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Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 337
John D. Christie ◽  
Nicole Appel ◽  
Liqiang Zhang ◽  
Kenneth Lowe ◽  
Jacquelyn Kilbourne ◽  

Cancers that metastasize to the lungs represent a major challenge in both basic and clinical cancer research. Oncolytic viruses are newly emerging options but successful delivery and choice of appropriate therapeutic armings are two critical issues. Using an immunocompetent murine K7M2-luc lung metastases model, the efficacy of MYXV armed with murine LIGHT (TNFSF14/CD258) expressed under virus-specific early/late promoter was tested in an advanced later-stage disease K7M2-luc model. Results in this model show that mLIGHT-armed MYXV, delivered systemically using ex vivo pre-loaded PBMCs as carrier cells, reduced tumor burden and increased median survival time. In vitro, when comparing direct infection of K7M2-luc cancer cells with free MYXV vs. PBMC-loaded virus, vMyx-mLIGHT/PBMCs also demonstrated greater cytotoxic capacity against the K7M2 cancer cell targets. In vivo, systemically delivered vMyx-mLIGHT/PBMCs increased viral reporter transgene expression levels both in the periphery and in lung tumors compared to unarmed MYXV, in a tumor- and transgene-dependent fashion. We conclude that vMyx-mLIGHT, especially when delivered using PBMC carrier cells, represents a new potential therapeutic strategy for solid cancers that metastasize to the lung.

2022 ◽  
pp. 295-332
Smrithi Padmakumar ◽  
Di Huang ◽  
Neha Parayath ◽  
Lara Milane ◽  
Mansoor M. Amiji

2022 ◽  
pp. 517-537
Dr.Sumira Malik ◽  
Shristi Kishore ◽  
Shradha A. Kumari ◽  
Anjali Kumari

The area of healthcare needs new innovative methods and tools for improvisation and to impart better efficiencies. Nanoemulsions are pharmaceutical formulations containing nanometre-sized particles used for controlled and systemic delivery of bioactive pharmaceuticals. Various advantageous properties of nanoemulsions such as the presence of hydrophobic core region, higher stability, and smaller size have made them useful to a large extent in the biomedical field. They have been employed in transdermal drug delivery, intranasal drug delivery, pulmonary drug delivery, parenteral drug delivery, and improvised delivery of hydrophobic drugs. This chapter aims to discuss various applications of nanoemulsions in healthcare including cosmetics, antimicrobials, vaccine delivery, targeted drug delivery, gene delivery, cancer therapy, and many more in detail.

2022 ◽  
Long Yu Kong ◽  
Kui Zeng ◽  
Ying Zhang ◽  
Jinning Shao ◽  
Jiaqi Yan ◽  

Cell-penetrating poly(disulfide)s (CPDs) are promising vehicles for cytosolic delivery of proteins. However, currently available arginine-rich CPD has rarely been reported for systemic delivery due to its “always” positive charge. Herein,...

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Sams M. A. Sadat ◽  
Melinda Wuest ◽  
Igor M. Paiva ◽  
Sirazum Munira ◽  
Nasim Sarrami ◽  

Inhibition of the DNA repair enzyme polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase (PNKP) increases the sensitivity of cancer cells to DNA damage by ionizing radiation (IR). We have developed a novel inhibitor of PNKP, i.e., A83B4C63, as a potential radio-sensitizer for the treatment of solid tumors. Systemic delivery of A83B4C63, however, may sensitize both cancer and normal cells to DNA damaging therapeutics. Preferential delivery of A83B4C63 to solid tumors by nanoparticles (NP) was proposed to reduce potential side effects of this PNKP inhibitor to normal tissue, particularly when combined with DNA damaging therapies. Here, we investigated the radio-sensitizing activity of A83B4C63 encapsulated in NPs (NP/A83) based on methoxy poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(α-benzyl carboxylate-ε-caprolactone) (mPEO-b-PBCL) or solubilized with the aid of Cremophor EL: Ethanol (CE/A83) in human HCT116 colorectal cancer (CRC) models. Levels of γ-H2AX were measured and the biodistribution of CE/A83 and NP/A83 administered intravenously was determined in subcutaneous HCT116 CRC xenografts. The radio-sensitization effect of A83B4C63 was measured following fractionated tumor irradiation using an image-guided Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP), with 24 h pre-administration of CE/A83 and NP/A83 to Luc+/HCT116 bearing mice. Therapeutic effects were analyzed by monitoring tumor growth and functional imaging using Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and [18F]-fluoro-3’-deoxy-3’-L:-fluorothymidine ([18F]FLT) as a radiotracer for cell proliferation. The results showed an increased persistence of DNA damage in cells treated with a combination of CE/A83 or NP/A83 and IR compared to those only exposed to IR. Significantly higher tumor growth delay in mice treated with a combination of IR and NP/A83 than those treated with IR plus CE/A83 was observed. [18F]FLT PET displayed significant functional changes for tumor proliferation for the drug-loaded NP. This observation was attributed to the higher A83B4C63 levels in the tumors for NP/A83-treated mice compared to those treated with CE/A83. Overall, the results demonstrated a potential for A83B4C63-loaded NP as a novel radio-sensitizer for the treatment of CRC.

Pharmaceutics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (12) ◽  
pp. 2192
Alberto Reale ◽  
Arianna Calistri ◽  
Jennifer Altomonte

Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are an emerging class of therapeutics which combine multiple mechanisms of action, including direct cancer cell-killing, immunotherapy and gene therapy. A growing number of clinical trials have indicated that OVs have an excellent safety profile and provide some degree of efficacy, but to date only a single OV drug, HSV-1 talimogene laherparepvec (T-Vec), has achieved marketing approval in the US and Europe. An important issue to consider in order to accelerate the clinical advancement of OV agents is the development of an effective delivery system. Currently, the most commonly employed OV delivery route is intratumoral; however, to target metastatic diseases and tumors that cannot be directly accessed, it is of great interest to develop effective approaches for the systemic delivery of OVs, such as the use of carrier cells. In general, the ideal carrier cell should have a tropism towards the tumor microenvironment (TME), and it must be susceptible to OV infection but remain viable long enough to allow migration and finally release of the OV within the tumor bed. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been heavily investigated as carrier cells due to their inherent tumor tropism, in spite of some disadvantages in biodistribution. This review focuses on the other promising candidate carrier cells under development and discusses their interaction with specific OVs and future research lines.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (24) ◽  
pp. 7469
John T. Isaacs ◽  
William Nathaniel Brennen ◽  
Søren Brøgger Christensen ◽  
Samuel R. Denmeade

Søren Brøgger Christensen isolated and characterized the cell-penetrant sesquiterpene lactone Thapsigargin (TG) from the fruit Thapsia garganica. In the late 1980s/early 1990s, TG was supplied to multiple independent and collaborative groups. Using this TG, studies documented with a large variety of mammalian cell types that TG rapidly (i.e., within seconds to a minute) penetrates cells, resulting in an essentially irreversible binding and inhibiting (IC50~10 nM) of SERCA 2b calcium uptake pumps. If exposure to 50–100 nM TG is sustained for >24–48 h, prostate cancer cells undergo apoptotic death. TG-induced death requires changes in the cytoplasmic Ca2+, initiating a calmodulin/calcineurin/calpain-dependent signaling cascade that involves BAD-dependent opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP); this releases cytochrome C into the cytoplasm, activating caspases and nucleases. Chemically unmodified TG has no therapeutic index and is poorly water soluble. A TG analog, in which the 8-acyl groups is replaced with the 12-aminododecanoyl group, afforded 12-ADT, retaining an EC50 for killing of <100 nM. Conjugation of 12-ADT to a series of 5–8 amino acid peptides was engineered so that they are efficiently hydrolyzed by only one of a series of proteases [e.g., KLK3 (also known as Prostate Specific Antigen); KLK2 (also known as hK2); Fibroblast Activation Protein Protease (FAP); or Folh1 (also known as Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen)]. The obtained conjugates have increased water solubility for systemic delivery in the blood and prevent cell penetrance and, thus, killing until the TG-prodrug is hydrolyzed by the targeting protease in the vicinity of the cancer cells. We summarize the preclinical validation of each of these TG-prodrugs with special attention to the PSMA TG-prodrug, Mipsagargin, which is in phase II clinical testing.

PLoS Genetics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (12) ◽  
pp. e1009960
Fang Zheng ◽  
Yi-Ji Liao ◽  
Mu-Yan Cai ◽  
Tian-Hao Liu ◽  
Shu-Peng Chen ◽  

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