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2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Emma Herms ◽  
Amanda Bolbecker ◽  
Krista Wisner

Empathic tendencies (i.e., perspective taking and empathic concern) and emotion regulation (i.e., reappraisal and suppression) are key factors in successful social relationships. Relationships can also be negatively impacted by mental health symptoms, including psychosis. While psychotic-like experiences are often detrimental to social functioning, it is unclear whether certain psychotic-like experiences, such as delusions, are negatively associated with empathetic tendencies after accounting for emotion regulation skills and comorbid dimensions of psychopathology. Linear models were employed to test these associations in an adult community sample (N = 128). Measures of interest included the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, and the Peter’s Delusion Inventory. Results indicated that perspective taking was positively associated with reappraisal and negatively associated with delusional proneness, after controlling for age, sex, race, intelligence, as well as symptoms of anxiety and depression. Furthermore, a significant change in R2 supported the addition of delusion proneness in this model. Specificity analyses demonstrated perspective taking was also negatively associated with suppression, but this relationship did not remain after accounting for the effects of reappraisal and delusion proneness in the same model. Additional specificity analyses found no association between empathic concern and reappraisal or delusion proneness but replicated previous findings that empathic concern was negatively associated with suppression. Taken together, findings highlight that delusion proneness accounts for unique variance in interpersonal perspective taking, beyond that explained by demographics, intelligence, reappraisal skills, and internalizing psychopathology.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Dabin Yeum ◽  
Diane Gilbert-Diamond ◽  
Brett Doherty ◽  
Modupe Coker ◽  
Delisha Stewart ◽  
...  

Abstract BackgroundThe metabolomics profiles of maternal plasma during pregnancy and cord plasma at birth might influence fetal growth and birth anthropometry. The objectives of this study are to examine how metabolites measured in maternal plasma samples collected during pregnancy and umbilical cord plasma samples collected at birth are associated with newborn anthropometric measures, a known predictor of future health outcomes.MethodsPregnant women between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation were recruited from prenatal clinics in New Hampshire as part of a prospective cohort study. Blood samples from 413 women at enrollment and 787 infant cord blood samples were analyzed using the Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ® p180 kit . Multivariable linear regression models were used to examine association of cord and maternal metabolites with infant anthropometry at birth.ResultsIn cord blood samples, several acylcarnitines, a phosphatidylcholine, and a custom metabolite indicator were negatively associated with birth weight Z-score, and lysophosphatidylcholines as well as three custom metabolite indicators were positively associated with birth weight Z-score. Acylcarnitine C5 was negatively associated with birth length Z-score, and several lysophosphatidylcholines and a custom metabolite indicator were positively associated with birth length Z-score. Maternal blood metabolites did not show significant associations with birth weight and length Z scores, however, a custom metabolite indicator, the ratio of kynurenine over tryptophan, was negatively associated with weight-for-length Z-score.ConclusionsSeveral cord blood metabolites associated with newborn weight and length Z-scores; in particular, consistent findings were observed for several acylcarnitines that play a role in utilization of energy sources, and a lysophosphatidylcholine that is part of oxidative stress and inflammatory response pathways. Fewer associations were observed with maternal metabolomic profiles.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Kiersten Dobson ◽  
Brian G Ogolsky ◽  
Sarah C. E. Stanton

We test the contribution of multiple types of romantic partners’ commitment asymmetry (discrepancies between partners’ commitment at a single time point) and asynchrony (discrepancies in the progression of commitment over time) to later relationship satisfaction and breakup. In three dyadic studies (N = 6,960 couples) over months (Study 1), days (Study 2), and years (Study 3), commitment asymmetry and asynchrony consistently did not predict satisfaction or breakup when controlling for commitment scores of individuals and their partners. Only one’s own commitment and proportion of downturns in commitment (when participants reported lower commitment than the previous time point) consistently predicted satisfaction across all three studies. For breakup, women’s (but not men’s) commitment was consistently negatively associated with breakup and proportion of downturns was consistently positively associated with breakup. Our findings indicate that, contrary to some significant findings in prior research, commitment asymmetry and asynchrony are not indicative of future relationship outcomes.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yuxia Ma ◽  
Ruiqiang Li ◽  
Wenqiang Zhan ◽  
Xin Huang ◽  
Yutian Zhou ◽  
...  

ObjectivesThis study aimed to assess the relationship between dietary inflammatory index (DII) and sex steroids in children (6-11 years old) and adolescents (12-19 years old) in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2015–2016.MethodsParticipants between the ages of 6-19 have 24-hour dietary intake data, serum sex hormones [total testosterone (TT), estradiol (E2)], and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) available data (n = 1382). The free androgen index (FAI) is calculated as TT divided by SHBG and the ratio of TT to E2 (TT/E2). The constructed puberty state is defined as high levels of steroid hormones (TT≥50 ng/dL in men, E2≥20 pg/ml in women) or onset of menarche. Multiple linear regression analysis was stratified by gender-age and gender-pubertal status groups to evaluate the association between DII and sex hormone levels.ResultsAfter adjusting for covariates, the association between consecutive DII and sex hormone indicators by gender and age group. In male adolescents, DII was always negatively associated with TT (P-trend = 0.09), FAI (P-trend = 0.03) and E2 (P-trend = 0.01), and monotonically positively associated with SHBG (P-trend = 0.02).In female adolescents, with the increase of DII, a significant positive correlation with SHBG was observed (β 0.017, 95%CI: 0.009,0.053) (Table 3). Among female adolescents, a significant negative association between DII and TT and a significant positive association between SHBG were observed in this group. Moreover, DII was positively associated with SHBG of prepubertal males and negatively associated with FAI of prepubertal females.ConclusionsDII was associated with decreased levels of certain sex steroid hormones (TT, FAI, and E2) and increased levels of SHBG in adolescents or pubertal individuals, with the associations presenting somewhat sex-dependent pattern. However, there is little evidence that there is a significant association in children or prepubertal children. Further research needs to be carried out to verify our results.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yi Sheng ◽  
Qing Yi ◽  
Miguel-Ángel Gómez-Ruano ◽  
Peijie Chen

The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of the technical and context-related variables of last strokes in rallies on the point outcomes of both men’s and women’s players in elite singles badminton matches. A total of 100 matches during the 2018 and 2019 seasons were analyzed, and the data of 4,080 men’s rallies and 4,339 women’s rallies were collected. The technical variables including strokes per rally, forehand strokes, overhead strokes, and defensive action, and the context-related variables including game status, result against serve, importance of rally, and importance of set, were modeled with Probit regression modeling as the predictor variables. The binary variables of “winner or not” and “error or not” were considered the response variables. The results showed that defensive actions had the greatest impacts on the winners and errors of both the men’s and women’s singles players, and the forehand and overhead strokes were negatively associated with the winners and errors of the women’s singles players and the winners of the men’s singles players. No significant effects were found for the strokes per rally on the winners and errors of the men’s singles players, while significant effects were found for the women’s singles players. The context-related variables appeared to have positive effects on the winners and negative effects on the errors of both sexes. These findings can provide important insights for coaches and players to evaluate their performances of last strokes in rallies and to improve training interventions and match tactics and strategies.


2022 ◽  
pp. 002190962110696
Author(s):  
Oberiri Destiny Apuke ◽  
Elif Asude Tunca

This study developed a model that predicted factors that prompt the intention to take the COVID-19 vaccine among Nigerians. Data were collected from 385 respondents across Nigeria using snowball sampling technique with online questionnaire as instrument. Results indicated that cues to action, health motivation, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control positively predicted the intention to take COVID-19 vaccine in Nigeria. However, perceived susceptibility, severity, and COVID-19 vaccine benefits did not predict the intention to take the COVID-19 vaccine. Further findings showed that COVID-19 vaccine barrier and attitude was negatively associated with the intention to take the COVID-19 vaccine.


2022 ◽  
pp. 0148558X2110671
Author(s):  
David C. Broadstock ◽  
Xiaoqi Chen ◽  
C. S. Agnes Cheng ◽  
Wenli Huang ◽  
Yujing Ma

This study investigates the relationship between corporate site visits (CSVs) and firms’ real earnings management. Using a unique dataset of site visits to Chinese firms listed on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange from 2009 to 2016, we find that such visits are negatively associated with firms’ real earnings management. The results are robust to using alternative CSV measures, controlling for alternative communication channels, and using the propensity score matching method. In cross-sectional analyses, we find that the negative association between site visits and real earnings management is stronger for more complex firms and firms with greater information asymmetry. In addition, we find that CSVs are negatively associated with both management and corporate misconduct but not with accrual-based earnings management or restatements.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Matteo De Marco ◽  
Annalena Venneri

Background: Although performance on the category fluency test (CFT) is influenced by many cognitive functions (i.e., including language, executive functioning and speed of processing), item-level scoring methods of CFT performance might be a promising way to capture aspects of semantic memory that are less influenced by intervenient abilities. One such approach is based on the calculation of correlation coefficients that quantify the association between item-level features and the serial order with which words are recalled (SRO).Methods: We explored the neural underpinnings of 10 of these correlational indices in a sample of 40 healthy adults who completed a classic 1-min CFT and an MRI protocol inclusive of T1-weighted (analysed with voxel-based morphometry) and resting-state fMRI sequences for the evaluation of the default-mode network (DMN). Two sets of linear models were defined to test the association between neural maps and each correlational index: a first set in which major demographic and clinical descriptors were controlled for and a second set in which, additionally, all other 9 correlational indices were regressed out.Results: In the analysis of the DMN, ‘SRO-frequency’, ‘SRO-dominance’ and ‘SRO-body-object interaction’ correlational indices were all negatively associated with the anterior portion of the right temporoparietal junction. The ‘SRO-frequency’ correlational index was also negatively associated with the right dorsal anterior cingulate and the ‘SRO-dominance’ correlational index with the right lateral prefrontal cortex. From the second set of models, the ‘SRO-typicality’ correlational index was positively associated with the left entorhinal cortex. No association was found in relation to grey matter maps.Conclusion: The ability to retrieve more difficult words during CFT performance as measured by the correlational indices between SRO and item-level descriptors is associated with DMN expression in regions deputed to attentional reorienting and processing of salience of infrequent stimuli and dominance status. Of all item-level features, typicality appears to be that most closely linked with entorhinal functioning and may thus play a relevant role in assessing its value in testing procedures for early detection of subtle cognitive difficulties in people with suspected Alzheimer’s degeneration. Although exploratory, these findings warrant further investigations in larger cohorts.


2022 ◽  
pp. 136346152110490
Author(s):  
Simon Hanseung Choi ◽  
Clayton Hoi-Yun McClintock ◽  
Elsa Lau ◽  
Lisa Miller

Self-transcendence has been associated with lower levels of psychopathology. Most studies of self-transcendence have focused on samples of Western participants, and used scales addressing such concepts as self-awareness and feelings of oneness with the larger universe. However, a common Eastern notion of transcendence—perception of ongoing relationships with ancestors—has not been studied. We conducted a cross-cultural investigation of the association between self-transcendence, perceived degree of relationship to ancestors and depression and anxiety in the United States (N = 1499), China (N =  3,150), and India (N = 863). Degrees of perceived relationship to ancestors differed across countries, with the highest rates in India and China, and lowest rates in the United States. Self-transcendence was negatively associated with risks for depression and anxiety in the United States. In India, self-transcendence was also negatively associated with risks for depression and anxiety, and a strong perceived relationship with ancestors had further protective benefit. In China, those with a high level of perceived relationship to ancestors and a high level of self-transcendence exhibited lower levels of psychopathology. Results suggest that measures of relationship to ancestors might be included in future cross-cultural studies of transcendence.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262300
Author(s):  
Mulugeta Molla ◽  
Woretaw Sisay ◽  
Yared Andargie ◽  
Belayneh Kefale ◽  
Pradeep Singh

Introduction By measuring patients’ satisfaction, providers can gain insight into several elements of health care services, including the effectiveness of their care and the level of empathy they exhibit. The aim of this study was to assess patient satisfaction with pharmaceutical services and associated factors in public hospitals located in Northwestern Ethiopia. Methods An institution-based quantitative cross-sectional study was used. The study was carried out in an outpatient pharmacy from January 1–June 30, 2021. Participants were selected by a systematic sampling technique. The IBM SPSS statistical package (version 23) was used to enter and analyze the collected data. The findings were presented using descriptive statistical methods. To find factors linked to satisfaction, binary logistic regression was used. Results The final analysis included a total of 401 samples. More than half of the participants (229, or 55.1%) were female. The overall mean score of satisfaction was 30.6 out of a maximum of 100 scores. By taking this mean score as a cut-off point, 204 (50.9%) of the study participants had satisfaction with the outpatient pharmacists’ service. Participants’ responses scored on the uncomfortable and inconvenient waiting areas [AOR = 0.31; 95%CI, (0.13, 0.49)] were found to be negatively associated with the level of patients’ satisfaction. Also, the unavailability of medications [AOR = 0.12; 95%CI, (0.02, 0.37)] was negatively associated with the respondent satisfaction. Uncomfortable and inconvenient private counseling areas [AOR = 1.37; 95%CI, (0.79, 4.42)] showed a negative association with their satisfaction. Conclusion Patients’ satisfaction levels with pharmacy service were found to be greater than 50%. The socio-demographic characteristics of patients have no association with their level of satisfaction, but their perception of uncomfortable private counseling areas and waiting areas was negatively associated with their satisfaction.


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