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Valeria Murgulov ◽  
Catherine Schweinle ◽  
Michael Daub ◽  
Harald Hillebrecht ◽  
Michael Fiederle ◽  

AbstractSingle crystals of lead-free halide double perovskite Cs2AgBiBr6 sensor material manifest a remarkable potential for application in radiation detection and imaging. In this study, the purity and crystallinity of solution-grown Cs2AgBiBr6 single crystals with cubic Fm$$\overline{3}$$ 3 ¯ m symmetry have been corroborated by powder XRD measurements, while the single crystal XRD patterns reveal the dominant {111} lattice planes parallel to the sample surfaces. A wider range of lower resistivity values (106–109 Ωcm) was obtained from the I-V measurements compared to the 1.55 × 109–6.65 × 1010 Ωcm values from the van der Pauw method, which is typically higher for the Ag than for the carbon paint electrodes. Charge-carrier mobility values estimated from the SCLC method for the carbon paint-Cs2AgBiBr6 (1.90–4.82 cm2V−1 s−1) and the Ag-Cs2AgBiBr6 (0.58–4.54 cm2V−1 s−1) including the density of trap states (109–1010 cm−3) are comparable. Similar values of 1.89 cm2V−1 s−1 and 2.36 cm2V−1 s−1 are derived from the Hall effect measurements for a sample with carbon and Ag electrodes, respectively. The key electrical parameters including the X-ray photoresponse measurements indicate that the Cs2AgBiBr6 samples synthesized in this study satisfy requirements for radiation sensors. Graphical abstract

Karla Arlen Ortiz ◽  
Oscar A. Jaramillo-Quintero ◽  
Edgar Alvarez-Zauco ◽  
Marina Elizabeth Rincón González

Abstract Self-assembly of organic molecules is a promising method for generating multilayer systems for fabrication of functional devices. In particular, fullerene (C60) and porphyrin molecules offer a variety of binding modes, including π-π interactions, dipole electrostatic attraction, and hydrogen bonding, to tailor the charge separation and charge recombination limiting device performance. Here, we investigate multilayer systems obtained by the sequential physical vapor deposition of C60 and tetraphenylporphyrin (H2TPP) layers, focusing on the effect of the interfaces on the charge transfer processes. Absorbance spectra indicate noncovalent-like π-stacking, with the increment of fullerene interfaces shifting the porphyrin Soret band toward the blue. Similarly, surface photovoltage measurements in the multilayer systems show that as the number of interfaces increases, so does the photogeneration of charge. Charge separation follows carrier generation given that the recombination time, associated to trap states, decreases. This behavior indicates that the Donor-Acceptor nature of the fullerene-porphyrin bilayer system is conserved, and even enhanced, in the multilayer film, and that the number of interfaces aid to the formation of selective paths for charge carrier collection, demonstrating its potential in optoelectronic devices.

Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 151
Ivan D. Skurlov ◽  
Wenxu Yin ◽  
Azat O. Ismagilov ◽  
Anton N. Tcypkin ◽  
Haohang Hua ◽  

Metal halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) attract much attention for light-emitting applications due to their exceptional optical properties. More recently, perovskite NCs have begun to be considered a promising material for nonlinear optical applications. Numerous strategies have recently been developed to improve the properties of metal halide perovskite NCs. Among them, B-site doping is one of the most promising ways to enhance their brightness and stability. However, there is a lack of study of the influence of B-site doping on the nonlinear optical properties of inorganic perovskite NCs. Here, we demonstrate that Cd2+ doping simultaneously improves both the linear (higher photoluminescence quantum yield, larger exciton binding energy, reduced trap states density, and faster radiative recombination) and nonlinear (higher two- and three-photon absorption cross-sections) optical properties of CsPbBr3 NCs. Cd2+ doping results in a two-photon absorption cross-section, reaching 2.6 × 106 Goeppert-Mayer (GM), which is among the highest reported for CsPbBr3 NCs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (2) ◽  
pp. 279-283
J. Chandrasekar ◽  
Durgachalam Manikandan

In this work, chromium sulfide (CrS) thin films were grown on the acetic acid substrates by chemical bath deposition to prepare non-toxic photovoltaic devices. The combined single-source precursor approach has been developed for the deposition method using tris(diethyldithiocarbamato)chromium(III) for the deposition of CrS thin films grown at bath temperatures of 30, 60 and 90 ºC and at a constant deposition time of 30-120 min. The sufrace mophology of the prepared films have been analyzed by SEM and HR-TEM techniques. The study of the films indicate the distributed roughness and nano bundled hexagonal structures. The energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy analysis conformed the presence of Cr and S. The polycrystalline behaviour of the films was studied by an XRD study which revealed the mixed phases with a predicted crystallite size of 20 nm. The optical measurements showed films had a maximum transmittance of 90% in the visible region and the evaluated energy band varied in the range of 2.2-2.378 eV with the change of bath temperatures. This suggests that CrS thin film prepared at 90 ºC has enhanced crystalline superiority. According to photoluminescence (PL) analysis, the green emission can be attributed to the presence of several deep trap states or defects in the CrS structure. Moreover, natural dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) in CrS thin film prepared at 90 ºC, Jsc (28.0 mA/cm2) produced a larger voltage in the short circuit as compared to synthetic dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using CrS thin film Jsc (22.5 mA/cm2).

2021 ◽  
Jinggang Lan ◽  
Yo-ichi Yamamoto ◽  
Toshinori Suzuki ◽  
Vladimir Rybkin

We present condensed-phase first-principles molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate the presence of different electron trapping sites in liquid methanol and their roles in the formation, electronic transitions, and relaxation of solvated electrons (e−met) in methanol. Excess electrons injected into liquid methanol are most likely trapped by methyl groups, but rapidly diffuse to more stable trapping sites with dangling OH bonds. After localization at the sites with one free OH bond (1OH trapping sites), reorientation of other methanol molecules increases the OH coordination number and the trap depth, and ultimately four OH bonds become coordinated with the excess electrons under thermal conditions. The simulation identified four distinct trapping states with different OH coordination numbers. The simulation results also revealed that electronic transitions of e−met are primarily due to charge transfer between electron trapping sites (cavities) formed by OH and methyl groups and that these transitions differ from hydrogenic electronic transitions involving aqueous solvated electrons (e−aq). Such charge transfer also explains the alkyl-chain-length dependence of the photoabsorption peak wavelength and the excited-state lifetime of solvated electrons in primary alcohols.

Nanomaterials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 70
Yujin Kim ◽  
Yoonsang Park ◽  
Seulgi Han ◽  
Wonchan Park ◽  
Mungu Kim ◽  

The origin and classification of energy states, as well as the electronic transitions and energy transfers associated with them, have been recognized as critical factors for understanding the optical properties of carbon nanodots (CNDs). Herein, we report the synthesis of CNDs in an optimized process that allows low-temperature carbonization using ethanolamine as the major precursor and citric acid as an additive. The results obtained herein suggest that the energy states in our CNDs can be classified into four different types based on their chemical origin: carbogenic core states, surface defective states, molecular emissive states, and non-radiative trap states. Each energy state is associated with the occurrence of different types of emissions in the visible to near-infrared (NIR) range and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The potential pathways of radiative/non-radiative transitions in CNDs have been systematically studied using visible-to-NIR emission spectroscopy and fluorescence decay measurements. Furthermore, the bright photoluminescence and ROS generation of these CNDs render them suitable for in vitro imaging and photodynamic therapy applications. We believe that these new insights into the energy states of CNDs will result in significant improvements in other applications, such as photocatalysis and optoelectronics.

2021 ◽  
Carl Conti ◽  
Alexander Bieber ◽  
Zachary VanOrman ◽  
Gregory Moller ◽  
Sarah Wieghold ◽  

Triplet sensitization of rubrene by bulk lead halide perovskites has recently resulted in efficient infrared-to-visible photon upconversion via triplet-triplet annihilation. Notably, this process occurrs under solar relavant fluxes, potentially paving the way toward integration with photovoltaic devices. In order to further improve the upconversion efficiency, the fundamental photophysical pathways at the perovskite/rubrene interface must be clearly understood to maximize charge extraction. Here, we utilize ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy to elucidate the processes underlying the triplet generation at the perovskite/rubrene interface. Based on the bleach and photoinduced absorption features of the perovskite and perovskite/rubrene devices obtained at multiple pump wavelengths and fluences, along with their resultant kinetics, our results do not support charge transfer states or long-lived trap states as the underlying mechanism. Instead, the data points towards a triplet sensitization mechanism based on rapid extraction of thermally excited carriers on the picosecond timescale.

Catalysts ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1514
Osama Al-Madanat ◽  
Barbara Nascimento Nunes ◽  
Yamen AlSalka ◽  
Amer Hakki ◽  
Mariano Curti ◽  

The interaction of light with semiconducting materials becomes the center of a wide range of technologies, such as photocatalysis. This technology has recently attracted increasing attention due to its prospective uses in green energy and environmental remediation. The characterization of the electronic structure of the semiconductors is essential to a deep understanding of the photocatalytic process since they influence and govern the photocatalytic activity by the formation of reactive radical species. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is a unique analytical tool that can be employed to monitor the photoinduced phenomena occurring in the solid and liquid phases and provides precise insights into the dynamic and reactivity of the photocatalyst under different experimental conditions. This review focus on the application of EPR in the observation of paramagnetic centers formed upon irradiation of titanium dioxide and niobium oxide photocatalysts. TiO2 and Nb2O5 are very well-known semiconductors that have been widely used for photocatalytic applications. A large number of experimental results on both materials offer a reliable platform to illustrate the contribution of the EPR studies on heterogeneous photocatalysis, particularly in monitoring the photogenerated charge carriers, trap states, and surface charge transfer steps. A detailed overview of EPR-spin trapping techniques in mechanistic studies to follow the nature of the photogenerated species in suspension during the photocatalytic process is presented. The role of the electron donors or the electron acceptors and their effect on the photocatalytic process in the solid or the liquid phase are highlighted.

Electronics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (24) ◽  
pp. 3096
P. Vigneshwara Raja ◽  
Nandha Kumar Subramani ◽  
Florent Gaillard ◽  
Mohamed Bouslama ◽  
Raphaël Sommet ◽  

The buffer and surface trapping effects on low-frequency (LF) Y-parameters of Fe-doped AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) are analyzed through experimental and simulation studies. The drain current transient (DCT) characterization is also carried out to complement the trapping investigation. The Y22 and DCT measurements reveal the presence of an electron trap at 0.45–0.5 eV in the HEMT structure. On the other hand, two electron trap states at 0.2 eV and 0.45 eV are identified from the LF Y21 dispersion properties of the same device. The Y-parameter simulations are performed in Sentaurus TCAD in order to detect the spatial location of the traps. As an effective approach, physics-based TCAD models are calibrated by matching the simulated I-V with the measured DC data. The effect of surface donor energy level and trap density on the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) density is examined. The validated Y21 simulation results indicate the existence of both acceptor-like traps at EC –0.45 eV in the GaN buffer and surface donor states at EC –0.2 eV in the GaN/nitride interface. Thus, it is shown that LF Y21 characteristics could help in differentiating the defects present in the buffer and surface region, while the DCT and Y22 are mostly sensitive to the buffer traps.

2021 ◽  
Vol 37 (1) ◽  
pp. 015015
Yogesh Yadav ◽  
Samarendra Pratap Singh

Abstract The semiconductor/dielectric interface is arguably the most important region in field-effect transistors. This article investigates the performance-enhancing effects of passivation of the dielectric surface by a self-assembled layer (SAM) of silanes on organic field-effect transistors. Apart from conventional figures of merit for the devices, the energetic distribution of the density of the in-gap trap-states (trap-DOS) and the contact resistance are evaluated using numerical methods. The investigation reveals that the surface passivation of the dielectric SiO2 has a dual effect on device operation. Firstly, it establishes quantitatively that the surface passivation leads to a significant reduction in the density of both shallow and deep traps in the organic semiconductor PBTTT-C14. This effect outweighs the impact of the SAM dipoles on the device turn-on. Secondly, the contact resistance gets lowered by a factor of more than 10 due to the improved top-surface morphology of the PBTTT-C14 thin film. The lower contact resistance in devices is corroborated by lower contact potential difference between PBTTT-C14 and gold, measured using scanning kelvin probe microscopy.

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