total carotenoid content
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Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 310
María Carolina Otálora ◽  
Andrea Wilches-Torres ◽  
Jovanny A. Gómez Castaño

In this work, the capacity of the mucilage extracted from the cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) and aloe vera (AV) leaves as wall material in the microencapsulation of pink guava carotenoids using spray-drying was studied. The stability of the encapsulated carotenoids was quantified using UV–vis and HPLC/MS techniques. Likewise, the antioxidant activity (TEAC), color (CIELab), structural (FTIR) and microstructural (SEM and particle size) properties, as well as the total dietary content, of both types of mucilage microcapsules were determined. Our results show that the use of AV mucilage, compared to OFI mucilage, increased both the retention of β-carotene and the antioxidant capacity of the carotenoid microcapsules by around 14%, as well as the total carotenoid content (TCC) by around 26%, and also favors the formation of spherical-type particles (Ø ≅ 26 µm) without the apparent damage of a more uniform size and with an attractive red-yellow hue. This type of microcapsules is proposed as a convenient alternative means to incorporate guava carotenoids, a natural colorant with a high antioxidant capacity, and dietary fiber content in the manufacture of functional products, which is a topic of interest for the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 121-135
Danusa Silva da Costa ◽  
Katiuchia Pereira Takeuchi ◽  
Richard Marins da Silva ◽  
Josemar Gonçalves de Oliveira Filho ◽  
Mirella Romanelli Vicente Bertolo ◽  

The objective of this study was to develop and characterize cassava-starch-based films incorporated with buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L.) oil and emulsifier (Tween 20). An experimental factorial design 22 with three central points was used to develop the films, by varying the concentrations of buriti oil (0.15 to 0.45% w/v) and emulsifier (0.02 to 0.04% w/v). Film thickness and weight increased with increasing buriti oil concentration. The water vapor permeability of the films ranged from 0.22 to 0.366 g mm h−1 m−2 kPa−1. The tensile strength values varied from 4.21 to 6.95 MPa, the elasticity modulus varied from 538.53 to 722.78 MPa, and elongation to rupture varied from 1.13 to 1.66%. The film color was characterized as yellowish, dark, and intense (higher oil content); and clear and a low-intensity color (lower oil content). The films presented a total carotenoid content ranging from 3.63 to 29.73 μg β-carotene/g, which may have resulted in their antioxidant potential against DPPH• (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl) radical (from 74.28 to 87.74%). The central formulation of the experimental design (buriti oil 0.30% and emulsifier 0.03%) presented a good performance and can be applied as packaging for foods with a lower water content and that demand protection against oxidation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (2) ◽  
pp. 136
Gervacia Jenny Ratnawaty ◽  
Ratih Indrawati ◽  
Jajar Pramata Syari

— Isolation and identification of active compounds from mentawak fruit (Artocarpus Anisophyllus) used a plant determination test to determine the plant content. Furthermore, the extraction process was carried out to obtain a crude extract of carotenoid pigments by maceration method using n-hexane as solvent. Furthermore, the obtained macerate was carried out by phytochemical tests to determine the content of the active compounds. The TLC test was carried out to confirm the presence of a positive group of compounds on phytochemical screening, and to determine the chromatographic profile of the extract.  The identification results showed that the phytochemicals showed that the active compounds contained in macerate were alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and saponins. The KLT test results obtained an Rf value of 0.875. While the total carotenoid content using a spectrophotometer UV-Vis is 958 µg/ml.

2021 ◽  
Vol 29 (1) ◽  
pp. 54-61
Khakhanang Ratananikom ◽  
Nipa Nasinporm ◽  
Tanitpan Pongjongmit

The objectives of this study were to evaluate carotenoid pigment profile and the antioxidant activity from 14 commonly grown flowers in Thailand. The result found that orange marigold showed the highest total carotenoid content at as 2,209±75.58 µg/g, followed by deep yellow chrysanthemum at 551.27±47.72 µg/g (P<0.01). The next lower total carotenoid content group was found in yellow silk cotton, yellow trumpetbush, yellow marigold and yellow golden shower with total carotenoid content of 447.42±27.56, 429.46±28.34, 409.85±34.58 and 363.88±12.74 µg/g, respectively. The highest antioxidant activities against DPPH and ABTS radicles were found from orange marigold, which were 32.34±2.16 and 50.08±0.87%, respectively. Deep yellow chrysanthemum, yellow silk cotton, yellow trumpetbush, yellow marigold and yellow golden shower also showed significantly higher antioxidant activities than other flowers (P<0.01). Total carotenoid contents well correlated with antioxidant activities against DPPH and ABTS radicals (r = 0.6924 and r = 0.8270, respectively) at P<0.01. TLC result elucidated that orange marigold, yellow silk cotton and yellow golden shower were a good source of β-carotene, while deep yellow chrysanthemum and yellow marigold were a good source of lutein and/or zeaxanthin. The result indicated that flower petals would be useful as natural carotenoid source and provide antioxidants for food industry.

2021 ◽  
Vol 937 (2) ◽  
pp. 022077
A Borodina ◽  
P Zadorozhny

Abstract The analysis of carotenoids of three species of bivalve filter feeding molluscs: Cerastoderma glaucum, Chamelea galina and Polititapis aureus, inhabiting the same ecotope, in the innermost part of the bay of the Sevastopol city, has been carried out. The dynamics of total carotenoid content (TCC) in these species had shown during 4 seasons of the year. The composition of carotenoids is presented in C. glaucum and P. aureus by 8 carotenoids, and Ch. galina - 11 carotenoids. However, in P. aureus, only 75% of the TCC were analyzed. The TCC of all 3 species of molluscs contained to 75% of the total (identical) carotenoids. Each species of molluscs retained their specific carotenoids. Comparative analysis of carotenoids between Black Sea mollusks and their species analogues from other regions of the World Ocean showed differences in the composition of carotenoids. Thus, changing environmental conditions of the same type of filter-feeding mollusk lead to the implementation of adaptation mechanisms in the body, as a result of which the qualitative composition of carotenoids changes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (23) ◽  
pp. 12996
Kaukab Razi ◽  
Dong-Won Bae ◽  
Sowbiya Muneer

As climate changes increase, drought stress is becoming a problem for all major horticultural crops; among them is okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). Despite its superior resilience to heat stress and high nutritional content, it is still underutilized in contrast to other vegetable crops. Moreover, the drought-resistant and drought-sensitive genotypes of okra are also not well known and require further exploration to improve their productivity. To investigate this in more detail, we performed comparative physiological and large-scale chloroplast proteomics on drought-stressed genotypes of okra. We evaluated four major genotypes of okra, viz., NS7774, NS7772, Green Gold, and OH3312 for drought resilient rootstock. The physiological modulations demonstrated a significant change by 50–76% in biomass, net-photosynthetic machinery, water transport, and absorption both in early and late stages of drought stress compared to well-watered crops in all genotypes. Maximum oxidative damage due to drought stress was observed for the genotypes NS7772, Green Gold and OH3312 as depicted by H2O2 and O2− determination. Greater oxidative stress was correlated to lesser antioxidant activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase and ascorbate peroxidase under stress in okra genotypes. The overall photosynthetic pigments, such as total chlorophyll, and total carotenoid content, were also decreased, and stomatal guard cells were disrupted and appeared closed compared to the control for the above three mentioned genotypes, except NS7774. A subsequent tissue-specific proteome analysis of chloroplasts and thylakoids analyzed by BN-PAGE (blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) revealed either over or under expression of specific proteins, such as ATPase, PSI, PSII core dimer, PSII monomer and ATP synthase. The expression of multiprotein complex proteins, including PSII-core dimer and PSII-core monomer, was slightly higher for the genotype NS7774 when compared to three other genotypes for both 5 and 10 days of drought stress. Further identification of specific proteins obtained in second dimension BN-PAGE provided descriptive detail of seven proteins involved in drought resistance across all genotypes. The identified proteins are majorly involved in photosynthesis under drought stress, suggesting NS7774 as a drought tolerant genotype. Further, the proteomic results were confirmed using Immunoblot by selecting specific protein such as PsaA. Overall, from our physiological modulations and chloroplast proteomics in all genotypes, we summarized NS7774 as a resilient rootstock and the other three genotypes (NS7772, OH3312, and Green Gold) as sensitive ones.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Zully Jimena Suárez-Montenegro ◽  
Diego Ballesteros-Vivas ◽  
Rocío Gallego ◽  
Alberto Valdés ◽  
Jose David Sánchez-Martínez ◽  

Tamarillo (Cyphomandra betacea (Cav.) Sendt.), or tree tomato, is a tropical fruit from the Andean region of South America; it is highly rich in vitamins, minerals, and polyphenolic compounds. In this study, extracts from tamarillo epicarp (TE) were obtained by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), and their in-vitro neuroprotective potential was assessed. A central composite design with response surface methodology was performed to optimize PLE as a function of solvent composition and temperature. Selected response variables were extraction yield, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total carotenoid content (TCC), antioxidant (ABTS), and anti-inflammatory (LOX) activities, and anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory capacity. According to the desirability function, the optimal conditions were 100% ethanol and 180°C with a 0.87 desirability value. Next, the anti-butyrylcholinesterase enzyme (BChE), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) inhibition as well as cytotoxicity in HK-2, THP-1 monocytes, and SH-5YSY neuroblastoma cell lines were studied for the TE extract obtained under optimized conditions. The optimum TE extract provided the following results: extraction yield (36.25%), TPC (92.09 mg GAE/g extract), TFC (4.4 mg QE/g extract), TCC (107.15 mg CE/g extract), antioxidant capacity (ABTS, IC50 = 6.33 mg/ml extract), LOX (IC50 = 48.3 mg/ml extract), and AChE (IC50 = 97.46 mg/ml extract), and showed no toxicity at concentration up to 120 μg/ml extract for all the tested cell lines. Finally, chemical characterization by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-q-TOF-MS/MS) of the optimum TE extract exhibited an important presence of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and other phenolic acids as well as quercetin hexoside and rutin, as main metabolites responsible for the observed biological properties. All these results suggested that TE, which represents between 8 and 15% of the total fruit, could become a promising natural by-product with a potential “multitarget” activity against Alzheimer's disease.

2021 ◽  
Vol 66 (3) ◽  
Alexandra Saranchina ◽  
Polina Drozdova ◽  
Andrei Mutin ◽  
Maxim Timofeyev

Proper diet is critical for laboratory-reared animals, as it may affect not only their welfare, but also experimental results. Amphipods (Crustacea: Amphipoda) play important roles in ecosystems and are often used in environmental research. Endemic amphipods from the ancient Lake Baikal are promising for laboratory bioassays; however, there are currently no laboratory cultures. In this work, we determine how different diets affect the color and metabolism of a laboratory-reared Baikal amphipod, Eulimnogammarus cyaneus. We found that in freshly collected blue-colored animals, body color correlated with total carotenoid content. Total carotenoid levels did not differ after long-term (two months) feeding with a close to natural carotenoid-enriched, or even a carotenoid-depleted diet. Nevertheless, antennae color was closer to red in the natural-like diet group. It is likely that the carotenoids from the commercial diet are not properly metabolized in E. cyaneus. The animals fed commercial diets had a higher glycogen content, which may signify a higher metabolic rate. Overall, we show that a carotenoid-enriched diet optimized for decapods is not optimal for amphipods, likely due to different carotenoid compositions, and the diet for long-term rearing of E. cyaneus and other Baikal amphipods requires supplementation.

2021 ◽  
Ravena Rocha Bessa Carvalho ◽  
Massaine Bandeira e Sousa ◽  
Luciana Alves de Oliveira ◽  
Eder Jorge Oliveira

Abstract Increasing carotenoid content and improving other root quality traits has been the focus of cassava biofortification. This study aimed to i) evaluate the genetic variability for total carotenoid content (TCC), as well as for root yield and root quality attributes; ii) estimate potentially useful correlations for selection; and iii) select parents for breeding and estimate the genetic gain. Data from 2011 to 2020 of 265 cassava genotypes with cream and yellow roots were analyzed for dry matter content (DMC), shoot yield, fresh root yield (FRY), dry root yield (DRY), harvest index, average number of roots per plant, starch content, root pulp color, cyanogenic compounds, and TCC. The best linear unbiased predictions showed great phenotypic variation for all traits. Six distinct groups were formed for productive characteristics of root quality, mainly TCC, DMC and FRY. Only TCC showed high broad-sense heritability (\({h}^{2}\)= 0.72), while the other traits had low to medium magnitude (0.21 ≤ \({h}^{2}\) ≤ 0.60). TCC was strongly correlated with pulp color (r = 0.70), but null significance for DMC. The network analysis identified a clear separation between the agronomic and quality attributes of cassava roots. The selection of the 30 genotypes for recombination in the breeding program has the potential to raise TCC by 37.1% and reduce the cyanogenic compounds content by 19.4%, in addition to increasing FRY and DRY by 37.7% and 40.2%, respectively. This is the first consolidated study on the potential of germplasm for the development biofortified cassava varieties in Brazil.

Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 2056
Milana Trifunović-Momčilov ◽  
Snežana Milošević ◽  
Marija Marković ◽  
Marija Đurić ◽  
Slađana Jevremović ◽  

The effects of graded sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations (0-, 50-, 100-, 150-, and 200-mM) on photosynthetic pigment contents in in vitro grown shoots of important medicinal plant species (Centaurium erythraea Rafn) were investigated. Non-transformed, one AtCKX1 and two AtCKX2 transgenic centaury lines, with altered cytokinin profiles, were used in this study. The chlorophyll (Chl) and carotenoid contents differed in the non-transformed and transgenic lines. In general, salinity significantly reduced the Chl a and Chl b contents in comparison to the NaCl-free medium. The lowest Chl content was observed in AtCKX2 transgenic shoots grown on all the culture media. The total carotenoid content was increased in shoots of non-transformed and both AtCKX2 transgenic lines grown in 50-mM NaCl. On the other hand, in concentrations ˃50-mM NaCl, the total carotenoid content was decreased in all analysed centaury shoots. The Chl a/Chl b ratio in all the shoots increased progressively in the graded NaCl concentrations. Contrarily, the addition of NaCl in the culture medium reduced the Chl/carotenoid ratio in centaury shoots. Taken together, the results of this study partly explained the mode of centaury plant adaptations to salt stress in vitro. Thus, the results on centaury shoots confirmed that the determination of the photosynthetic pigment contents can be a very useful non-destructive screening method in order to discriminate susceptible and resistant plant species/lines to salt stress conditions.

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