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Athina I. Amanatidou ◽  
Andriana C. Kaliora ◽  
Charalampia Amerikanou ◽  
Stefan Stojanoski ◽  
Natasa Milosevic ◽  

Whereas the etiology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is complex, the role of nutrition as a causing and preventive factor is not fully explored. The aim of this study is to associate dietary patterns with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters in a European population (Greece, Italy, and Serbia) affected by NAFLD. For the first time, iron-corrected T1 (cT1), proton density fat fraction (PDFF), and the liver inflammation fibrosis score (LIF) were examined in relation to diet. A total of 97 obese patients with NAFLD from the MAST4HEALTH study were included in the analysis. A validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess the quality of diet and food combinations. Other variables investigated include anthropometric measurements, total type 2 diabetes risk, physical activity level (PAL), and smoking status. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to identify dietary patterns. Six dietary patterns were identified, namely “High-Sugar”, “Prudent”, “Western”, “High-Fat and Salt”, “Plant-Based”, and “Low-Fat Dairy and Poultry”. The “Western” pattern was positively associated with cT1 in the unadjusted model (beta: 0.020, p-value: 0.025) and even after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), PAL, smoking, the center of the study, and the other five dietary patterns (beta: 0.024, p-value: 0.020). On the contrary, compared with low-intake patients, those with medium intake of the “Low-Fat Dairy and Poultry” pattern were associated with lower values of cT1, PDFF, and LIF. However, patients with a “Low-Fat Dairy and Poultry” dietary pattern were negatively associated with MRI parameters (cT1: beta: −0.052, p-value: 0.046, PDFF: beta: −0.448, p-value: 0.030, LIF: beta: −0.408, p-value: 0.025). Our findings indicate several associations between MRI parameters and dietary patterns in NAFLD patients, highlighting the importance of diet in NAFLD.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-5
Aviad Tur-Sinai ◽  
Andrea Teti ◽  
Alexander Rommel ◽  
Valentina Hlebec ◽  
Stecy Yghemonos ◽  

Abstract To promote long-term care policies for older adults, accurate mapping of the often invisible and insufficiently recognized role of their informal caregivers is needed. This paper measures the prevalence of informal caregivers in the European population, illustrates current difficulties in gathering unequivocal information on this topic and deals with the scientific and policy implications of the problem. Using the European Health Interview Survey (EHIS), the European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) and the Study on Health and Ageing in Europe (SHARE), the current difficulties in gathering unequivocal information on this topic are illustrated. In most countries, the share of informal caregivers varies, sometimes markedly, among the three surveys. As for the sex of caregivers, while confirming the well-known higher prevalence of caregivers among women than among men, large variations emerge across the three surveys in most countries in respect of the two sexes. The takeaway message of the paper is that it is urgent to promote international concerted action in gathering comprehensive informal caregiving information and/or exploring in greater depth the different intercultural understandings of informal care itself.

Joaquín M. Campos ◽  
Claudia Molina

Background: Narcolepsy, also known as Gélineau syndrome, is a chronic and neurological disease that affects 0.05% of the European population, though that percentage could be higher due to the diagnostic difficulties. The main symptom is excessive daytime sleepiness, although it may be accompanied by cataplexy, sleep paralysis and hypnagogic hallucinations. Objective: Nowadays, there is no cure for narcolepsy and the treatment is symptomatic: psychostimulants for the sleepiness by means of amphetamines, methylphenidate or modafinil, and antidepressants and sodium oxybate for treating cataplexy. Method: This is a short review regarding pharmacotherapy for narcolepsy. Result: Hypocretins were discovered in 1998. They are neuropeptides whose deficit is responsible for this symptomatology, has opened up a new field of investigation. Conclusion: Agonists of hypocretins could be a promising therapy against this disease.

Etienne Cavalier ◽  
Pierre Lukas ◽  
Pierre Delanaye

Abstract Objectives Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, isoform 5b (TRACP-5b) is a bone resorption marker not influenced by renal function or food intake. TRACP-5b can be measured with Nittobo Medical enzymatic-immunoassay and IDS-iSYS automated immunoassay. We evaluated the Nittobo assay and established reference ranges for a Western-European population. We compared Nittobo and IDS results in different well-defined clinical populations. Methods We established the limits of detection and quantification (LOD-LOQ), linearity, imprecision and the reference ranges in 119 males, 50 women (<45 years) and 120 women (>60 years) for TRACP-5b with the Nittobo assay. We compared both assays in 30 hemodialyzed (HD), and 40 stage 3–5 patients suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD), 40 patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis and 80 post-menopausal women. We measured TRACP-5b, β-crosslaps (β-CTX), bone alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP) and PTH in 20 hemodialyzed (HD) and 40 CKD patients. Results LOD and LOQ were 0.02 and 0.35 U/L. CV ranged from 8.3 to 4.3% (2/5 samples presenting CV > desirable CV). Method was linear up to of 11.3 U/L. Upper and lower limits of normality were 0.8–7.6 U/L in men, 0.9–4.7 U/L in women <45 and 0.9–7.1 U/L in women >60. The regression equation between the 2 methods was Nittobo = 1.13 (95% CI: 1.09–1.16) × iSYS − 0.4 (95% CI: −0.5; −0.3). TRACP-5b and b-ALP were in their respective reference ranges for most of CKD and HD patients. That was not the case for β-CTX, which increased with decreasing eGFR. Conclusions Nittobo TRACP-5b presents interesting analytical features and a good concordance with IDS iSYS. These methods could thus potentially be harmonized.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (24) ◽  
pp. 11983
Michiel R. H. Löwik

The intake of sugars is a trending topic in nutrition and health. For an evaluation of the sugar intake (comparison with existing guidelines), up-to-date information on the guidelines, dietary intake and trends in the intake is needed. The available information for European countries is presented in this review. The existing guidelines on the intake show that there is currently no consensus among the experts from different organizations. The differences are mainly due to the selection of the adverse health outcomes for which there is sufficient evidence. Data from national European surveys show that the mean proportion of energy coming from added sugars for most European population groups is below 10%, and that the trend in the intake seems to be downwards. There are, however, many serious uncertainties and assumptions needed for the assessment of the intake of sugars. For instance, the assessment reflects a short period of the lives of the respondents, the data collection in several surveys was conducted more than 10 years ago, and recent reformulations of the industry are not considered in the food composition tables. Due to the uncertainties regarding the assessment of the sugar intake in Europe, the information should be used prudently and with care.

Ana Lear-Claveras ◽  
Beatriz González-Álvarez ◽  
Sabela Couso-Varela ◽  
Ana Clavería ◽  
Bárbara Oliván-Blázquez

The disruption in healthcare attention to people with alcohol dependence, along with psychological decompensation consequence of lockdown derived from COVID-19 pandemic, could have a negative impact on people who suffers from alcohol abuse disorder. Retrospective observational study of 9,966 men aged ˃16 years registered as having diagnosis of alcohol abuse disorder in the electronic medical records (EMR) of the Aragon Regional Health Service (Spain). Of those who were not infected during the study period (9,576), clinical (Glutamate-oxaloacetate -GOT-, Glutamate pyruvate -GPT-, creatinine, glomerular filtration, systolic blood pressure -SBP-, diastolic blood pressure -DBP-, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, and body mass index -BMI-), pharmacological (dose per inhabitant per day -DHD- of drugs used in addictive disorders, benzodiazepines and antidepressants) and health resource use variables (primary and specialized care) were considered. Student&acute;s T-test for matched samples was performed. After carrying out the Levene&acute;s test, the Student&acute;s T-test was used to analyze the changes in clinical variables between alcohol abuse disorder patients with and without COVID-19. Only creatinine and LDL show a significant but clinically irrelevant changes just after and 6 months after the end of strict lockdown. The total number of DHDs for all drugs included in the study (except for Benzodiazepines), decreased. In the same way, the use of health services by these patients also decreased. The impact of COVID-19 among this group of patients has been moderate. The reorganization of health and social services after the declaration of the state of alarm in our country, made possible the maintenance of care for this vulnerable patients.

2021 ◽  
pp. S249-S252

Increasing evidence points to host genetics as a factor in COVID-19 prevalence and outcome. CCR5 is a receptor for proinflammatory chemokines that are involved in host responses, especially to viruses. The CCR5-Δ32 minor allele is an interesting variant, given the role of CCR5 in some viral infections, particularly HIV-1. Recent studies of the impact of CCR5-Δ32 on COVID-19 risk and severity have yielded contradictory results. This ecologic study shows that the CCR5-Δ32 allelic frequency in a European population was significantly negatively correlated with the number of COVID-19 cases (p=0.035) and deaths (p=0.006) during the second pandemic wave. These results suggest that CCR5-Δ32 may be protective against SARS-CoV-2 infection, as it is against HIV infection, and could be predictive of COVID-19 risk and severity. Further studies based on samples from populations of different genetic backgrounds are needed to validate these statistically obtained findings.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0261020
Masahiro Yoshikawa ◽  
Kensuke Asaba ◽  
Tomohiro Nakayama

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and atrial fibrillation are both major burdens on the health care system worldwide. Several observational studies have reported clinical associations between CKD and atrial fibrillation; however, causal relationships between these conditions remain to be elucidated due to possible bias by confounders and reverse causations. Here, we conducted bidirectional two-sample Mendelian randomization analyses using publicly available summary statistics of genome-wide association studies (the CKDGen consortium and the UK Biobank) to investigate causal associations between CKD and atrial fibrillation/flutter in the European population. Our study suggested a causal effect of the risk of atrial fibrillation/flutter on the decrease in serum creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and revealed a causal effect of the risk of atrial fibrillation/flutter on the risk of CKD (odds ratio, 9.39 per doubling odds ratio of atrial fibrillation/flutter; 95% coefficient interval, 2.39–37.0; P = 0.001), while the causal effect of the decrease in eGFR on the risk of atrial fibrillation/flutter was unlikely. However, careful interpretation and further studies are warranted, as the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Further, our sample size was relatively small and selection bias was possible.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Nicol Zielinska ◽  
R. Shane Tubbs ◽  
Andrzej Borowski ◽  
Michał Podgórski ◽  
Łukasz Olewnik

Background. On the basis of the available literature, we proposed the hypothesis that the number of muscle bellies is morphologically constant. The main purpose of this study was to examine the morphological variability of the SM and to create a new classification of it based on number of muscle bellies. Methods. Sixty-six adult cadavers of Central European population (45 females, 21 males) were obtained and fixed in 10% formalin before examination. Results. The SM was found in all 66 specimens (45 females, 21 males, 31 left and 35 right sides). After meticulous dissection, we distinguished nine types on the basis of number of bellies. Type I was characterized by single belly and occurred in 1.5%. Type II had a double belly and was present in 3%. Type III, the most common type, occurring in almost 32% of the studied population, had three bellies. The frequency of type IV, characterized by four bellies, was also high, just over 30%. The following types were less frequent: type V with five bellies (18.2%), type VI with six bellies (7.6%), type VII with seven bellies (3%), type VIII with eight bellies (1.5%), and type IX with nine bellies (3%). All of the types had origin on the anterior surface of the scapula. Conclusions. The SM is morphologically variable in the number of its bellies. Evolutionary changes are probably the reason. The most common type was the SM with three bellies, in line with Larson’s model of the division of the SM into three parts. Subsequent studies should be carried out based on MRI or ultrasonography examination to confirm if it is possible to show all types (presented in this study) among group of patients during MRI.

Elsi Haverinen ◽  
Mariana F. Fernandez ◽  
Vicente Mustieles ◽  
Hanna Tolonen

Increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is causing a significant health burden among the European population. Current knowledge supports the notion that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) interfere with human metabolism and hormonal balance, contributing to the conventionally recognized lifestyle-related MetS risk factors. This review aims to identify epidemiological studies focusing on the association between MetS or its individual components (e.g., obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension) and eight HBM4EU priority substances (bisphenol A (BPA), per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), phthalates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides and heavy metals (cadmium, arsenic and mercury)). Thus far, human biomonitoring (HBM) studies have presented evidence supporting the role of EDC exposures on the development of individual MetS components. The strength of the association varies between the components and EDCs. Current evidence on metabolic disturbances and EDCs is still limited and heterogeneous, and mainly represent studies from North America and Asia, highlighting the need for well-conducted and harmonized HBM programmes among the European population. Rigorous and ongoing HBM in combination with health monitoring can help to identify the most concerning EDC exposures, to guide future risk assessment and policy actions.

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