acute malnutrition
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Food Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 78-89
Nuryanto ◽  
E. Chasanah ◽  
D.N. Afifah ◽  
Y.N. Fawzya ◽  
T.D. Suryaningrum ◽  

Malnutrition is still a major problem in Indonesia, particularly stunting and acute malnutrition due to protein deficiency. In contrast, Indonesia is rich in protein sources such as fish but they are poorly utilized. Biologically processed fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) has proven to be highly nutritious and digestible. Our preliminary study in developing the High Protein Complementary Food (HPCF) formula for infant enriched with FPH, showed that of 17 formulas, 3 formulas was the best. This study was aimed to analyzing sensory analysis using the hedonic test, physical analysis and absorption protein. The result shows that the hedonic test of FPH-enriched HPCF infant food revealed that the product was acceptable in term of colour, aroma and texture. In comparison to the commercial product, FPH-enriched instant HPCF infant product had higher bulk density. The highest Water Absorption Index (WAI) was F1-C, the highest Water Solubility Index (WSI) was F1-P, and the lowest rehydration was F2-P. Compared to commercial products, the instant FPH-enriched HPCF baby porridge has a bulk density that is greater than that of commercial products. The highest Water Absorption Index (WAI) was F1-C, the highest Water Solubility Index (WSI) was F1-P and the lowest time for Rehydration was at F2-P. HPCF enriched with FPH showed the best protein absorption significantly in the P2 treatment group

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Ermias Sisay Chanie ◽  
Getasew Legas ◽  
Shimeles Biru Zewude ◽  
Maru Mekie ◽  
Dagne Addisu Sewyew ◽  

Abstract Background Although severe acute malnutrition is a major public issue among HIV infected children, there is no prior evidence in Ethiopia. Hence, this study aims to assess the time to develop severe acute malnutrition and its predictors among children living with human immunodeficiency virus in Ethiopia, 2012. Methods An institution based retrospective cohort study was conducted in South Gondar hospitals among 363 HIV infected children from February 10, 2014, to January 7, 2021. Epi-data version 3.1 was used to enter data, which was then exported to STATA version 14 for analysis. Besides, WHO (World Health Organization) Anthro Plus software was used to assess the nutritional status of the children. A standardized data extraction tool was used to collect the data. The Kaplan Meier survival curve was used to estimate the median survival time. The Cox-proportional hazard model assumption was checked via the Schoenfeld residual ph test and a stph plot. Bivariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were employed at 95% confidence intervals (CI). A variable having a p-value < 0.05 was considered a statistically significant predictor of severe acute malnutrition. Results A total of 363 children living with HIV, 97 (26.72%) developed severe acute malnutrition during the follow-up period. The overall incidence rate was 5.4 (95% CI: 4.7–5.9) person per year with a total of 21, 492 months or 1791 years of observation. Moreover, the median survival time was 126 months. Treatment failure [AHR =3.4 (95% CI: 2.05–5.75)], CD4 count below threshold [AHR =2.5 (95% CI: 1.64–3.95)], and WHO stage III & IV [AHR =2.9 (95% CI: 1.74–4.73)] were all significant predictors of severe acute malnutrition. Conclusion The time to develop severe acute malnutrition was found to be very low. Treatment failure, CD4 count below threshold, and WHO stage III were all significant predictors of severe acute malnutrition. Hence, emphasizing those predictor variables is essential for preventing and controlling the occurrence of severe acute malnutrition among HIV infected children.

Life ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 94
Nusrat Jahan Shaly ◽  
Mohammed Moshtaq Pervez ◽  
Sayeeda Huq ◽  
Dilruba Ahmed ◽  
Chowdhury Rafiqul Ahsan ◽  

Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are opportunistic, especially in immunocompromised and hospitalized patients. Children with IFIs are more vulnerable to a fatal outcome. For early diagnosis and treatment, knowledge of the spectrum and frequency of IFIs among children is prerequisite. In this prospective observational study, we enrolled 168 children of 2–59 months old of either sex from March 2018 to December 2019 admitted to the Dhaka hospital, icddr,b. Study participants with suspected IFIs were with or without severe acute malnutrition (SAM) along with sepsis/pneumonia and fulfilled any of the following criteria: (i) failure to respond to injectable antibiotics, (ii) development of a late-onset hospital-acquired infection, (iii) needed ICU care for >7 days, (iv) took steroids/antibiotics for >2 weeks before hospitalization, and (v) developed thrush after taking injectable antibiotics. The comparison group included non-SAM (weight-for-length Z score ≥ −2) children with diarrhea and fever <3 days in the absence of co-morbidity. We performed real-time PCR, ELISA, and blood culture for the detection of fungal pathogen. Study group children with SAM, positive ELISA and PCR considered to have a IFIs. In the study group, 15/138 (10.87%) children had IFIs. Among IFIs, invasive candidiasis, aspergillosis, histoplasmosis detected in 6 (4.53%), 11 (7.97%), and 1 (0.72%) children, respectively, and (3/15 [2.17%]) children had both candidiasis and aspergillosis. Children with IFIs more often encountered septic shock (26.7% vs. 4.9%; p = 0.013) and had a higher death rate (46.7% vs. 8.9%; p < 0.001) than those without IFIs. IFIs were independently associated with female sex (OR = 3.48; 95% CI = 1.05, 11.55; p = 0.042) after adjusting for potential confounders. Our findings thus implicate that, malnourished children with septic shock require targeted screening for the early diagnosis and prompt management of IFIs that may help to reduce IFIs related deaths.

Kieran O’Brien ◽  
Ali Sié ◽  
Clarisse Dah ◽  
Millogo Ourohiré ◽  
Moussa Ouedraogo ◽  

Azithromycin is a promising alternative to amoxicillin in the management of uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition (SAM) as it can be administered as a single dose and has efficacy against several pathogens causing infectious disease and mortality in children under 5. In this pilot trial, we aimed to establish the feasibility of a larger randomized controlled trial and provide preliminary evidence comparing the effect of azithromycin to amoxicillin on weight gain in children with uncomplicated SAM. We enrolled children 6–59 months old with uncomplicated SAM at six healthcare centers in Burkina Faso. Participants were randomized to a single dose of azithromycin or a 7-day course of amoxicillin and followed weekly until nutritional recovery and again at 8 weeks. Apart from antibiotics, participants received standard of care, which includes ready-to-use therapeutic food. Primary feasibility outcomes included enrollment potential, refusals, and loss to follow-up. The primary clinical outcome was weight gain (g/kg/day) over 8 weeks. Outcome assessors were masked. Between June and October 2020, 312 children were screened, 301 were enrolled with zero refusals, and 282 (93.6%) completed the 8-week visit. Average weight gain was 2.5 g/kg/day (standard deviation [SD] 2.0) in the azithromycin group and 2.6 (SD 1.7) in the amoxicillin group (mean difference −0.1, 95% CI −0.5 to 0.3, P = 0.63). Fewer adverse events were reported in the azithromycin group (risk ratio 0.50, 95% CI 0.31–0.82, P = 0.006). With strong enrollment and follow-up, a fully powered trial in this setting is feasible.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
Luthfiyah Fifi ◽  
Sofiyatin Reni ◽  
Widjajanto Edi ◽  
Taufiqurrahman Taufiqurrahman

Indonesia reportedly ranksthird in the prevalence of acute malnutrition in the Asia Pacific.Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) has a high prevalence in the West Nusa Tenggara (NTB) Province with over600 cases reported by the Health Department from January to October 2015, especially among children under five of which 31 cases led to death. Meanwhile, the nutrition status is accurately determined through blood biochemical and hematology tests. The Neutrophil index is an important biomarker in combating infectious agents, such as Staphylococcus aureus which is oftenthe cause of contagious diseases. Individuals suffering from Protein-Energy Malnutrition are most vulnerable to these types of infections. Fortunately, kelor (Moringaoleifera) has been found to have nutritious contents, especially protein and iron (Fe), butits potential has not been extensively explored in the West Nusa Tenggara. This study aims to confirm the effect of the local kelor (Moringa oleifera) leaves powder in increasing the Innate Immune Response of sample rats with Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM). A post-test randomized control group design was used with 20 rats grouped into five with a period of 56 days. The hematology examination used micros 6.0 (CBC-analyzer), neutrophile phagocyte index with gradient density technique, whileall data analyses were conducted using the One-way Anova. 

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 205031212110707
Tesfaye Tadesse ◽  
Ebisa Turi ◽  
Desalegn Wirtu ◽  
Haile Bikila ◽  
Lemessa Assefa

Introduction: Wasting among refugee children continues to be a serious public health problem particularly in conflict and in situations when people are displaced. Evidence of risk factors in the refugee context is crucial to successfully prevent malnutrition and its consequences. However, little information is known about the determinants of wasting in a refugee setting. Hence, this study was aimed to identify determinants of wasting among South Sudanese 6- to 59-month-old children in Okugo refugee camp, South-Western Ethiopia. Methods: Institutional-based unmatched case–control study was conducted on 99 acute malnutrition children (cases) and 297 children who are not malnourished (control) from 6 April to 2 May 2019. The study participant was selected by systematic random sampling and data on exposure variables were collected by face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire. Data were entered into Epi data version 3.1 and was exported to SPSS version 25 for further analysis. Descriptive, bivariable, and multivariable analyses were done to compute summary statistics and to identify determinants of wasting. Result: The mean age of the cases and controls with standard deviation (SD) was 13.8 (±6.9) and 19.2 (±8.7) months, respectively. Multi-variable analysis revealed that mothers who were unable to read and write (adjusted odds ratio = 3.26, 95% confidence interval (1.07–7.93)), fathers only decision-maker to use donations items in the household (adjusted odds ratio = 3.75, 95% confidence interval (1.28–10.85)), not used all donated refugee food and non-food items (adjusted odds ratio = 2.57; 95% confidence interval (1.17–5.66)), the incidence of diarrhea 2 weeks preceding the survey (adjusted odds ratio = 5.28, 95% confidence interval (2.31–12.04)), and mother’s smoking habit (adjusted odds ratio = 2.98, 95% confidence interval (1.19–7.44)) were significant determinants of wasting. Conclusion: The finding shows that mothers who are unable to read and write, father only decision-maker, parents’ smoking habit, not using all donated refugee food items, and diarrheal disease were found to be independent determinants of wasting. Hence, interventions on acute malnutrition which are focused on empowering women through training and strengthening their control over the household assets, proper utilization of donated food, and non-food items will play a paramount role.

2021 ◽  
Vol 29 (01) ◽  
pp. 116-120
Saadia Khan ◽  
Waqas Imran Khan ◽  
Ayesha Fayyaz ◽  
Ibad Ali ◽  
Asad Abbas ◽  

Objective: To determine the percentage of Hypothyroidism in children with severe acute malnutrition. Study Design: Cross Sectional study. Setting: Nutrition Rehabilitation Center, Children’s Hospital and Institute of Child Health Multan. Period: January 2019 to December 2019. Material & Methods: A total of 255 malnourished patients (as per inclusion criteria) were included in current study. A written Performa was designed to collect history, anthropometric measurements and systemic examination. Taking aseptic measures venous blood was sent for baseline tests as well as for T3, T4 and TSH, total serum protein albumin and total ferritin levels to hospital laboratory. Correlation between serum thyroid concentrations and total protein, albumin, hemoglobin and serum ferritin were estimated by using t-test and p-vlaue less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Total collected data was entered and analyzed in SPSS version 21.0. Results: A total of 255 malnourished children were included in this study. Majority of studied subjects were male (52.5%) with 83.92%, 3-5 years of age. Amongst the 255 children mean values of T3 in MAM and SAM patients were 105.4 ng/dl and 89.7 ng/dl respectively. There was a statistically significant (p <0.001) association between decreased T3 and type of malnutrition. Similarly, mean values of T4 in MAM and SAM patients were 6.3 ug/dl and 5.7 ug/dl respectively that was statistically significant (p <0.05). Lower values of T4 were higher among SAM children in 1 to 3 years age group compared to respective MAM children with p value .0.05 and high T4 value in 3-5 years age group of MAM children were both statistically insignificant. Higher mean Values of TSH was found in SAM compared to MAM children both age groups. Conclusion: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is associated with reduction in T3 and T4 levels and higher levels of TSH in SAM children as compared to MAM. The altered thyroid hormone status in children with PEM is perhaps a protective phenomenon to limit protein catabolism and lower energy requirements.

Kinjal H. Solanki ◽  
Malangori A. Parande ◽  
Nandkumar M. Salunke ◽  
Kiran Sangwan ◽  
Muralidhar P. Tambe

Background: The age of 6–23 months is the golden period in the first 1000 days of life. Insufficient quantities, frequencies, and inadequate quality of complementary feedings have a negative effect on child health and growth, especially in the first two years of life.Methods: A hospital based descriptive type of observational study was carried out in the immunization clinic. The source population were the mothers who had children in age group of 6-23 months brought to the clinic in the month of January 2021 comprise the “target population”. The sample size of 102 was calculated with 80% of power, confidence level of 95% and considering prevalence of MDD as 15.2%. Purposive sampling technique was employed for selection of study sample. Proportion of Minimum Meal Diversity and Minimum Meal Frequency was calculated and their association was assessed with anthropometric characteristics.Results: Proportion of MDD was found to be 72.5% (Figure 1) whereas Proportion of MMF was found to be 87.3 %. The proportion of MDD was significantly high among the children who had minimum meal frequency. MDD and MMF were protective against the acute malnutrition among the children.Conclusions: This study shows that consumption of a diverse diet and MMF is associated with a reduction in undernutrition among children of 6 to 23 months of age. Measures to improve the type of complementary foods given to children to meet their needs for energy and nutrients should be considered. 

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