohail ◽  
Zoobia Z Khan ◽  

2021 ◽  
pp. 104063872110389
Elisabeth Neubert ◽  
Karin Weber

We analyzed urine samples from 191 cats for bacteriuria with an automated urine sediment analyzer (Idexx SediVue Dx), combined with image review by an observer, and compared to bacteriologic culture results. Sixty-nine samples were unambiguously assigned to be free of bacteria by the instrument and the observer, and no bacterial growth was detected. Twenty-seven samples were unambiguously assigned to have bacteriuria; 24 of these 27 samples were culture-positive. For these samples, bacteriuria was predicted with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 96%. A clear assignment was not possible for 95 samples, 81 of which were culture-negative. Specificity dropped to 45% when all samples were considered. Using the automated leukocyte count to predict bacteriuria, sensitivity was 82% and specificity was 75%. Automated sediment analysis is faster and less observer-dependent than sediment analysis under a microscope, but accurate detection of bacteriuria remains difficult in a large proportion of samples. Bacteriuria was significantly associated with leukocyte count; the leukocyte count was >5/high power field in 82% of culture-positive samples.

Academia Open ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 4 ◽  
Alda Megawati ◽  
Andika Aliviameita

Typhoid fever is a systemic infectious disease characterized by the patient experiencing fever and abdominal pain due to the spread of Salmonella bacteria. Typhoid fever sufferers cause the immune system to decline which can affect changes in the number of white blood cells and in an infection, an inflammatory process occurs that produces cytokines which are the core stimulators of acute phase protein production, including C-reactive protein (C-reactive protein = CRP). This study was conducted in April 2021 with the aim of knowing the relationship between the number of leukocytes and CRP levels in typhoid fever patients at RA Basoeni Mojokerto Hospital. The design carried out in this study was a laboratory experimental, the sample needed in this study was 30 typhoid fever patients at RA Basoeni Hospital. Examination of the leukocyte count uses an automatic method with a Hematology analyzer, while CRP examination uses a semi-quantitative method. In the Spearman correlation test, it was found that there was no significant relationship between the number of leukocytes and the level of CRP p = 0.460.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Sainan Chen ◽  
Yuqing Wang ◽  
Anrong Li ◽  
Wujun Jiang ◽  
Qiuyan Xu ◽  

Objective: In recent years, the incidence of Bordetella pertussis infection in infants and young children has been increasing. Multiple studies have suggested that B. pertussis may be one of the pathogens of bronchiolitis in infants and young children. However, the prevalence and clinic characteristic of B. pertussis in bronchiolitis is controversial. This prospective descriptive study evaluated the prevalence and clinical manifestations of infants and young children hospitalized for bronchiolitis with B. pertussis.Methods: Children hospitalized with bronchiolitis were eligible for a prospective study for 36 months from January 1, 2017, to December 31, 2019. Besides B. pertussis, 10 common respiratory viruses and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) were confirmed by laboratory tests. Medical records of patients were reviewed for demographic, clinical characteristics, and laboratory examination.Results: A total of 1,092 patients with bronchiolitis were admitted. B. pertussis was detected in 78/1,092 (7.1%) patients. Of the 78 patients with B. pertussis bronchiolitis, coinfections occurred in 45 (57.7%) patients, most frequently with human rhinovirus (28/78, 35.9%), followed by MP (9/78, 11.4%), and human bocavirus (6/78, 7.7%). The peak incidence of B. pertussis infection was in May. A high leukocyte count could help distinguish B. pertussis–associated acute bronchiolitis from other acute bronchiolitis etiologies. After excluding coinfections, children with B. pertussis–only bronchiolitis exhibited a milder clinical presentation than those with RSV-only infection; also, children with MP-only and other pathogen infections revealed similar severity. The morbidity of B. pertussis was common (31/78, 39.7%) in infants with bronchiolitis under 3 months.Conclusion: In summary, B. pertussis is one of the pathogens in children with bronchiolitis, and coinfection of B. pertussis with other viruses is common in bronchiolitis. B. pertussis should be considered when patients hospitalized with bronchiolitis present a longer course and have an elevated leukocyte count. Patients with B. pertussis–associated bronchiolitis present a milder clinical presentation.

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