trade patterns
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2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (3) ◽  
pp. 645-654
Sheyila Putri ◽  
Aldy Fernando Lubis ◽  
Annisa Fahira ◽  
Deva Kumala Sari ◽  
Dewi Chofifah

The level of a province can be seen from its economic growth, seen from the aspect of the value of exports and imports which have an influence on a trade between provinces. After the occurrence of covid-19 which had a major impact on Indonesian trade and the global economy. As a result of the pandemic, there have been major changes in world trade patterns, such as the lockdown system implemented in Indonesia. This study aims to determine the development of exports and imports of North Sumatra Province through indicators of export and import values. The data analysis technique in this research is descriptive data analysis. The source of data in this study is secondary data taken in (2016/2020) which is downloaded via, especially export and import data during the development of a new economic life order in North Sumatra Province. The results show that there is an increase that can be seen from the increase in the volume and value of imports and exports in a province, a decrease in the volume and value of imports and exports of imports, the development of a new economic order of life. With good economic growth, it will increase national income, the community will be prosperous in terms of the economy. In the last decade, exports continued to increase in 2021 to reach Rp. 13 trillion. Many studies have stated that in the past year, export-import cases have fluctuated during the COVID-19 period. And this pandemic has taught us the need to encourage export and import diversification, diversification of supplying countries and product destinations. produced in order to develop in a new life order. Keywords: Export, Import, New Era, Economic Growth

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 133-163
Anders Akerman ◽  
Edwin Leuven ◽  
Magne Mogstad

We examine how the adoption of information communication technology affects bilateral trade. The context is a public program in Norway that rolled out broadband access points leading to plausibly exogenous variation in the availability and adoption of broadband by firms. We find that broadband makes trade patterns more sensitive to distance and economic size. These results are consistent with a model of trade with variable elasticity of demand. The model predicts that adoption of a technology that lowers information frictions enlarges the choice set of exporters and importers. This makes demand more elastic with respect to trade costs and thus distance. (JEL D83, F14, L86, O33)

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (23) ◽  
pp. 13351
Bin Wang ◽  
Dechun Huang ◽  
Chuanhao Fan ◽  
Zhencheng Xing

International trade links countries consuming goods and services to those where products and related SO2 pollution are produced, thereby affecting national mitigation responsibilities. This study combined accounting and decomposition techniques to investigate the patterns and drivers of SO2 emissions embodied in international trade from 1995 to 2015 and quantified the contribution of each country or region on the production and consumption sides. The global embodied emissions increased at an accelerated rate before the global financial crisis and peaked at 51.3 Mt in 2008, followed by a fluctuating decline from 2008 to 2015. Spatially, the transfers of SO2 emissions tended to flow from developed countries to less developed ones, but the trend has weakened after the financial crisis. Our decomposition analysis suggests that the energy and production system transitions and the slowdown in international trade jointly accounted for the peak and decline in emissions. Our contribution analysis indicates that developing economies have contributed to decreased emissions due to their recent efforts in production technology upgrading, energy efficiency improvement and energy structure optimization. The influence of developed economies on emissions decreased due to their reduced dependency on imports. Targeted policy methods are provided from the production and consumption perspectives for developing and developed economies, respectively.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Zhe Dai ◽  
Yunzhi Zhang ◽  
Rui Zhang

This paper aims to investigate the impact of environmental regulations on trade patterns, in terms of trade in environmental goods listed in Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Environmental goods are defined here as those that enable sustainable growth and reduce pollution from human activity. For this reason, issues on environmental goods can be put at the forefront to analyze the linkage between environmental regulations and trade flows in the perspective of international institutions. Within the framework of a gravity model, panel data on 112 exporter countries and 53 importer countries is used at a bilateral level over the period of 1989–2013 to gain an understanding of this trade-environmental regulation nexus. This paper proxies the environmental policies by employing the z-score, which includes three comprehensive environmental indicators. The findings indicate that the strict environmental policies impede the trade, and this effect is greater in terms of the environmental goods listed in APEC compared to the ones listed in OECD. Finally, although these stringent environmental regulations reduce the trade flows, they can help to foster the demand for environmentally-friendly products.

Grigori Fainstein

This paper describes specialisation dynamics in Estonian export using revealed comparative advantage (RCA) and intra-industry trade (IIT) measures. We analyse the development of the distribution of comparative advantage using descriptive statistics and Galtonian regression. Intra-industry trade dynamic is analyzed using a marginal approach. We generally observe a stable specialization structure of Estonian exports in 2006-2011, along with some changes in specialization in the years following that. Based on the analysis of the RSA index and the Galtonian regression, we can make the conclusion about the diversification of the specialisation structure. The most important component of trade expansion in Estonia within the considered time period is the intra-industry trade. In 2016-2020 there was a significant increase in the specialization shift component in trade dynamic, which indicates the structural changes in Estonian exports. The most essential structural changes during the last five years occurred in such commodity sectors as food and live animals, animal and vegetable oils, as well as machinery and transport equipment, which were caused by the increasing share of specialization shift.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Mudan Wang ◽  
Xianqiang Mao ◽  
Youkai Xing ◽  
Jianhong Lu ◽  
Peng Song ◽  

AbstractThe global trade of solar photovoltaic (PV) products substantially contributes to increases in solar power generation and carbon emissions reductions. This paper depicts global PV product trade patterns, explores emissions reduction potential, and evaluates the impeding effect of tariff barriers on global PV product trade and emissions reductions. Solar power generation will result in a reduction of emissions in a range of 50–180 gigatons of carbon dioxide equivalent (GtCO2e) between 2017 and 2060 in a business as usual (BAU) scenario. Compared with BAU, during 2017–2060, global total solar cell and module production and installation will increase by roughly 750 gigawatts (GW) if half of the status quo trade barrier are removed, while it will decrease by 160–370 GW under tensioned trade barrier scenarios. Trade barrier reduction by half from the 2017 status quo level will increase the net carbon emissions mitigation potential by 4–12 GtCO2e by 2060, while extra trade barrier imposition will result in global net carbon emissions mitigation potential decreasing by up to 3–4 GtCO2e by 2060. Well-coordinated policy and institutional reforms are recommended to facilitate PV product trade and to deliver the related global environmental benefits.

2021 ◽  
pp. 127-144
Naoto Jinji ◽  
Xingyuan Zhang ◽  
Shoji Haruna

AbstractIn Chap. 10.1007/978-981-16-5210-3_5, we examine the relationship between bilateral trade patterns and international technology spillovers. In Chap. 10.1007/978-981-16-5210-3_6, we analyze how horizontal and vertical foreign direct investment (FDI) of multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects technology spillovers between themselves and firms in host countries. Both chapters analyze the issues from theoretical and empirical points of view. Each chapter shows that international trade or FDI is an important channel of international technology spillovers, but the effect on them is heterogeneous, depending on the type of trade patterns or the structure of FDI. In both chapters we measure technology spillovers using patent citation data.

2021 ◽  
pp. 71-97
Naoto Jinji ◽  
Xingyuan Zhang ◽  
Shoji Haruna

AbstractInternational diffusion of knowledge is important to both the speed of the world’s technology frontier expansion and income convergence across countries. For example, Eaton and Kortum (1996) estimate innovation and technology diffusion among 19 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries to test predictions from a quality ladders model of endogenous growth with patenting.

Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 2657
Jieyong Wang ◽  
Chun Dai

Global food trade is an integral part of the food system, and plays an important role in food security. Based on complex network analyses, this paper analyzed the global food trade network (FTN) and its evolution from 1992 to 2018. The results show that: (1) food trade relations have increased and global FTN is increasingly complex, efficient, and tighter. (2) Global food trade communities have become more stable and the trade network has evolved from “unipolar” to “multipolar”. (3) Over the nearly 30-year period, the core exporting countries have been stable and concentrated, while the core importing countries are relatively dispersed. The increasingly complex food trade network improves food availability and nutritional diversity; however, the food trade system, led by several large countries, has increased the vulnerability of some countries’ food systems and brings about unsafe factors, such as global natural disasters and political instability. It is supposed to establish a food security community to protect the global food trade market, address multiple risks, and promote global food security.

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