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2021 ◽  
Vol 224 (18) ◽  
Shaun S. Killen ◽  
Emil A. F. Christensen ◽  
Daphne Cortese ◽  
Libor Závorka ◽  
Tommy Norin ◽  

ABSTRACT Interest in the measurement of metabolic rates is growing rapidly, because of the importance of metabolism in advancing our understanding of organismal physiology, behaviour, evolution and responses to environmental change. The study of metabolism in aquatic animals is undergoing an especially pronounced expansion, with more researchers utilising intermittent-flow respirometry as a research tool than ever before. Aquatic respirometry measures the rate of oxygen uptake as a proxy for metabolic rate, and the intermittent-flow technique has numerous strengths for use with aquatic animals, allowing metabolic rate to be repeatedly estimated on individual animals over several hours or days and during exposure to various conditions or stimuli. There are, however, no published guidelines for the reporting of methodological details when using this method. Here, we provide the first guidelines for reporting intermittent-flow respirometry methods, in the form of a checklist of criteria that we consider to be the minimum required for the interpretation, evaluation and replication of experiments using intermittent-flow respirometry. Furthermore, using a survey of the existing literature, we show that there has been incomplete and inconsistent reporting of methods for intermittent-flow respirometry over the past few decades. Use of the provided checklist of required criteria by researchers when publishing their work should increase consistency of the reporting of methods for studies that use intermittent-flow respirometry. With the steep increase in studies using intermittent-flow respirometry, now is the ideal time to standardise reporting of methods, so that – in the future – data can be properly assessed by other scientists and conservationists.

2021 ◽  
Dirk Wulferding ◽  
Seungyeol Lee ◽  
YoungSu Choi ◽  
Qiangwei Yin ◽  
Zhijun Tu ◽  

Abstract Understanding the link between a charge density wave (CDW) instability and superconductivity is a central theme of the 2D metallic kagome compounds AV3Sb5 (A=K, Rb, and Cs). Using polarization-resolved electronic Raman spectroscopy, we shed light on Fermi surface fluctuations and electronic instabilities. We observe a quasielastic peak (QEP) whose spectral weight is progressively enhanced towards the superconducting transition. The QEP temperature-dependence reveals a steep increase in coherent in-plane charge correlations within the charge-density phase. In contrast, out-of-plane charge fluctuations remain strongly incoherent across the investigated temperature range. In-plane phonon anomalies appear at T* ≈ 50 K in addition to right below TCDW ≈ 95 K, while showing no apparent evidence of reduced symmetry at low temperatures. In conjunction with the consecutive phonon anomalies within the CDW state, our electronic Raman data unveil additional electronic instabilities that persist down to the superconducting phase, thereby offering a superconducting mechanism.

Vaibhav Kundu

Abstract: The domestic airline industry of India has been witnessing an enormous transformation over the period. Different class of people can avail this service due to modern specifications, affordability rates, ease of reachability, frequency of flights, quality of service, etc. The recent studies depict that the number of customers opting for domestic air travel has a steep increase when compared to the past numbers. This has been possible due to increase in connectivity of different areas and reducing the flight fares to increase the accessibility and reachability for the customers. Reducing fares and increasing connectivity does not only help the customers but it has also helped a lot to contribute to the business of airlines to a very large extent. This research mainly focuses on the consumer behavior while choosing different airlines. There are multiple factors which affect while choosing the appropriate flight company for travelling. There are different class of customers and accordingly the airline companies need to match their preferences. Some consumers want affordable rates whereas some customers want better quality o service. This research will basically give an idea which factors pertain the most while choosing the perfect flight for domestic travel within India. Keywords: Quality Service, IndiGo, SpiceJet, Go Air, Air Asia, Vistara, Air India, Statista, Holidify

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Sabrina Poonja ◽  
Janis Miyasaki ◽  
Xilai Fu ◽  
Richard Camicioli ◽  
Tina Sang ◽  

Background: Motor progression varies even among those with a single diagnosis such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and little is known about the trajectory of motor signs prior to death. Understanding deterioration patterns may help clinicians counsel patients and proactively plan interdisciplinary care, including palliative care. The objective of this study was to examine and describe Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor score (UPDRS-III) trajectories at the end of life in PD.Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed for deceased PD patients who attended the Parkinson and Movement Disorders Program at the University of Alberta for at least 5 years between 1999 and 2018. UPDRS-III scores were recorded for all visits. Trajectory patterns were visualized with Loess curves stratified by sex and age at diagnosis. Piecewise linear models were used to individually model the UPDRS-III scores, and the trajectories obtained were clustered based on their features.Results: Among the 202 charts reviewed, 84 meeting inclusion criteria were analyzed. The UPDRS-III increased over time regardless of sex and age. Distinct trajectory variations present in PD (e.g., Consistent Deterioration, Stability-Deterioration, Improvement-Deterioration, Deterioration-Improvement-Deterioration) were identified. Twenty-five percent of the patients were classified as Undetermined/Irregular trajectories. In addition, regardless of trajectory type, many patients experienced a steep increase in UPDRS-III approaching death. Those with disease diagnosis after age 65 years had a shorter survival time, compared to PD patients with a younger age of onset.Conclusion: Our study identified dominant types of motor trajectory in PD that can help clinicians understand their patients' course of illness. This information can help counsel patients regarding the variability in motor deterioration and should alert physicians to recognize a terminal decline. Age of disease onset was correlated with survival time.

Y. Kalbas ◽  
M. Lempert ◽  
F. Ziegenhain ◽  
J. Scherer ◽  
V. Neuhaus ◽  

Abstract Purpose The number of severely injured patients exceeding the age of 60 has shown a steep increase within the last decades. These patients present with numerous co-morbidities, polypharmacy, and increased frailty requiring an adjusted treatment approach. In this study, we establish an overview of changes we observed in demographics of older severe trauma patients from 2002 to 2017. Methods A descriptive analysis of the data from the TraumaRegister DGU® (TR-DGU) was performed. Patients admitted to a level one trauma center in Germany, Austria and Switzerland between 2002 and 2017, aged 60 years or older and with an injury severity score (ISS) over 15 were included. Patients were stratified into subgroups based on the admission: 2002–2005 (1), 2006–2009 (2), 2010–2013 (3) and 2014–2017 (4). Trauma and patient characteristics, diagnostics, treatment and outcome were compared. Results In total 27,049 patients with an average age of 73.9 years met the inclusion criteria. The majority were males (64%), and the mean ISS was 27.4. The proportion of patients 60 years or older [(23% (1) to 40% (4)] rose considerably over time. Trauma mechanisms changed over time and more specifically low falls (< 3 m) rose from 17.6% (1) to 40.1% (4). Altered injury patterns were also identified. Length-of-stay decreased from 28.9 (1) to 19.5 days (4) and the length-of-stay on ICU decreased from 17.1 (1) to 12.7 days (4). Mortality decreased from 40.5% (1) to 31.8% (4). Conclusion Length of stay and mortality decreased despite an increase in patient age. We ascribe this observation mainly to increased use of diagnostic tools, improved treatment algorithms, and the implementation of specialized trauma centers for older patients allowing interdisciplinary care.

Mario Boccadoro ◽  
Patrizia Berto ◽  
Sara Bringhen ◽  
Elena Zamagni ◽  
Patrizia Tosi ◽  

Introduction: The objective of this study was to understand the potential use of single agents and drug combinations in multiple myeloma (MM) across treatment lines in the years 2021 and 2023. Methods: The method used was Delphi Panel Method survey, administered to European Myeloma Network (EMN) Italy Working Group centres. Future treatments were identified assessing all available web-based information sources, including therapies (single drugs or combinations) with strong evidence of efficacy, likely to be on the Italian market in 2021 and 2023. Participants were asked to report on the likelihood of prescription for MM therapies, across treatment lines. Results: Across the 15 centres taking part in the survey, about 890 patients per year are forecasted to receive a new diagnosis of MM. In 2021, the Panel forecasted 66% of 1L-TE (transplant eligible) patients will be treated with bortezomib-thalidomide-dexamethasone (VTD) and 32% of patients with daratumumab-bortezomib-thalidomide-dexamethasone (DVTd), with a substantial decrease of VTD (15%) and a marked increase of DVTd (81%) forecasted for 2023. The 2L and 3L R(lenalidomide)-based combination treatments are expected to drop and will likely be substituted by a steep increase in P(pomalidomide)-based regimes (from 7% to 23%). On the contrary, in 3L treatment, all combination therapies (with the exception of IsaPd – isatuximab-pomalidomide-dexamethasone) are expected to lose market share in favour of the most recent new therapies. Conclusions: Expert Panel agrees that many different new drugs and combinations will be used in MM, with different mechanisms of action, both at diagnosis and in subsequent phases of the disease, with a corresponding decline of the drugs currently used.

2021 ◽  
Prerna Arora ◽  
Nadine Krueger ◽  
Amy Kempf ◽  
Inga Nehlmeier ◽  
Anzhalika Sidarovich ◽  

The delta variant of SARS-CoV-2, B.1.617.2, emerged in India and has subsequently spread to over 80 countries. B.1.617.2 rapidly replaced B.1.1.7 as the dominant virus in the United Kingdom, resulting in a steep increase in new infections, and a similar development is expected for other countries. Effective countermeasures require information on susceptibility of B.1.617.2 to control by antibodies elicited by vaccines and used for COVID-19 therapy. We show, using pseudotyping, that B.1.617.2 evades control by antibodies induced upon infection and BNT162b2 vaccination, although with lower efficiency as compared to B.1.351. Further, we found that B.1.617.2 is resistant against Bamlanivimab, a monoclonal antibody with emergency use authorization for COVID-19 therapy. Finally, we show increased Calu-3 lung cell entry and enhanced cell-to-cell fusion of B.1.617.2, which may contribute to augmented transmissibility and pathogenicity of this variant. These results identify B.1.617.2 as an immune evasion variant with increased capacity to enter and fuse lung cells.

2021 ◽  
Isam M. Arafa ◽  
Mazin Y. Shatnawi ◽  
Yousef N. Obeidallah ◽  
Ahmed K. Hijazi ◽  
Yaser A . Yousef

Abstract Four transition metal borohydrides (MTBHs, MT = Ni, Fe, Co, and Cu) were prepared by sonicating a mixture of the desired MT salt with excess NaBH4 in a nonaqueous DMF/CH3OH media. The process afforded bimetallic (Ni-BH4), trimetallic (Fe-BH4, Co-BH4), and mixed-valence (Cu-H, Cu-BH4) amorphous, ferromagnetic nanoparticles as identified by thermal, ATR-IR, X-Ray diffraction, and magnetic susceptibility techniques. The electrical conductivity (σ) of cold-pressed discs of these MTBHs shows a nonlinear increase while their thermal conductivity (κ) decreases in the temperature range of 303 ≤ T ≤ 373 K. The thermal energy transport occurs through phonon lattice dynamics rather than electronic. The σ/κ ratio shows a nonlinear steep increase from 9.4 to 270 KV-2 in Ni-BH4, while a moderate-weak increase is observed for Fe-BH4, Co-BH4, and Cu-BH4. Accordingly, the corresponding thermoelectric (TE) parameters S, PF, ZT, and η were evaluated. All TE data shows that the bimetallic Ni-BH4 (S, 80 μVK-1; PF, 259 μWm-1K-2; ZT 0.64; η, 2.56%) is a better TE semiconductor than the other three MT-BHs investigated in this study. Our findings show that Ni-BH4 is a promising candidate to exploit low-temperature waste heat from body heat, sunshine, and small domestic devices for small-scale TE applications.

Lena Horn ◽  
Maitta Spronken ◽  
Evelien P. M. Brouwers ◽  
Renée S. M. de Reuver ◽  
Margot C. W. Joosen

AbstractPurpose Return to work self-efficacy (RTW-SE) is a strong predictor of return to work (RTW) in employees with mental health problems (MHPs). However, little is known about the development of RTW-SE during the RTW process. In this study, we aimed to identify RTW-SE trajectories in the year following sick leave in employees with MHPs and provided a description of the trajectories in terms of personal and work characteristics, and RTW status. Methods This multi-wave study included 111 employees with MHPs. RTW-SE was measured at baseline, and at 3, 6, and 12 months follow-up with the RTW-SE scale for employees with MHPs. Results Latent class growth analysis revealed six trajectories. In three trajectories employees had increasing RTW-SE scores, namely (class 1) low start, moderate increase, (class 3) moderate start, small increase and (class 5) moderate start, steep increase. The other trajectories were defined by (class 2) persistently high, (class 6) persistently low, and (class 4) decreasing RTW-SE scores over time. Employees across the various trajectories differed significantly with respect to RTW status, and personal and work characteristics measured at baseline, including age, gender, and type of MHP. Less favorable trajectories (class 4 and 6) were characterized by higher age, a higher prevalence of anxiety disorder and lower RTW rates. The most favorable trajectory (class 2) was characterized by a higher proportion of stress-related disorders and less major depression diagnoses. Conclusions Large heterogeneity exists in terms of RTW-SE trajectories in employees with MHPs and significant differences were found across the trajectories regarding personal and work characteristics, and RTW status. Insights into RTW-SE trajectories and their attributes are important to advance more effective and personalized RTW treatment for employees with MHPs.

Metals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (5) ◽  
pp. 770
František Bahleda ◽  
Ivan Drevený ◽  
Martin Pitoňák ◽  
Miroslav Neslušan ◽  
Peter Koteš

This paper investigates the potential of a non-destructive magnetic technique based on Barkhausen noise emission for the monitoring of prestressing bars with respect to their undesired over-stressing. Barkhausen noise signals are correlated with tensile stress, residual stresses, and microhardness measurements. It was found that prestressing bars exhibit strong magnetic anisotropy which becomes more pronounced along with the increasing degree of the bar’s over-stressing. Barkhausen noise emission becomes strongly attenuated in the direction of the tensile stress at the expense of the perpendicular direction. However, the Barkhausen noise emission in the direction of the tensile stress exhibits a continuous and remarkable decrease, whereas the Barkhausen noise steep increase for lower degrees of over-stressing is followed by early saturation for higher over-stressing. This study demonstrates that the Barkhausen noise technique is capable of distinguishing between the prestressing bars loaded below yielding, and those which are over-stressed.

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