micronutrient deficiencies
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2022 ◽  
Nhuong Tran ◽  
U-Primo Rodriguez ◽  
Chin Yee Chan ◽  
Yee Mon Aung ◽  
Long Chu ◽  

Bangladesh has made significant progress in social and economic development in recent years, but micronutrient deficiencies and poor dietary diversity remain a significant challenge. This paper developed eight scenarios to explore fish supply-demand futures in Bangladesh using the AsiaFish model, with special emphasis on the role of fish in micronutrient supply to address the nation’s malnutrition and nutrition security challenges. A business-as-usual (BAU) scenario followed historical trends for exogenous variables used in the model. The seven alternative scenarios explored were: the implications of increase productivity of farmed tilapia, pangasius and rohu carp (AS1); productivity changes in hilsa production (AS2); improvements in the quality of feeds (AS3); reduction in the price of plant-based feeds (AS4); disease outbreak in farmed shrimps and prawns (AS5); and climate change impact (AS6) and stagnant capture fisheries (AS7). The BAU scenario indicates that aquaculture growth will be a prominent contribution to increasing total fish supply and demand and fish exports to 2040. Apart from the scenarios that are favourable to aquaculture sector development, other alternative scenarios highlighted the lower growth rate of capture fisheries and aquaculture compared to BAU, resulting in declining in per capita fish consumption, fish exports and nutrient supply from fish as a consequence. Increased availability of aquaculture fish can slightly compensate for the lower growth of capture fisheries in term of their nutrition quality and dietary diversity, particularly for poor consumers. Policies towards sustaining fisheries and a nutrition-sensitive approach to aquaculture is recommended as both capture fisheries and aquaculture are essential for sustaining healthy and nutritious diets in Bangladesh.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
pp. 853-860
Nurhidayat Nurhidayat ◽  
Suhanda Suhanda ◽  
Doni Setiawan ◽  
Heri Ariyanto ◽  
Henri Setiawan

Covid-19 pandemic could increase forms of malnutrition such as overweight and micronutrient deficiencies. Fruits and vegetables are the best sources of vitamins and minerals. The content of vitamins and minerals can act as antioxidant compounds. The method used in this service activity consists of the planning stage, the implementation of the activity, and ends with an evaluation as a measure of the level of success. Health education is carried out by means of lectures and question and answer sessions, educational media using leaflets and PowerPoint Presentations. Results: the evaluation shows that the activities have been carried out well in accordance with the results indicators and criteria on the Evaluation Sheet instrument. The sheet is based on five dimensions, namely Punctuality and Duration, Participation, Knowledge, Job Description and Problem Solving. The content of the evaluation is carried out by two independent observers.

2022 ◽  
pp. 778-809
John Intru Disouza ◽  
Kiran Shivaji Patil ◽  
Pratik Shailendra Kakade ◽  
Vandana Bharat Patravale

Hypertension is the major cause of mortality amongst many cardiovascular risk factors causing 7.5 million deaths annually. Macronutrient and micronutrient deficiencies are very common in general population and have broad-ranging physiological effects in-vivo which lessen inflammatory cascades and vascular reactivity. A recent trend is to perform nutritional epidemiological studies linking overall diet pattern to the lifestyle, examining the link between food and nutrients of diet to risk of chronic diseases. This chapter would deal with pharmacological and pathological basis of hypertension, utilization of dietary fibers, functional foods, nutraceuticals for hypertensive populations as well as to those with increased cardiovascular risks.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 318
Rodney T. Muringai ◽  
Paramu Mafongoya ◽  
Romano T. Lottering ◽  
Raymond Mugandani ◽  
Denver Naidoo

Approximately one-third of the global population suffering from chronic hunger are in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). In addition to high prevalence of chronic hunger, millions of people suffer from micronutrient deficiencies. Meanwhile, there is growing consensus across scientific disciplines concurring that fish plays a crucial role in improving food and nutrition security. Therefore, the present review aims to demonstrate the role of fish and the whole fisheries sector towards securing food and nutrition security in SSA by summarizing the existing literature. Fish is a treasure store of animal protein and essential micronutrients such as zinc, iodine, calcium, and vitamins, which are essential in human nutrition and have proven to help reduce the risks of both malnutrition and non-communicable diseases. Policymakers, development agencies, and society should recognize the role that the fisheries sector can play in combatting hunger and undernutrition, especially for the poor and marginalized people in SSA.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 135
Narmeen Jamal Al-Awwad ◽  
Jennifer Ayoub ◽  
Rawhieh Barham ◽  
Wafaa Sarhan ◽  
Murad Al-Holy ◽  

Jordan is witnessing an escalating pace of nutrition transition, which may be associated with an increased burden of malnutrition and related non-communicable diseases. This review analyzes the nutrition situation in Jordan by exploring specific nutrition indicators, namely infant and young child feeding, low birthweight, micronutrient deficiencies, anthropometric indicators, and food consumption patterns. Results showed that although most children were ever breastfed and early initiation of breastfeeding had a two-fold increasing trend, rates of exclusive breastfeeding below 6 months of age and continued breastfeeding until two years of age were low. Complementary feeding indicators, particularly minimum diet diversity and minimum acceptable diet standards, were suboptimal. An overall low burden of stunting, wasting, and underweight among children under 5 years and remarkable progress in optimizing iodine status among school-aged children were reported. Conversely, the burden of low birthweight and overweight/obesity exacerbated, coexisting with anemia, vitamin A deficiency, and vitamin D deficiency. Overall, fruit and vegetable consumption were inadequate. The consumption of soft drinks and salt on the other hand was higher than recommended. This review acknowledges the double burden of malnutrition in Jordan and recommends the prioritization and evaluation of interventions towards improving the population’s nutritional status and achieving nutrition targets.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0261516
G. Liyanage ◽  
K. G. I. S. Anupama ◽  
M. L. P. Sudarshini

Micronutrient deficiencies are mostly hidden; clinically less visible compared to macronutrient deficiencies. Food fortification with multiple micronutrients (MMN) is provided for children between 6–23 months, daily for two months at three-time points. We assessed the acceptance and adherence of this nutritional intervention in an urban community setting in Sri Lanka. This cross-sectional study enrolled caregivers of children aged 7 to 23 months with a cluster sampling method. Caregivers ’ acceptance of taste and smell, health gains, ease of use, and need perception (Cronbach’s reliability: 0.801) were assessed. Also, anemia knowledge (Cronbach’s reliability: 0.642), MMN knowledge, and reported adherence (number of sachets consumed per month) were evaluated through a self-administered questionnaire. Adequate adherence was defined as the use of ≥80% sachets. The univariate and multivariate statistical analysis examined the association of acceptability, adherence, and anemia knowledge with independent variables (socio-demographic, household characteristics, and knowledge). The survey included 153 respondents. The Median (range) age of children was 12 months (7–23). The mean (SD) acceptability score was 66.82% (9.78%). Acceptance of sensory qualities (smell/taste) had a lower score than perceived health benefit. Most consumed MMN adequately (72.5%). The mean (SD) anemia knowledge score was 62.20% (25.79%). In multivariate analysis, child’s age (OR: -0.360, 95% CI:-0.510,-0.211) and father’s education (OR: 2.148, 95% CI: 0.439, 3.857) were independently associated with acceptability. Child’s age (OR: -0.108, 95% CI:0.818, 0.985), anemia knowledge (OR:0.016, 95% CI: 1.003, 1.031) and acceptability (OR:0.236, 95% CI:1.140, 1.406) were significant determinants of adherence. Anemia knowledge was significantly associated with the mother’s education and household income when adjusted. In conclusion, unpleasant smell/taste and daily schedule were reported as barriers to MMN use. Yet, perception and trust regarding health benefits were encouraging. Reported adherence was somewhat high. Improving acceptability and anemia knowledge could enhance adherence further in this population.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (11) ◽  
pp. 8-12
M. A. Shende ◽  
S. N. Kadam ◽  
M. B. Mokal ◽  
M. P. Balvir

Background: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM), among children below five years of age is global health problem contributing to childhood morbidity, mortality and remains a major embarrassment to optimal human capital development in India. Objectives: Study aim was to accesses fat soluble vitamins deficiencies among children with SAM and outcomes after treatments with F-75/F-100 plus vitamins mix. Methods: The study was prospective observational conducted in the nutritional rehabilitation center (NRC) at district general hospital for 6 months. Anthropometric measurements were taken to determine their nutritional status. Results: 100 patients of NRC were enrolled in the study. Sixty nine percent (69) patients had weight/height (WT/HT) Z score<−3 standard deviation (3 SD), 16 % with Z score<−2 and 15% of them had Z score<−4 malnutrition. Out of 100 children, 46% children were males, and 56% children were females. Vitamin E deficiencies (54%) were highly prevalent in hospitalized SAM groups, followed by 28% vitamin D and 18% were vitamin A deficient. Conclusion: Micronutrient deficiencies were highly prevalent with fat soluble vitamins and recovered on application of WHO protocols during hospitalization induced satisfactory fat-soluble vitamin status recovery significant (p<0.05).

Kauma Kurian ◽  
Theophilus Lakiang ◽  
Rajesh Kumar Sinha ◽  
Nishtha Kathuria ◽  
Priya Krishnan ◽  

Maternal undernutrition can lead to protein-energy malnutrition, micronutrient deficiencies, or anemia during pregnancy or after birth. It remains a major problem, despite evidence-based maternal-nutrition interventions happening on ground. We conducted a scoping review to understand different strategies and delivery mechanisms to improve maternal nutrition, as well as how interventions have improved coverage and uptake of services. An electronic search was conducted in PubMed and Google Scholar for published studies reporting on the effectiveness of maternal-nutrition interventions in terms of access or coverage, health outcomes, compliance, and barriers to intervention utilization. The search was limited to studies published within ten years before the initial search date, 8 November 2019; later, it was updated to 17 February 2021. Of 31 studies identified following screening and data extraction, 22 studies were included for narrative synthesis. Twelve studies were reported from India and eleven from Bangladesh, three from Nepal, two from both Pakistan and Thailand (Myanmar), and one from Indonesia. Nutrition education and counselling, home visits, directly observed supplement intake, community mobilization, food, and conditional cash transfer by community health workers were found to be effective. There is a need to incorporate diverse strategies, including various health education approaches, supplementation, as well as strengthening of community participation and the response of the health system in order to achieve impactful maternal nutrition programs.

2021 ◽  
Vol 76 (6) ◽  
pp. 604-611
Irina N. Kondrakhina ◽  
Alexander M. Zatevalov ◽  
Eugenia R. Gatiatulina ◽  
Alexandr A. Nikonorov ◽  
Dmitry G. Deryabin ◽  

Background. Androgenic alopecia (AGA) is the most common form of pathological hair loss with multiple micronutrient disorders involvedin its occurrence and development. Aimto evaluatethe effectiveness of personalized treatment of micronutrient deficiencies in patients with early stages of AGA and conservative therapy using a vasodilator drug minoxidil based on evidence-based medicine. Methods. A total 48 patients with stages IIV of AGA (according to the NorwoodHamilton scale) were recruited to experimental prospective clinical study evaluating the effectiveness of pharmaceutical forms of trace elements and vitamins. The primary diagnosis of micronutrient deficiency was carried out by comparing laboratory parameters of patients with AGA and 25 healthy volunteers. After that, conservative treatment with 5% topical minoxidilin AGA patients was enriched with 2-month personalized systemic supplementation of pharmaceutical forms of trace elements and vitamins. At the end of the study, the correspondence between changes in trace elements and vitamins content in the plasma and the trichogram parameters before and after conservative therapy was assessed. Results. The majority (96%) of the examined patients with AGA were characterized by mono- or polynutrient deficiencies. Personalized correction made it possible to restore the content of Se, Mg, Fe and vitamin E to the baseline levels and to achieve a significant increase in Zn, vitamin D and folic acid plasma content. The relationship between changes in the level of micronutrients and trichogram parameters was recorded only for Se (decrease in anagen hairs: r = 0.43; p = 0.037; decrease in hair density: r = 0.45; p = 0.028) and folic acid (an increase in anagen hairs: r = 0.41; p = 0.024); the positive effect of vitamin E on hair density was also detected. Conclusion. The results of the study allow to recommend a personalized treatment of folic acid and vitamin E deficiencies, with possible refusal to use the Se-containing drugs in conservative therapy of patients with the early stages of AGA.

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