severe acute malnutrition
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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Ermias Sisay Chanie ◽  
Getasew Legas ◽  
Shimeles Biru Zewude ◽  
Maru Mekie ◽  
Dagne Addisu Sewyew ◽  

Abstract Background Although severe acute malnutrition is a major public issue among HIV infected children, there is no prior evidence in Ethiopia. Hence, this study aims to assess the time to develop severe acute malnutrition and its predictors among children living with human immunodeficiency virus in Ethiopia, 2012. Methods An institution based retrospective cohort study was conducted in South Gondar hospitals among 363 HIV infected children from February 10, 2014, to January 7, 2021. Epi-data version 3.1 was used to enter data, which was then exported to STATA version 14 for analysis. Besides, WHO (World Health Organization) Anthro Plus software was used to assess the nutritional status of the children. A standardized data extraction tool was used to collect the data. The Kaplan Meier survival curve was used to estimate the median survival time. The Cox-proportional hazard model assumption was checked via the Schoenfeld residual ph test and a stph plot. Bivariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were employed at 95% confidence intervals (CI). A variable having a p-value < 0.05 was considered a statistically significant predictor of severe acute malnutrition. Results A total of 363 children living with HIV, 97 (26.72%) developed severe acute malnutrition during the follow-up period. The overall incidence rate was 5.4 (95% CI: 4.7–5.9) person per year with a total of 21, 492 months or 1791 years of observation. Moreover, the median survival time was 126 months. Treatment failure [AHR =3.4 (95% CI: 2.05–5.75)], CD4 count below threshold [AHR =2.5 (95% CI: 1.64–3.95)], and WHO stage III & IV [AHR =2.9 (95% CI: 1.74–4.73)] were all significant predictors of severe acute malnutrition. Conclusion The time to develop severe acute malnutrition was found to be very low. Treatment failure, CD4 count below threshold, and WHO stage III were all significant predictors of severe acute malnutrition. Hence, emphasizing those predictor variables is essential for preventing and controlling the occurrence of severe acute malnutrition among HIV infected children.

Life ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 94
Nusrat Jahan Shaly ◽  
Mohammed Moshtaq Pervez ◽  
Sayeeda Huq ◽  
Dilruba Ahmed ◽  
Chowdhury Rafiqul Ahsan ◽  

Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are opportunistic, especially in immunocompromised and hospitalized patients. Children with IFIs are more vulnerable to a fatal outcome. For early diagnosis and treatment, knowledge of the spectrum and frequency of IFIs among children is prerequisite. In this prospective observational study, we enrolled 168 children of 2–59 months old of either sex from March 2018 to December 2019 admitted to the Dhaka hospital, icddr,b. Study participants with suspected IFIs were with or without severe acute malnutrition (SAM) along with sepsis/pneumonia and fulfilled any of the following criteria: (i) failure to respond to injectable antibiotics, (ii) development of a late-onset hospital-acquired infection, (iii) needed ICU care for >7 days, (iv) took steroids/antibiotics for >2 weeks before hospitalization, and (v) developed thrush after taking injectable antibiotics. The comparison group included non-SAM (weight-for-length Z score ≥ −2) children with diarrhea and fever <3 days in the absence of co-morbidity. We performed real-time PCR, ELISA, and blood culture for the detection of fungal pathogen. Study group children with SAM, positive ELISA and PCR considered to have a IFIs. In the study group, 15/138 (10.87%) children had IFIs. Among IFIs, invasive candidiasis, aspergillosis, histoplasmosis detected in 6 (4.53%), 11 (7.97%), and 1 (0.72%) children, respectively, and (3/15 [2.17%]) children had both candidiasis and aspergillosis. Children with IFIs more often encountered septic shock (26.7% vs. 4.9%; p = 0.013) and had a higher death rate (46.7% vs. 8.9%; p < 0.001) than those without IFIs. IFIs were independently associated with female sex (OR = 3.48; 95% CI = 1.05, 11.55; p = 0.042) after adjusting for potential confounders. Our findings thus implicate that, malnourished children with septic shock require targeted screening for the early diagnosis and prompt management of IFIs that may help to reduce IFIs related deaths.

Kieran O’Brien ◽  
Ali Sié ◽  
Clarisse Dah ◽  
Millogo Ourohiré ◽  
Moussa Ouedraogo ◽  

Azithromycin is a promising alternative to amoxicillin in the management of uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition (SAM) as it can be administered as a single dose and has efficacy against several pathogens causing infectious disease and mortality in children under 5. In this pilot trial, we aimed to establish the feasibility of a larger randomized controlled trial and provide preliminary evidence comparing the effect of azithromycin to amoxicillin on weight gain in children with uncomplicated SAM. We enrolled children 6–59 months old with uncomplicated SAM at six healthcare centers in Burkina Faso. Participants were randomized to a single dose of azithromycin or a 7-day course of amoxicillin and followed weekly until nutritional recovery and again at 8 weeks. Apart from antibiotics, participants received standard of care, which includes ready-to-use therapeutic food. Primary feasibility outcomes included enrollment potential, refusals, and loss to follow-up. The primary clinical outcome was weight gain (g/kg/day) over 8 weeks. Outcome assessors were masked. Between June and October 2020, 312 children were screened, 301 were enrolled with zero refusals, and 282 (93.6%) completed the 8-week visit. Average weight gain was 2.5 g/kg/day (standard deviation [SD] 2.0) in the azithromycin group and 2.6 (SD 1.7) in the amoxicillin group (mean difference −0.1, 95% CI −0.5 to 0.3, P = 0.63). Fewer adverse events were reported in the azithromycin group (risk ratio 0.50, 95% CI 0.31–0.82, P = 0.006). With strong enrollment and follow-up, a fully powered trial in this setting is feasible.

2021 ◽  
Vol 29 (01) ◽  
pp. 116-120
Saadia Khan ◽  
Waqas Imran Khan ◽  
Ayesha Fayyaz ◽  
Ibad Ali ◽  
Asad Abbas ◽  

Objective: To determine the percentage of Hypothyroidism in children with severe acute malnutrition. Study Design: Cross Sectional study. Setting: Nutrition Rehabilitation Center, Children’s Hospital and Institute of Child Health Multan. Period: January 2019 to December 2019. Material & Methods: A total of 255 malnourished patients (as per inclusion criteria) were included in current study. A written Performa was designed to collect history, anthropometric measurements and systemic examination. Taking aseptic measures venous blood was sent for baseline tests as well as for T3, T4 and TSH, total serum protein albumin and total ferritin levels to hospital laboratory. Correlation between serum thyroid concentrations and total protein, albumin, hemoglobin and serum ferritin were estimated by using t-test and p-vlaue less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Total collected data was entered and analyzed in SPSS version 21.0. Results: A total of 255 malnourished children were included in this study. Majority of studied subjects were male (52.5%) with 83.92%, 3-5 years of age. Amongst the 255 children mean values of T3 in MAM and SAM patients were 105.4 ng/dl and 89.7 ng/dl respectively. There was a statistically significant (p <0.001) association between decreased T3 and type of malnutrition. Similarly, mean values of T4 in MAM and SAM patients were 6.3 ug/dl and 5.7 ug/dl respectively that was statistically significant (p <0.05). Lower values of T4 were higher among SAM children in 1 to 3 years age group compared to respective MAM children with p value .0.05 and high T4 value in 3-5 years age group of MAM children were both statistically insignificant. Higher mean Values of TSH was found in SAM compared to MAM children both age groups. Conclusion: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is associated with reduction in T3 and T4 levels and higher levels of TSH in SAM children as compared to MAM. The altered thyroid hormone status in children with PEM is perhaps a protective phenomenon to limit protein catabolism and lower energy requirements.

Mutsa Bwakura‐Dangarembizi ◽  
Cherlynn Dumbura ◽  
Beatrice Amadi ◽  
Bernard Chasekwa ◽  
Deophine Ngosa ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (11) ◽  
pp. 8-12
M. A. Shende ◽  
S. N. Kadam ◽  
M. B. Mokal ◽  
M. P. Balvir

Background: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM), among children below five years of age is global health problem contributing to childhood morbidity, mortality and remains a major embarrassment to optimal human capital development in India. Objectives: Study aim was to accesses fat soluble vitamins deficiencies among children with SAM and outcomes after treatments with F-75/F-100 plus vitamins mix. Methods: The study was prospective observational conducted in the nutritional rehabilitation center (NRC) at district general hospital for 6 months. Anthropometric measurements were taken to determine their nutritional status. Results: 100 patients of NRC were enrolled in the study. Sixty nine percent (69) patients had weight/height (WT/HT) Z score<−3 standard deviation (3 SD), 16 % with Z score<−2 and 15% of them had Z score<−4 malnutrition. Out of 100 children, 46% children were males, and 56% children were females. Vitamin E deficiencies (54%) were highly prevalent in hospitalized SAM groups, followed by 28% vitamin D and 18% were vitamin A deficient. Conclusion: Micronutrient deficiencies were highly prevalent with fat soluble vitamins and recovered on application of WHO protocols during hospitalization induced satisfactory fat-soluble vitamin status recovery significant (p<0.05).

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-27
Maeve M. Woeltje ◽  
Anastasia B. Evanoff ◽  
Beth A. Helmink ◽  
Diana L. Culbertson ◽  
Kenneth M. Maleta ◽  

Abstract Objective: To assess the effectiveness of outpatient management with ready-to-use and supplementary foods for infants under 6 months (u6m) of age who were unable to be treated as inpatients due to social and economic barriers. Design: Review of operational acute malnutrition treatment records. Setting: 21 outpatient therapeutic feeding clinics in rural Malawi. Participants: Infants u6m with acute malnutrition treated as outpatients because of barriers to inpatient treatment. The comparison group consisted of acutely malnourished children 6-9 months of age who were being treated at the same time in the same location in the context of two different randomized clinical trials. Results: A total of 323 infants u6m were treated for acute malnutrition (130 severe and 193 moderate). A total of 357 infants 6-9 months old with acute malnutrition (74 severe and 283 moderate) were included as contemporaneous controls. Among infants u6m with severe acute malnutrition, 98 (75.4%) achieved nutritional recovery; in comparison, 56 (75.7%) of those with SAM 6-9 months old recovered. Among infants u6m with moderate acute malnutrition, 157 (81.3%) recovered; in comparison 241 (85.2%) of those aged 6-9 months recovered. Conclusions: In a rural Malawian population of infants u6m who had generally already stopped exclusive breastfeeding and were now acutely malnourished, treatment with therapeutic or supplementary foods under the community management of acute malnutrition model was safe and effective. In settings where social and financial factors make hospital admission challenging, consideration should be given to lowering the recommended age of ready-to-use therapeutic and supplementary foods to infants u6m.

Iqra Rafique Khokhar ◽  
Mohsina Noor Ibrahim ◽  
Sanam Khan ◽  
Aiysha Farhat ◽  
Farah Jamil ◽  

Aim: To determine the frequency of leading factors of severe acute malnutrition in children below five years of age. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Outpatient department, National Institute of Child Health (NICH) Karachi from December 7, 2017 to June 9, 2018. Methodology: All children of 6 months to 5 years of age of either gender presented with severe acute malnutrition were included. Information regarding age, gender, weight, height and all leading factors of severe acute malnutrition were noted. Results: Out of total 157 children, pre-maturity was observed in 21 (13.4%) children, low birth weight in 84 (53.5%) children, anemia in 105 (66.9%) children, lack of complete immunization in 81 (51.6%) children, maternal illiteracy 96 (61.1%), paternal illiteracy 31 (19.7%), low income 116 (73.9%), lack of exclusive breastfeeding in 87 (55.4%) children, administration of Pre-lacteals as the first feeding in 54 (34.4%) whereas initiation of complementary feeding after nine months was observed in 48 (30.6%) children. Conclusion: The presence of low income, anemia, maternal illiteracy, lack of exclusive breastfeeding and low birth weight were the leading factors of severe acute malnutrition in children below the age of five years.

Children ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (12) ◽  
pp. 1132
Pilar Charle-Cuéllar ◽  
Noemí Lopez-Ejeda ◽  
Hassane Toukou Souleymane ◽  
Diagana Yacouba ◽  
Moussa Diagana ◽  

Geographical and economic access barriers to health facilities (HF) have been identified as some of the most important causes of the low coverage of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) treatment. The objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness and coverage of SAM treatment delivered by community health workers (CHWs) in the Guidimakha region in Mauritania, compared to the HF based approach. This study was a nonrandomized controlled trial, including two rural areas. The control group received outpatient treatment for uncomplicated SAM from HF, whilst the intervention group received outpatient treatment for uncomplicated SAM from HF or CHWs. A total of 869 children aged 6–59 months with SAM without medical complications were included in the study. The proportion of cured children was 82.3% in the control group, and 76.4% in the intervention group, we found no significant difference between the groups. Coverage in the intervention zone increased from 53.6% to 71.7%. In contrast, coverage remained at approximately 44% in the control zone from baseline to end-line. This study is the first to demonstrate in Mauritania that the decentralization model of CHWs treating SAM improves acute malnutrition treatment coverage and complies with the international quality standards for community treatment of acute malnutrition. The non-randomized study design may limit the quality of the evidence, but these results could be used by political decision-makers as a first step in revising the protocol for acute malnutrition management.

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