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2022 ◽  
Vol 323 ◽  
pp. 107697
Author(s):  
Timothy Weekers ◽  
Leon Marshall ◽  
Nicolas Leclercq ◽  
Thomas James Wood ◽  
Diego Cejas ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Javad Rajabalizadeh ◽  
Javad Oradi

PurposeWhile prior research in the area of intellectual capital (IC) disclosure has mainly focused on firm, board and audit committee characteristics, there is little research on whether managerial characteristics are associated with IC disclosure. This study aims to examine the relationship between managerial ability (MA) and the extent of IC disclosure.Design/methodology/approachThe study sample comprises 1,098 firm-year observations of Iranian listed firms during 2012–2017. This study uses the checklist developed by Li et al. (2008) and adopts a content analysis approach and calculates the IC disclosure index in 62 dimensions within three categories: human capital, structural capital and relational capital. To measure MA, this study uses the managerial ability score (MA-Score) developed by Demerjian et al. (2012) for Iranian firms.FindingsThe results show that MA is significantly and negatively associated with the overall extent of IC disclosure and all the three components of IC (human capital, structural capital and relational capital). Further analysis shows that the interaction between MA and firm performance is positive and significant, suggesting that the negative relationship between MA and IC disclosure is less pronounced for high-performing firms. This study addresses the potential endogeneity issue by using the propensity score matching approach. The findings are also robust to the alternative measure of MA.Originality/valueThis study contributes to both the MA literature and the IC disclosure literature. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to provide empirical evidence on the relationship between MA and IC disclosure.


2021 ◽  
pp. 1-20
Author(s):  
DAIJU AIBA ◽  
OKUDA HIDENOBU

The Cambodian banking sector has rapidly expanded in recent decades, although there are concerns about the performance of Cambodian banks and the country’s banking sector. A paucity of empirical evidence to clarify the real issues in the banking sector also makes it difficult to formulate effective policy measures to address any potential problems. This study provides empirical evidence by estimating the cost function and efficiencies of 34 commercial banks over the period from 2012 to 2015. We find that the average cost efficiency scores range from 0.60 when measuring bank outputs as loan and deposit amounts, and 0.77 when measuring bank outputs as interest and non-interest income, suggesting that if they are operated more efficiently, they could cut costs by 40% in fund mobilization and 23% in profit making while keeping the same output level. We also find that the Cambodian banks have experienced an improvement in efficiency scores over the period for both aspects of banking activities. Furthermore, we find that expanding a branch network into rural areas is inefficient for bank management, and holding excessive liquidity is associated with higher efficiency, but diversification in bank business operations is negatively associated with cost efficiency of Cambodian commercial banks.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Eglė Slabšinskienė ◽  
Andrej Gorelik ◽  
Aistė Kavaliauskienė ◽  
Apolinaras Zaborskis

Abstract Background The aim of this study was to estimate the association of burnout level with lifestyle and relaxation among dentists in Lithuania. A better understanding of this association could help in the development of targeted interventions to prevent burnout among these professionals. Methods The survey was conducted among practising dentists (N = 380) using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and an authors’ proposed scale to measure lifestyle and relaxation. Poisson regression was applied to examine the association between variables. Results Regular cigarette smoking among dentists in Lithuania was 16.8 % and alcohol consumption was 31.3 %. Some forms of active relaxation were also common: regular playing sports (57.9 %), and spending time in nature (61.4 %). Emotional exhaustion (EE) and depersonalization (DP) burnout dimensions were negatively related to the regular use of illegal substances, alcohol, medication and smoking, while personal achievement (PA) was negatively related to smoking only. Dentists who regularly exercised had significantly lower EE and DP sum scores, and better assessments of PA. There were also positive relationships of EE, DP and PA sum scores with the variables of relaxation (e.g., spending time with family or friends, visiting a theatre, engaging in art, listening to music). Conclusions It was concluded that the burnout dimensions are negatively associated with unhealthy lifestyle factors and positively associated with active relaxation among dentists in Lithuania. Therefore, burnout prevention should target specific lifestyle and relaxation improvement strategies.


Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (10) ◽  
pp. 3605
Author(s):  
Ping-Huang Tsai ◽  
Hsiu-Chien Yang ◽  
Chin Lin ◽  
Chih-Chien Sung ◽  
Pauling Chu ◽  
...  

Muscle wasting and hyperphosphatemia are becoming increasingly prevalent in patients who exhibit a progressive decline in kidney function. However, the association between serum phosphate (Pi) level and sarcopenia in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients remains unclear. We compared the serum Pi levels between advanced CKD patients with (n = 51) and those without sarcopenia indicators (n = 83). Low appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI), low handgrip strength, and low gait speed were defined per the standards of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. Mean serum Pi level was significantly higher in advanced CKD patients with sarcopenia indicators than those without sarcopenia indicators (3.88 ± 0.86 vs. 3.54 ± 0.73 mg/dL; p = 0.016). Univariate analysis indicated that serum Pi was negatively correlated with ASMI, handgrip strength, and gait speed. Multivariable analysis revealed that serum Pi was significantly associated with handgrip strength (standardized β = −0.168; p = 0.022) and this association persisted even after adjustments for potential confounders. The optimal serum Pi cutoff for predicting low handgrip strength was 3.65 mg/dL, with a sensitivity of 82.1% and specificity of 56.6%. In summary, low handgrip strength is common in advanced CKD patients and serum Pi level is negatively associated with handgrip strength.


2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Author(s):  
Shwetabh Verma ◽  
Juergen Hesser ◽  
Samuel Arba-Mosquera

Abstract Smoother surfaces after laser vision correction have been widely accepted as a factor for improving visual recovery regardless of the used technique (PRK, LASIK, or even SMILE). We tested the impact of laser beam truncation, dithering (expressing a continuous profile on a basis of lower resolution causing pixels to round up/down the number of pulses to be placed), and jitter (a controlled random noise (up to ±20 µm in either direction) added to the theoretical scanner positions) on residual smoothness after Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) ablations, using a close-to-Gaussian beam profile. A modified SCHWIND AMARIS system has been used providing a beam profile with the following characteristics: close-to-Gaussian beam profile with full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 540 µm, 1050 Hz. Laser parameters have been optimized following Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 2021–2037, 2017, the pulse energy has been optimized following Biomed. Opt. Express vol. 4, pp. 1422–1433, 2013. For the PMMA ablations, two configurations (with a 0.7 mm pinhole and 0.75 mJ and without pinhole and 0.9 mJ (for fluences of 329 mJ/cm2 and 317 mJ/cm2 and corneal spot volumes of 174 and 188 pl)) were considered, along with two types of lattices (with and without ordered dithering to select the optimum pulse positions), and two types of spot placement (with and without jitter). Real ablations on PMMA (ranging from −12D to +6D with and without astigmatism of up to 3D) completed the study setup. The effect of the 2 × 2 × 2 different configurations was analyzed based on the roughness in ablation estimated from the root mean square error in ablation. Truncation of the beam is negatively associated to a higher level of residual roughness; ordered dithering to select the optimum pulse positions is positively associated to a lower level of residual roughness; jitter is negatively associated to a higher level of residual roughness. The effect of dithering was the largest, followed by truncation, and jitter had the lowest impact on results. So that: Dithering approaches help to further minimize residual roughness after ablation; minimum (or no) truncation of the beam is essential to minimize residual roughness after ablation; and jitter shall be avoided to minimize residual roughness after ablation. The proposed model can be used for optimization of laser systems used for ablation processes at relatively low cost and would directly improve the quality of results. Minimum (or no) truncation of the beam is essential to minimize residual roughness after ablation. Ordered dithering without jitter helps to further minimize residual roughness after ablation. Other more complex dithering approaches may further contribute to minimize residual roughness after ablation.


Horticulturae ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (10) ◽  
pp. 401
Author(s):  
Jing-Guo Zhang ◽  
Wei Du ◽  
Jing Fan ◽  
Xiao-Ping Yang ◽  
Qi-Liang Chen ◽  
...  

Ethylene production is negatively associated with storage life in sand pear (Pyrus pyrifoliaNakai), particularly at the time of fruit harvest. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) is the rate-limiting enzyme in ethylene biosynthesisand is considered to be important for fruit storage life. However, the candidate ACS genes and their roles in sand pear remain unclear. The present study identified 13ACS genes from the sand pear genome.Phylogenetic analysiscategorizedthese ACS genesinto four subgroups (type Ⅰ, type Ⅱ, type Ⅲ and putative AAT), and indicated a close relationship between sand pear and Chinese white pear (P. bretschneideri). According to the RNA-seq data and qRT-PCR analysis, PpyACS1, PpyACS2, PpyACS3, PpyACS8, PpyACS9, PpyACS12 and PpyACS13 were differently expressed in climacteric and non-climacteric-typepear fruits,‘Ninomiyahakuri’ and ‘Eli No.2′, respectively, during fruit ripening. In addition, the expressions of PpyACS2, PpyACS8, PpyACS12 and PpyACS13 werefound to be associated with system 1 of ethylene production, while PpyACS1, PpyACS3, and PpyACS9 werefound to be associated with system 2, indicating that these ACS genes have different roles in ethylenebiosynthesis during fruit development. Overall, our study provides fundamental knowledge onthe characteristics of the ACS gene family in sand pear, in addition to their possible roles infruit ripening.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0258357
Author(s):  
Kei Yamamoto ◽  
Michiyo Suzuki ◽  
Mugen Ujiie ◽  
Shuzo Kanagawa ◽  
Norio Ohmagari

Rubella and measles outbreaks in adults occur because of unimmunized or partially immunized status. Travel clinics play an important role in catch-up measles, rubella, mumps, and varicella immunization for adults. We evaluated the need for catch-up measles, rubella, mumps, and varicella immunization by young adults at our travel clinic. This retrospective observational study was conducted at the National Center for Global Health and Medicine from June 1, 2017 to May 31, 2018. Adults aged 16–49 years who received pre-travel consultation and had childhood immunization records were included. Individuals who fully or partially received planned measles, rubella, mumps, and varicella catch-up immunization were classified as “immunized.” We calculated the proportion of “immunized” individuals and analyzed the factors associated with catch-up measles, rubella, mumps, and varicella immunization at pre-travel consultation using logistic regression analysis. Overall, 3,456 individuals received pre-travel consultations during the study period; 827 (336 men, median age 22 years) had childhood immunization records. The most common trip purposes were study (33%) and tourism (24%). The most common destination was Asia (39%). Catch-up immunization of any measles, rubella, mumps, and varicella vaccine was needed by 755 individuals. After consultation, 20–46% of these participants who needed catchup immunization received at least one dose of immunization. Factors that are negatively associated with measles, rubella, mumps, and varicella catch-up immunization were tourism (odds ratio 0.37 to 0.58), yellow fever vaccination (0.45 to 0.50) (excluding varicella), and each disease history (0.13 to 0.40) (excluding rubella and varicella). Further studies are needed to identify barriers to catch-up immunization.


2021 ◽  
pp. 026540752110441
Author(s):  
Xingyu Zhang ◽  
Jing Liu ◽  
Xiying Li ◽  
Hongjuan Ling ◽  
Jingjin Shao ◽  
...  

Social interaction is an important way that we as humans connect with others. Socioemotional selectivity theory emphasizes the importance of close relationships, and Chinese culture attaches great importance to family members. As such, this study aimed to examine the differences in the quality of interactions that older Chinese adults have with close partners (e.g., children, friends, and relatives) as well as with other partners (e.g., neighbors, colleagues, and strangers) and to examine the association between interaction quality and emotional experience across these interactions. We collected data from 213 older adults over the course of 14 days. Results indicate that (1) compared to other partners, interactions with close partners are considered to be of higher quality; (2) in interactions with children and relatives, interaction quality is positively associated with positive affect (PA) and negatively associated with negative affect (NA); in interactions with friends and neighbors, interaction quality is only associated with PA; in interactions with colleagues and strangers, interaction quality is not associated with either PA or NA. Overall, interactions with close partners were shown to be considered to be of higher quality, and that the quality of interactions with family members was closely associated with emotional experience.


Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (10) ◽  
pp. 2737
Author(s):  
Benedetta Izzi ◽  
Alessandro Gialluisi ◽  
Francesco Gianfagna ◽  
Sabatino Orlandi ◽  
Amalia De Curtis ◽  
...  

Defined as an index of platelet size heterogeneity, the platelet distribution width (PDW) is still a poorly characterized marker of platelet function in (sub)clinical disease. We presently validated PDW as a marker of P-selectin dependent platelet activation in the Moli-family cohort. Platelet-bound P-selectin and platelet/leukocyte mixed aggregates were measured by flow cytometry in freshly collected venous blood, both before and after in vitro platelet activation, and coagulation time was assessed in unstimulated and LPS- or TNFα-stimulated whole blood. Closure Times (CT) were measured in a Platelet Function Analyzer (PFA)-100. Multivariable linear mixed effect regression models (with age, sex and platelet count as fixed and family structure as random effect) revealed PDW to be negatively associated with platelet P-selectin, platelet/leukocyte aggregates and von Willebrand factor (VWF), and positively with PFA-100 CT, and LPS- and TNF-α-stimulated coagulation times. With the exception of VWF, all relationships were sex-independent. In contrast, no association was found between mean platelet volume (MPV) and these variables. PDW seems a simple, useful marker of ex vivo and in vitro P-selectin dependent platelet activation. Investigations of larger cohorts will define the usefulness of PDW as a risk predictor of thrombo-inflammatory conditions where activated platelets play a contributing role.


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