Salt Tolerance
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2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (21) ◽  
pp. 11389
Sang-Tae Kim ◽  
Minkyung Choi ◽  
Su-Ji Bae ◽  
Jin-Soo Kim

Clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-mediated mutagenesis has become an important tool in plant research, enabling the characterization of genes via gene knock-out. CRISPR genome editing tools can be applied to generate multi-gene knockout lines. Typically, multiple single-stranded, single guide RNAs (gRNAs) must be expressed in an organism to target multiple genes simultaneously; however, a single gRNA can target multiple genes if the target genes share similar sequences. A gene cluster comprising ACQUIRED OSMOTOLERANCE (ACQOS; AT5G46520) and neighboring nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeats (NLRs; AT5G46510) is associated with osmotic tolerance. To investigate the role of ACQOS and the tandemly arranged NLR in osmotic tolerance, we introduced small insertion/deletion mutations into two target genes using a single gRNA and obtained transformant plant lines with three different combinations of mutant alleles. We then tested our mutant lines for osmotic tolerance after a salt-stress acclimation period by determining the chlorophyll contents of the mutant seedlings. Our results strongly suggest that ACQOS is directly associated with salt resistance, while the neighboring NLR is not. Here, we confirmed previous findings suggesting the involvement of ACQOS in salt tolerance and demonstrated the usefulness of CRISPR-mediated mutagenesis in validating the functions of genes in a single genetic background.

Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (10) ◽  
pp. 2218
Irene Sánchez-Gavilán ◽  
Esteban Ramírez Chueca ◽  
Vicenta de la Fuente García

(1) Background: this study describes bioactive compounds in the following halophytes: Sarcocornia (S. alpini, S. pruinosa, and S. perennis) and Arthrocnemum (A. macrostachyum). The material comes from: coastal marshes in Tinto River, Guadiana River, and some interior provinces from the Iberian Peninsula. (2) Methods: the techniques used were Folin–Ciocalteu, GC-MS, and ESI-MS/MS. (3) Results: Five phenolic acids were found in Sarcocornia: trans-cinnamic, salicylic, veratric, coumaric, and caffeic acids. In addition, in Arthronemum, ferulic acid was also detected. The obtained flavonoids were cyanidin-3-O-arabinoside, luteolin-7-glucoside, dihydroquercetin, and p-coumaroyl-glucoside. They also presented fatty acids, such as palmitic, linoleic, and oleic acids in Sarcocornia, while palmitic, linolenic, and stearic acids were the main fatty acids in A. macrostachyum. (4) Conclusions: the high diversity of the compounds identified confirms the relation between nutritional interest and salt tolerance in halophytes.

OENO One ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 55 (4) ◽  
pp. 33-48
John P. Baggett ◽  
Saied Habibsadeh ◽  
Haley S. Toups ◽  
Noé Cochetel ◽  
Ryan Ghan ◽  

Moderate levels of Cl- have been associated with grapevine salt tolerance. The hypothesis to be tested in this work is: photosynthesis in grapevine is negatively correlated with foliar Cl- concentration. To further test this hypothesis, multiple mild salinity experiments on four different Vitis genotypes (Cabernet-Sauvignon, Riparia Gloire, Ramsey and SC2) were conducted and photosynthesis, ion concentrations and gene expression responses were quantified. The salt-tolerant rootstock Ramsey had greater Cl- exclusion capabilities than V. vinifera cultivars both during rooted cutting greenhouse experiments and three years of field-grafted experiments; SC2 also excluded Cl-. Differential gene expression indicated that salinity affected transcript abundance more in salt-sensitive genotypes (97.7 % of DEGs in the dataset), especially chloroplast-related transcripts. The transcript abundances of known anion transporters were determined and a family of putative B transporters was associated with the Cl- exclusion phenotype. Photosynthesis and growth were maintained in Ramsey and SC2 under mild salinity. However, photosynthesis declined in Cabernet-Sauvignon with isosmotic 20 mM salt concentrations of NaCl, KCl or NaNO3, independent of the salt type. While foliar Cl- concentrations did correlate with salt tolerance during control and NaCl conditions, it was not found to be the cause of photosynthetic decline in Vitis during mild salinity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (2) ◽  
Sadhana Venkatesh ◽  
Sandeep Suryan ◽  
Nagananda Govinahalli Shivashankara ◽  
Swetha Seshagiri

Soil is a dynamic ecosystem which provides support to plant life. Microorganisms inhabiting the rhizosphere region of soil play a key role in agriculture by promoting the exchange of plant nutrients and reducing the application of chemical fertilizers to a large extent. Engineering of rhizospheric region through exploitation of specific microorganisms leads to higher microbial diversity in the soil which in turn plays a significant role in maintaining the soil health. The present work envisages the isolation, screening and biochemical profiling of potent plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from various rhizospheric soils in and around Bangalore. Sixty isolates from rhizospheric region of fourteen different agricultural soils were screened for plant growth promoting traits such as phosphate solubilization, siderophore production, Ammonia, HCN & Phytohormone production. Twelve isolates that exhibited plant growth promotional traits were further subjected to screening for drought and salt tolerance. Among the twelve isolates, four potential isolates namely Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter pittii were identified based on biochemical methods and 16SrRNA sequencing.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Wei Liu ◽  
Junping Feng ◽  
Wenyu Ma ◽  
Yang Zhou ◽  
Zongbin Ma

Soil and freshwater salinization is increasingly becoming a problem worldwide and has adversely affected plant growth. However, most of the related studies have focused on sodium ion (Na+) stress, with relatively little research on chloride ion (Cl–) stress. Here, we found that upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) plants accumulated Cl– and exhibited strong growth inhibition under NaCl or KCl treatment. Then, a chloride channel gene (GhCLCg-1) was cloned from upland cotton. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses indicated that GhCLCg-1 was highly homologous to AtCLCg and also have conserved voltage_CLC and CBS domains. The subcellular localization assay showed that GhCLCg-1 was localized on the vacuolar membrane. Gene expression analyses revealed that the expression of GhCLCg-1 increased rapidly in cotton in response to chloride stress (NaCl or KCl), and the transcript levels increased as the chloride stress intensified. The overexpression of GhCLCg-1 in Arabidopsis thaliana changed the uptake of ions with a decrease of the Na+/K+ ratios in the roots, stems, and leaves, and enhanced salt tolerance. In contrast, silencing GhCLCg-1 in cotton plants increased the Cl– contents in the roots, stems, and leaves and the Na+/K+ ratios in the stems and leaves, resulting in compromised salt tolerance. These results provide important insights into the toxicity of chloride to plants and also indicate that GhCLCg-1 can positively regulates salt tolerance by adjusting ion accumulation in upland cotton.

2021 ◽  
liang xu ◽  
Jia-Qian Song ◽  
yuelin wang ◽  
Xiao-Han Liu ◽  
Xue-Li Li ◽  

Abstract Plants have evolved a lot of strategies to improve salt tolerance to cope with salt stress. Recent studies have suggested that thymol (a nature medicine) enhances the plant tolerance against abiotic stresses, but the mechanisms are rarely known. Here, we found that thymol played an important role in maintaining root growth under salt stress. Thymol rescued root growth from salt stress via ameliorating ROS (reactive oxygen species) accumulation, lipid peroxidation, and cell death. In addition, thymol enhanced the level of NO (nitric oxide) and GSH (glutathione) to repress ROS accumulation, further protecting the stability of cell membrane. Thymol-induced Na+ efflux in roots and leaves under salt stress may depend on the upregulation of SOS1, HKT1 and NHX1. Consequently, all of these evidences suggested that thymol improved tobacco salt tolerance via enhancing NO and GSH content as well as inducing Na+ efflux.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
Xu Zhang ◽  
Mengchu Gao ◽  
Sadaqat Ali Chattha ◽  
Yiwen Zhu ◽  
Biyu Peng ◽  

Abstract Traditionally, universally used pelt bating technologies rely on the application of trypsin, neutral and alkaline microbial proteases but suffer from complicated operation, limited bating efficiency and unsatisfactory leather performance. Therefore, devising a new pelt bating approach to achieve high bating efficiency and excellent leather performance has always been wished for by the leather industry. To pursue this goal, years of persistent research work enabled us to develop a novel approach for pelt bating by means of acidic proteases in pickling process. Initially, basic enzymatic characteristics and bating effectiveness of several typical acidic proteases in pelt pickling medium were investigated; then, the bating effectiveness through the quantitative characterization of protease activity of the optimal acidic protease was compared with that of the conventional bating enzyme. The results indicated that all of the selected acidic proteases had good salt-tolerance and exhibited optimum activity at pH 3.0–4.0. The novel pickling-bating method based on microbial origin acidic protease L80A led to an outstanding performance on pelt bating at the dosage of 150 U/mL of collagenolytic activity. The bating effectiveness of acidic protease L80A was comparable to and even better than that of trypsin BEM due to its moderate proteolytic ability. Moreover, the deep and even penetration of acidic protease in the pelt permitted it to produce soft, organoleptically stable and overall better quality crust leather than that of the conventional trypsin bating method. Additionally, pelt bating was performed along with the pickling process without extra inactivation and washing operation, making the bating operation more efficient, economical, and environment friendly. Results had made us to conclude that this cutting-edge acidic proteases based pickling-bating method could be the first step/ way forward to replace the decades-old traditional pelt bating technology.

Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (10) ◽  
pp. 2173
Joo Hyuk Cho ◽  
Sung-Chur Sim ◽  
Kyung-Nam Kim

Soil salinity is one of the major environmental stresses that restrict the growth and development of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) worldwide. In Arabidopsis, the calcium signaling pathway mediated by calcineurin B-like protein 4 (CBL4) and CBL-interacting protein kinase 24 (CIPK24) plays a critical role in salt stress response. In this study, we identified and isolated two tomato genes similar to the Arabidopsis genes, designated as SlCBL4 and SlCIPK24, respectively. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and pull-down assays indicated that SlCBL4 can physically interact with SlCIPK24 at the plasma membrane of plant cells in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Overexpression of SlCBL4 or superactive SlCIPK24 mutant (SlCIPK24M) conferred salt tolerance to transgenic tomato (cv. Moneymaker) plants. In particular, the SlCIPK24M-overexpression lines displayed dramatically enhanced tolerance to high salinity. It is notable that the transgenic plants retained higher contents of Na+ and K+ in the roots compared to the wild-type tomato under salt stress. Taken together, our findings clearly suggest that SlCBL4 and SlCIPK24 are functional orthologs of the Arabidopsis counterpart genes, which can be used or engineered to produce salt-tolerant tomato plants.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Pu-Sheng Li ◽  
Wei-Liang Kong ◽  
Xiao-Qin Wu ◽  
Yu Zhang

Salt stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that affects plant growth and development. The use of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria to mitigcate salt stress damage in plants is an important way to promote crop growth under salt stress conditions. Rahnella aquatilis JZ-GX1 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterial strain, but it is not clear whether it can improve the salt tolerance of plants, and in particular, the role of volatile substances in plant salt tolerance is unknown. We investigated the effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from JZ-GX1 on the growth performance, osmotic substances, ionic balance and antioxidant enzyme activities of acacia seedlings treated with 0 and 100mm NaCl and explored the VOCs associated with the JZ-GX1 strain. The results showed that compared to untreated seedlings, seedlings exposed to plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium JZ-GX1 via direct contact with plant roots under salt stress conditions exhibited increases in fresh weight, lateral root number and primary root length equal to approximately 155.1, 95.4, and 71.3%, respectively. Robinia pseudoacacia seedlings exposed to VOCs of the JZ-GX1 strain showed increases in biomass, soil and plant analyser development values and lateral root numbers equal to 132.1, 101.6, and 166.7%, respectively. Additionally, decreases in malondialdehyde, superoxide anion (O2−) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) contents and increases in proline contents and superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities were observed in acacia leaves. Importantly, the sodium-potassium ratios in the roots, stems, and leaves of acacia exposed to VOCs of the JZ-GX1 strain were significantly lower than those in the control samples, and this change in ion homeostasis was consistent with the upregulated expression of the (Na+, K+)/H+ reverse cotransporter RpNHX1 in plant roots. Through GC-MS and creatine chromatography, we also found that 2,3-butanediol in the volatile gases of the JZ-GX1 strain was one of the important signaling substances for improving the salt tolerance of plants. The results showed that R. aquatilis JZ-GX1 can promote the growth and yield of R. pseudoacacia under normal and salt stress conditions. JZ-GX1 VOCs have good potential as protectants for improving the salt tolerance of plants, opening a window of opportunity for their application in salinized soils.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Lu Luo ◽  
Qian Wan ◽  
Kun Zhang ◽  
Xiurong Zhang ◽  
Ruijie Guo ◽  

Soil salinity is one of the major factors that limit the area of cultivable land and yield potential of crops. The ability of salt tolerance varies with plant species. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a moderately salt-sensitive and economically important crop, however, their biological processes involved in salt-stress response remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of A. hypogaea L. ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 4s (AhABI4s) in salt tolerance and elucidated its mode of action in peanuts. The results showed that the downregulation of AhABI4s via whole plant virus-induced gene silencing has enhanced the survival rate, biomass accumulation, and root/shoot ratio of peanut seedlings in response to salt-stress. Transcriptomics, quantitative proteomics, and phosphoproteomic analyses were performed using AhABI4s-silenced and Mock plants. The expression pattern of 15,247 genes, 1,900 proteins, and 2,620 phosphorylation sites were affected by silencing of AhABI4s in peanut leaf and root after sodium chloride (NaCl) treatment. Among them, 63 potential downstream target genes of ABI4 changed consistently at both transcription and translation levels, and the protein/phosphorylation levels of 31 ion transporters/channels were also affected. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) showed that ABI4 was able to bind to the promoters of HSP70, fructokinase (FRK), and pyruvate kinase (PK) coding genes in vitro. In addition, we also detected a binding preference of AhABI4 for CACT(G/T)GCA motif in the promoters of down-regulated genes in peanut leaf. Collectively, the potential downstream targets which were regulated at the levels of transcription and translation, binding preference, and in vivo phosphorylation sites that had been revealed in this study will provide new insight into the AhABI4s-mediated salt tolerance regulation mechanism in peanuts.

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