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Science ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 375 (6577) ◽  
pp. 143-144
Jan van der Valk

Ethical and possible reproducibility issues arise when using fetal bovine serum in cell culture media

2022 ◽  
pp. 128251
Chedly Tizaoui ◽  
Richard Stanton ◽  
Evelina Statkute ◽  
Anzelika Rubina ◽  
Edward Lester-Card ◽  

2021 ◽  
Ayman Chmayssem ◽  
Lauriane Petit ◽  
Nicolas Verplanck ◽  
Véronique Mourier ◽  
Séverine Vignoud ◽  

Oncogene ◽  
2021 ◽  
Luis Coronel ◽  
David Häckes ◽  
Katjana Schwab ◽  
Konstantin Riege ◽  
Steve Hoffmann ◽  

AbstractIn recent years the tumor suppressor p53 has been increasingly recognized as a potent regulator of the cell metabolism and for its ability to inhibit the critical pro-survival kinases AKT and mTOR. The mechanisms through which p53 controls AKT and mTOR, however, are largely unclear. Here, we demonstrate that p53 activates the metabolic regulator DDIT4 indirectly through the regulatory factor X 7 (RFX7). We provide evidence that DDIT4 is required for p53 to inhibit mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2)-dependent AKT activation. Most strikingly, we also find that the DDIT4 regulator RFX7 is required for p53-mediated inhibition of mTORC1 and AKT. Our results suggest that AMPK activation plays no role and p53-mediated AKT inhibition is not critical for p53-mediated mTORC1 inhibition. Moreover, using recently developed physiological cell culture media we uncover that basal p53 and RFX7 activity can play a critical role in restricting mTORC1 activity under physiological nutrient conditions, and we propose a nutrient-dependent model for p53-RFX7-mediated mTORC1 inhibition. These results establish RFX7 and its downstream target DDIT4 as essential effectors in metabolic control elicited by p53.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (12) ◽  
pp. 208
Thora Bjorg Sigmarsdottir ◽  
Sarah McGarrity ◽  
Adrián López García de Lomana ◽  
Aristotelis Kotronoulas ◽  
Snaevar Sigurðsson ◽  

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent post-natal stem cells with applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. MSCs can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, or adipocytes, with functional differences in cells during osteogenesis accompanied by metabolic changes. The temporal dynamics of these metabolic shifts have not yet been fully characterized and are suspected to be important for therapeutic applications such as osteogenesis optimization. Here, our goal was to characterize the metabolic shifts that occur during osteogenesis. We profiled five key extracellular metabolites longitudinally (glucose, lactate, glutamine, glutamate, and ammonia) from MSCs from four donors to classify osteogenic differentiation into three metabolic stages, defined by changes in the uptake and secretion rates of the metabolites in cell culture media. We used a combination of untargeted metabolomic analysis, targeted analysis of 13C-glucose labelled intracellular data, and RNA-sequencing data to reconstruct a gene regulatory network and further characterize cellular metabolism. The metabolic stages identified in this proof-of-concept study provide a framework for more detailed investigations aimed at identifying biomarkers of osteogenic differentiation and small molecule interventions to optimize MSC differentiation for clinical applications.

Blood ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 138 (Supplement 1) ◽  
pp. 2649-2649
Laura A Evans ◽  
Emilie I Anderson ◽  
Xuan-Mai Petterson ◽  
Shaji Kumar ◽  
Wilson I Gonsalves

Abstract Introduction: Altered cellular metabolism is a hallmark of every cancer cell. Aerobic glycolysis ("The Warburg Effect") is one of the earliest recognized metabolic abnormalities in cancer cells whereby extracellular glucose is preferentially metabolized and eventually processed to generate lactate and energy in the form of ATP before the former is released extracellularly, irrespective of oxygen availability. While extracellular lactate produced and released from cancer cells has traditionally been considered a waste metabolic by-product, recent understanding of cell metabolism suggests that it can also serve as a primary metabolic fuel for cancer cells via uptake by monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). Our goal was to evaluate this "Reverse Warburg Effect" phenomenon in multiple myeloma (MM) cells and determine if it can be exploited for therapeutic purposes. Methods: All HMCLs, MM1S, RPMI-8226 and U266, were grown in RPMI-1640 cell culture medium containing 11 mM glucose and supplemented with 10% dialyzed fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 2 mM Glutamine. Primary MM cells were extracted using magnetic bead CD138 positive selection from MM patient bone marrow aspirates. For 13C-labeling experiments, HMCLs and primary MM cells were suspended in RPMI-1640 cell culture media containing 13C-labeled isotopes. Isotopomer analysis of glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolites from HMCL and primary MM cell pellets was performed using Agilent Technologies 5975C gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Small molecule inhibitors, AZD3965 and syrosingopine, were purchased from Selleck Chemicals and Sigma respectively. Cellular viability and proliferation were measured using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrasodium bromide (MTT) and CCK-8 assays respectively. MCT-1 and MCT-4 antibodies for western blotting were utilized to evaluate their cell membrane expression on HMCLs. Results: The HMCLs, MM1S and RPMI-8226 as well as primary CD138+ cells from MM patient bone marrow were cultured in cell culture media containing physiological levels (1 mM) of U-13C-Lactate. The incorporation of extracellular 13C into the intracellular glycolytic and TCA cycle metabolite pool was observed (Fig 1) based on the expected isotopomeric patterns, demonstrating the Reverse Warburg Effect in MM cells. The relative contribution of carbon substrate by extracellular lactate compared to extracellular glucose was assessed in the following HMCLs: MM1S, RPMI-8226 and U266 cells by culturing in cell culture media containing 3-13C-Lactate and U-13C-Glucose. Extracellular lactate (yellow bar) contribution to the formation of TCA metabolites equaled that of glucose (red bar) based on the expected isotopomer patterns, suggesting the relative importance of extracellular lactate as an essential nutrient like glucose (Fig 2). Since MCT-1 and MCT-4 are key bidirectional cell membrane transporters of lactate in and out of cells, we explored the clinical significance of their gene expression level on clinical outcomes using the COMMPASS dataset provided by the Multiple Myeloma Research Foundation (MMRF). When MM patients were dichotomized at above or below the median of the expression levels of fragments per kilobase of transcript per million (FPKM), MCT-1 and MCT-4 overexpression conferred a worse progression free survival and overall survival (Fig 3). The MCT-1/MCT-4 protein expression was detectable across the various HMCLs: MM1S, U266 and RPMI-8226 (Fig 4). Inhibition of MCT-1 by specific inhibitor AZD3965 was able to reduce proliferation but not affect viability of HMCLs at 48 hours (Fig 5). However, dual inhibition of MCT-1/MCT-4 using syrosingopine was able to significantly reduce proliferation and decrease viability of HMCLs in a dose dependent fashion (Fig 6). Finally, dual inhibition of MCT-1/MCT-4 using syrosingopine reduced the utilization of extracellular lactate into the TCA cycle pool by HMCLs in media containing 3-13C-Lactate (Fig 7). Conclusion: Utilization of extracellular lactate via Reverse Warburg Effect phenomenon appears highly active in MM cells. Disrupting the utilization of extracellular lactate by dual inhibition of both MCT-1 and MCT-4 appears therapeutic. In the future, dual inhibition of MCT-1/MCT-4 in combination with other anti-MM therapies should be evaluated to determine synergistic therapeutic potential. Figure 1 Figure 1. Disclosures Kumar: Takeda: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; KITE: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Carsgen: Research Funding; Sanofi: Research Funding; Novartis: Research Funding; Antengene: Consultancy, Honoraria; Beigene: Consultancy; Bluebird Bio: Consultancy; Adaptive: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Tenebio: Research Funding; Janssen: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Celgene: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Oncopeptides: Consultancy; Astra-Zeneca: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Merck: Research Funding; Roche-Genentech: Consultancy, Research Funding; BMS: Consultancy, Research Funding; Abbvie: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Amgen: Consultancy, Research Funding.

Antibiotics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (10) ◽  
pp. 1257
Jakob Hofmann ◽  
Sabrina Klingele ◽  
Uwe Haberkorn ◽  
Gerhard Schmidmaier ◽  
Tobias Grossner

Treatment of infected nonunions and severe bone infections is a huge challenge in modern orthopedics. Their treatment routinely includes the use of anti-infective agents. Although frequently used, little is known about their impact on the osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells. In a high- and low-dose set-up, this study evaluates the effects of the antibiotics Gentamicin and Vancomycin as well as the antifungal agent Voriconazole on the ability of mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into osteoblast-like cells and synthesize hydroxyapatite in a monolayer cell culture. The osteogenic activity was assessed by measuring calcium and phosphate concentrations as well as alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin concentration in the cell culture medium supernatant. The amount of hydroxyapatite was measured directly by radioactive 99mTechnetium-HDP labeling. Regarding the osteogenic markers, it could be concluded that the osteogenesis was successful within the groups treated with osteogenic cell culture media. The results revealed that all anti-infective agents have a cytotoxic effect on mesenchymal stem cells, especially in higher concentrations, whereas the measured absolute amount of hydroxyapatite was independent of the anti-infective agent used. Normed to the number of cells it can therefore be concluded that the above-mentioned anti-infective agents actually have a positive effect on osteogenesis while high-dose Gentamycin, in particular, is apparently capable of boosting the deposition of minerals.

2021 ◽  
Surasak Kasetsirikul ◽  
Muhammad J.A. Shiddiky ◽  
Nam-Trung Nguyen

Abstract This paper reports the development of fluorescent-linked immunosorbent paper-based assay for exosome detection. The paper-based device was fabricated with sandwich lamination for easy handling and was coated with exosome-specific antibody as a biosensing platform to detect exosome sample from the cell culture media. This assay employed fluorescent detection which is followed by tagging fluorophore-conjugated detecting antibody on exosome samples. The fluorescent readout was evaluated and quantified from image processing software. This assay can detect high concentration of exosome samples (~ 1010 exosome/mL). However, this assay has encountered various challenges. First, the exosome concentration prepared from cell culture media from cancer-derived ovarian and mesothelial cell lines may be insufficient to reach detectable range. Second, chemical contamination from exosome isolation kits may affect assay sensitivity. Therefore, assay optimization and minimizing chemical contamination are required which could enhance assay specificity and sensitivity.

Vaccines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (10) ◽  
pp. 1154
Irene González-Domínguez ◽  
Elianet Lorenzo ◽  
Alice Bernier ◽  
Laura Cervera ◽  
Francesc Gòdia ◽  

Gag-based virus-like particles (VLPs) have high potential as scaffolds for the development of chimeric vaccines and delivery strategies. The production of purified preparations that can be preserved independently from cold chains is highly desirable to facilitate distribution and access worldwide. In this work, a nimble purification has been developed, facilitating the production of Gag VLPs. Suspension-adapted HEK 293 cells cultured in chemically defined cell culture media were used to produce the VLPs. A four-step downstream process (DSP) consisting of membrane filtration, ion-exchange chromatography, polishing, and lyophilization was developed. The purification of VLPs from other contaminants such as host cell proteins (HCP), double-stranded DNA, or extracellular vesicles (EVs) was confirmed after their DSP. A concentration of 2.2 ± 0.8 × 109 VLPs/mL in the lyophilized samples was obtained after its storage at room temperature for two months. Morphology and structural integrity of purified VLPs was assessed by cryo-TEM and NTA. Likewise, the purification methodologies proposed here could be easily scaled up and applied to purify similar enveloped viruses and vesicles.

Nanophotonics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Gerardo A Lopez-Muñoz ◽  
Juan M Fernández-Costa ◽  
Maria Alejandra Ortega ◽  
Jordina Balaguer-Trias ◽  
Eduard Martin-Lasierra ◽  

Abstract The development of nanostructured plasmonic biosensors has been widely widespread in the last years, motivated by the potential benefits they can offer in integration, miniaturization, multiplexing opportunities, and enhanced performance label-free biodetection in a wide field of applications. Between them, engineering tissues represent a novel, challenging, and prolific application field for nanostructured plasmonic biosensors considering the previously described benefits and the low levels of secreted biomarkers (≈pM–nM) to detect. Here, we present an integrated plasmonic nanocrystals-based biosensor using high throughput nanostructured polycarbonate substrates. Metallic film thickness and incident angle of light for reflectance measurements were optimized to enhance the detection of antibody–antigen biorecognition events using numerical simulations. We achieved an enhancement in biodetection up to 3× as the incident angle of light decreases, which can be related to shorter evanescent decay lengths. We achieved a high reproducibility between channels with a coefficient of variation below 2% in bulk refractive index measurements, demonstrating a high potential for multiplexed sensing. Finally, biosensing potential was demonstrated by the direct and label-free detection of interleukin-6 biomarker in undiluted cell culture media supernatants from bioengineered 3D skeletal muscle tissues stimulated with different concentrations of endotoxins achieving a limit of detection (LOD) of ≈ 0.03 ng/mL (1.4 pM).

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