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2022 ◽  
Robert A Ngala ◽  
Evans Owusu Ameyaw ◽  
Dorice Berkoh ◽  
John Barimah ◽  
Simon Koffie

Abstract Introduction: Vegetable oils contain natural antioxidants and other properties reported to impart anti-diabetic properties when consumed, in animal study. In humans however, these oils are subjected to high temperatures during cooking before consumption. High temperature tends to affect the characteristic quality and potential to impart on health benefits such as antidiabetic properties. The objective of this work was to determine the characteristics quality of vegetable oils after thermal treatment that equates to temperatures oils are subjected to during food processing/cooking.Methodology: Three portions of 200g of each fresh unrefined red palm oil, coconut oil and groundnut oils in three conical flasks T1, T2 and T3 were heated to room temperature 28oC (T1) to 100o C in boiling water (T2) and to 200o C in electric cooker oven (T3) for 10 minutes. Acid, iodine, peroxide, saponification, unsaponification values of the oils, Phytoconstituents (Flavanoids, polyphenols saponins etc) and antioxidant (Vitamin A&C) and DPPH (1,1-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl) Radical Scavenging Activity were then determined after cooling to room temperature. Results: Coconut oil heated to 200˚C had the least Acid value of 2.89±0.135 whiles Palm oil heated to 100 ˚C had the highest value of 19.57±0.165. There were no peroxides formed in Coconut and Palm oils at 28 ˚C as well as Palm oil at 100 ˚C. However, peroxides were highest in Coconut oil at 200˚C with value of 15.28±2.315. Saponification value of groundnut oil at 28 ˚C was the least at 89.52 ± 2.18 and 296.57±1.045 the highest in coconut oil at 200 ˚C. Heating however increased the unsaponifiable matter in all the vegetable oils used. Total antioxidant capacity was not significantly changed across the temperature treatment. Total phenolic content was not significantly changed for palm oil but was significantly increased at 100C for coconut and groundnut oilsConclusion: The quality of the oils in terms of acid value, iodine vale, peroxide value and saponification value, total antioxidant and phenolic content were retained after one heat treatment. This implies the quality of the oils are maintained after a single heating. The oils may still retain antidiabetic property when consumed after processing.

Processes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 115
Cherng-Yuan Lin ◽  
Lei Ma

Biodiesel, which is composed of mono-alkyl esters of long carbon-chained fatty acids, is used as an alternative fuel to petro-diesel. The water content of the reactant mixture of feedstock oil influences the extent of transesterification and thus the fuel characteristics. Lower water content in feedstock oil is generally suggested for successful transesterification. This experimental study removed water from the reactant mixture of feedstock palm oil and methanol during transesterification using various systems composed of either electrodes or molecular sieves with rotary vibration. The effect of input electrical energy, number of electrodes, vibration modes, and operating time on the amount of water removed from the reactant mixture and the fuel properties of the final biodiesel product were analyzed and compared with those achieved using molecular sieves. The results show that the biodiesel—after water was removed during transesterification—appeared to have increased kinematic viscosity, cetane index, distillation temperature, and acid value, while the heating value, flash point, ignition point, and water content decreased with an increase in the input electrical energy of the electrodes responsible for electrolyzing water away. Electrolysis by the double-pair electrodes was more effective at reducing acid value and water content than that performed by the single-pair electrodes under the same input electrical energy. The biodiesel was found to have the lowest water content (0.0304 wt.%) and the highest water-removal rate (0.011 wt.%) when water was removed during transesterification by the double-pair electrodes with an input electrical energy of 9 J/(g palm oil). The water-removal rate of the rotary-vibrating molecular sieves was 11.24 times that of the single-pair electrodes. The biodiesel was found to have increased kinematic viscosity with higher input electrical energy, reaching 5.15 mm2/s when the double-pair electrodes with an input electrical energy of 11 J/(g palm oil) were used. Longer carbon-chained fatty acids, ranging from C20 to C24, amounted to 0.74 wt.% of the biodiesel produced using the double-pair electrodes, which was greater than that seen for the single-pair electrodes. However, the molecular sieve method consumed more energy than the double-pair electrodes did to remove the same amount of water from the palm oil reactant mixture via transesterification.

2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (2) ◽  
pp. 319-323
K.A. Viraj Miyuranga ◽  
Udara S.P.R. Arachchige ◽  
Danushka Thilakarathne ◽  
Randika A. Jayasinghe ◽  
Nuwan A. Weerasekara

Biodiesel is a renewable fuel with similar chemical and physical properties to diesel. The study used waste cooking oil to make biodiesel because reusing waste cooking oil harms human health by raising FFA levels above the norm. Transesterification was performed at 60 °C using a 1:5 methanol to waste cooking oil volume ratio, 30 min reaction time, 600 rpm stirring speed and 1% wt. KOH was employed as a homogenous base catalyst. Biodiesel samples of B0, B2, B5, B20, B40 and B100 were processed at 25 ºC in combination with petrodiesel. Samples were tested for density, kinetic viscosity, flash point, acid value and pH. The fuel economy and flue gas analysis were performed using three-wheeler diesel. The amount of waste cooking oil biodiesel increases the density, kinematic viscosity, flash point, acid value and pH of the sample. In blended diesel, the amount of biodiesel also lowered CO2, CO, NO, NOx, hydrocarbon (HC) and SO2 emissions.

Mr. Ghodke shubham Gorakhnath

Abstract: The various products to enhance beauty and elegance to look young and charming. Cosmetics thus play a vital role in human life. Now a days, herbal cosmetic are widely used because of the Belief that they have fewer side effects and better safety. Hair is one of the primary parts of the body which Acts as a protective appendage. The objective of the present work is to develop a hair oil for general purpose (daily use) using various herbs. The formulated oil was evaluated for its organoleptic properties, acid value, Saponification value, refractive index, pH etc. All the parameters were found to be good and within the Standards. Keywords: hair, oil, herbs, cosmetics, formulation, evaluation

Food Research ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (6) ◽  
pp. 274-282
S. Zio ◽  
B. Tarnagda ◽  
O. Zongo ◽  
A. Boro ◽  
D. Elothmani ◽  

Edible oils produced and consumed in Burkina Faso often do not meet established standards. The objective of this study was to evaluate the total gossypol level of refined cottonseeds oils and the oxidation state of crude peanut oils and refined cottonseeds oils in Burkina Faso to determine the impact on consumer health. A total of 61 samples including crude peanut oils and refined cottonseeds oils were collected in Ouagadougou, Bobo Dioulasso and surrounding areas. Total Gossypol and p-Anisidine value were determined by spectrophotometry. Peroxide value, acid value, soap residual value and mineral oils were determined by chemical methods. Total oxidation (Totox) value was determined by mathematical prediction. Overall, Gossypol total average of cottonseeds oils analyzed in this study was 0.032%. The p-Anisidine value average was 1.80 for refined cottonseeds oils and 11.65 for crude peanut oils. The Totox averages were respectively 19.37 and 28.36 for refined cottonseeds and crude peanut oils. The average peroxide values for refined cottonseeds oils and peanut crude oils were 8.52 and 8.33 mEq O2/Kg, respectively (p<0.05). The average acid values were 0.27 and 1.95 mg KOH/g for refined cottonseeds oils and crude peanut oils, respectively (p<0.05). None of the oils showed any mineral oil trace. The average residual soap values were respectively 1.47 and 8.32 ppm for peanut oils and cottonseeds oils (p<0.05). The majority values determined conformed to the Codex Alimentarius standard despite some cases of non-compliance. It is essential to improve the processes of oils production and conservation in order to have quality oils to guarantee the health of the consumer.

Mr. Bade Vikas Vinayak

Abstract: In the present study herbal Hair oils were formulated. Hair is one of the vital parts of the body and a protective appendage on the body and considered accessory structure of integument along with sebaceous glands, sweat glands and nails. Hair oils are widely used by the consumer of the cosmetic industries. The hair oil samples comply for the requirements of color, odour, PH, Viscosity, Density, acid value. Present investigation was undertaken to standardize the selected herbal hair oils on physicochemical parameters and some standard. Excellent results were seen in formulation prepared by boiling method of oils preparation technique. Keyword: Herbal preparation, Hair oil, Acid value, Saponification value AIM: To Formulate & Evaluate Polyherbal Hair Oil. Objectives:  To collect information about Marketed herbal hair oils.  To prepare polyherbal hair oil.  To explore the use of Neem, Banyan tree of Arial root & Amla  To study evaluation of hair oil such as PH, Viscosity, Density, Refractive index, Acid value, Saponification value.  To achieve best formula for the hair oil using herbal ingredients.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 450-453
Abdalla Gobara Habieballa ◽  
Halima Elfadel Alebead ◽  
Madena Komi Koko ◽  
Awad Salim Ibrahim ◽  
Asha Fadllallah Wady

This study was aimed to assess the antibacterial and antifungal activities of Balanites aegyptiaca seed oil and characterize the physicochemical properties. Seeds were collected from the local central market, Khartoum-Sudan (2019). The samples were dried under shade and grinded, then the oil was extracted with a Soxhlet extractor using n-hexane. The percentage yield of the extract was found to be 25.64%. The seed oil was tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (G-), Escherichia coli (G-), Bacillus subtilis (G+), Staphylococcus aureus (G+), and Candida albicans to assess their antimicrobial properties. The extract of B. aegyptiaca seed oil has antimicrobial activity against most of the organisms tested. The fatty acid profile of the B. aegyptiaca seed oil was analyzed by GC/MS. The results revealed that the presence of five fatty acids, including saturated linoleic acid, oleic acid, and unsaturated palmate and stearic acids, also a unique antioxidant compound butylated hydroxytoluene. The physiochemical properties of the seed oil showed that the oil contained kinetic viscosity (57 cp), density (0.917 g/cm3), refractive index (1.472), acid value (49.96 mg/kg), saponification value (248.75 mg/g), ester number (234.79 mg/kg) and peroxide number (0.02 mg/kg). Through physiochemical analysis, it was found that oil can be used for human consumption due to the percentage yield of unsaturated acids (81%). In addition, the results of the antioxidant activity of the seeds oil showed that the seed oil had moderate antioxidant activity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (01) ◽  
pp. 45-51
Sabin Bahadur Khatri ◽  
Dev Raj Acharya

Cassava (Manihotesculentacrantz) is not true cereals are largely grown all over the world. They are very important due to their excellent nutritional contents especially protein, crude fiber, and carbohydrates. Biscuits were prepared by mixing cassava and wheat flour. Six treatments were prepared by adding 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% cassava flour with wheat flour (Sample B, C, D, E, and F respectively) along with controlled treatment of 100% wheat flour (A). The proximate composition of flours was analyzed and prepared biscuits were subjected to sensory evaluation and shelf-life estimation. The obtained data was analyzed statistically by Genstat Discovery Edition 3 (DE3), for Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) at a 5% level of significance. Statistical analysis showed that sensory parameters and overall acceptability of 80 parts wheat and 20 parts cassava flour incorporated biscuit was significantly superior to all biscuits formulations. The proximate results of the best product showed that moisture content, crude fat, crude protein, crude fiber, total ash content, and total carbohydrate were found 3.44±0.25%, 13.80±0.33%, 8.13±0.13%, 1.29±0.19%, 2.41±0.06%, and 70.99±0.50 (g/100g) respectively. The shelf life of the best product was estimated by analyzing acid value and moisture content of the product by using three different packaging materials biaxially polypropylene (BOPP), high-density polypropylene (HDPE), and polypropylene (PP) respectively. The shelf life of the best product (80-20) wheat and cassava flours was found to be satisfactory for 8 weeks. The projected shelf life was found high in polypropylene (PP) and high-density polypropylene (HDPE) for 13.5 and 17.81 weeks for acid value and moisture content respectively.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (2) ◽  
pp. 50-57
Anish Dangal ◽  
Anish Dhakal ◽  
Rajesh Shah ◽  
Diksha Timsina ◽  
Sangam Dahal

The main aim of this study was to prepare thekua with the incorporation of germinated finger millet also known as ragi, flour and to perform its sensory as well as physicochemical analysis. The wheat flour and finger millet (ragi) flour were mixed with variation at the proportion of 87.5:12.5, 81.25:18.75, 100:0, 75:25 and 93.75:6.25 labeled as samples A, B, C, D and E respectively., while semolina (20 g), sugar (30 g), oil (20 g) and water (20 g) were kept constant for every formulation. The FFA and acid value of the oil used was found to be 0.110±0.02 and 0.221±0.03 respectively. The moisture content of sugar used was found to be 0.16±0.01. Sample ‘E’ was considered best as per the acceptability by panelists and had crude fiber (%), calcium content (mg/100g), tannin (mg/100g), phytate (mg/100g), carbohydrate and total energy (Kcal/100g) of 0.24±0.01, 18.6±0.02, 27.03±0.86, 135.97±1.15, 64.42±0.04 and 512.41±0.07 respectively. Increase in fiber content and minerals was seen in best sample product with the incorporation of germinated finger millet (ragi) flour.

2021 ◽  
Vol 33 (4) ◽  
pp. 107-117
Pedro P. Ugarte-Espinoza ◽  
Victor Delgado-Soriano ◽  
Lorenzo Estivi ◽  
Alyssa Hidalgo ◽  
Gloria Pascual-Chagman

In order to optimize the screw-press extraction conditions of oil from goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L.) seeds obtained from nectar processing waste, a face centered design was applied. The oil was extracted at different temperatures (60, 80, and 100°C) and seed moisture contents (8, 10, and 12%). Oil recovery (OR) increased and residual oil in the cake decreased significantly as moisture content and temperature were reduced; oil moisture and volatile matter as well as acid value, K232, K268, and p-anisidine, respectively, decreased proportionally with the moisture extraction. Thus, the highest OR (86.4%) and the best quality were obtained at 8% moisture content and 60°C pressing temperature. Under these conditions, the extracted oil presented high linoleic acid (76.0%), iodine value (140.0 mg I2/g), and refractive index (1.4769). The oil stability index, measured by Rancimat, varied from 3.65 h (120°C) to 14.87 h (100°C); the predicted shelf life at 25°C was 120.4 days and the activation energy was 85.6 kJ/mol. The results highlighted that screw-pressing of goldenberry seeds provides quality oil without employing polluting and hazardous solvents.

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