Since the introduction of nylon 6:6, and nylon 6, the nylon fiber was in significant demand in home textile and technical textile articles. Its uses in hosiery, sail cloth, parachute, blouses, gowns and veils, swim suit, parachute, and lingerie etc. Improving the performance of any nylon matrix with the loading of clay content, for the desired effects, can be an important subject to expand the utilization of nylon in automotive, technical textiles etc. This review study is to find out how clay may contribute in the performance of nylon fiber, and what research directions are appealing in achieving the desired effects in nylon fibers. The known effects on orientation and crystal structure of any nylon polymer; and how the advantageous effects in the utilization of nylon are achievable through the incorporation of clay mineral particularly in composite fiber. Strength, fatigue and thermal stability are some improved effects possible. Heat resistance and flame retardancy are particularly discussed. The aim of this review study is to realize how the nylon fiber was modified using the montmorillonite clay; and to explore what are the possible effects, and improvement achieved.
Abstract Optimum planting arrangement is an important attribute for efficient utilization of available resources and to obtain high yield of cotton. Application of plant growth promoter and retardant on cotton in improved planting density are the innovative techniques in the establishment of more productive cotton crop. Therefore, we planned a field study to assess the role of bio-stimulant and growth retardant in the resource utilization efficiency of cotton cultivars planted under variable row spacing at Agronomic Research Area Bahauddin Zakariya University and Usmania Agricultural Farm Shujabad during Kharif 2012. Experimental treatments consisted of cotton genotypes viz. CIM-573 and CIM-598, cultivated under conventional (75 cm), medium (50 cm) and ultra-narrow row spacing (25 cm) with foliar spray of bio-stimulant (moringa leaf extract) and growth retardant (mepiquate chloride), either sole or in combination, keeping distilled water as a control. Exogenously applied MLE alone and MLE + MC significantly enhanced the number of squares, flowers and green bolls per plant leading to higher cotton seed and lint yield of CIM 598 cultivar cultivated under conventional row spacing. While application of MC alone and MLE + MC produced maximum micronaire value, fiber strength and fiber uniformity ratio of CIM 573 cultivar cultivated under conventional row spacing. The results suggested that application of MLE is a possible approach to enhance the cotton productivity and the use of MC to enhance the fiber quality attributes under conventional row spacing.
ABSTRACT: Understanding the genetic diversity and overcoming genotype-by-environment interaction issues is an essential step in breeding programs that aims to improve the performance of desirable traits. This study estimated genetic diversity and applied genotype + genotype-by-environment (GGE) biplot analyses in cotton genotypes. Twelve genotypes were evaluated for fiber yield, fiber length, fiber strength, and micronaire. Estimation of variance components and genetic parameters was made through restricted maximum likelihood and the prediction of genotypic values was made through best linear unbiased prediction. The modified Tocher and principal component analysis (PCA) methods, were used to quantify genetic diversity among genotypes. GGE biplot was performed to find the best genotypes regarding adaptability and stability. The Tocher technique and PCA allowed for the formation of clusters of similar genotypes based on a multivariate framework. The GGE biplot indicated that the genotypes IMACV 690 and IMA08 WS were highly adaptable and stable for the main traits in cotton. The cross between the genotype IMACV 690 and IMA08 WS is the most recommended to increase the performance of the main traits in cotton crops.
Gossypium hirsutum L. is also called upland cotton or Mexican cotton. It is the most widely cultivated species of cotton in the whole world. Globally, about 90% of all cotton production comes from the cultivars derived from this species. Some genetic parameters like monopodial branches per plant, sympodial branches per plant, sympodial branch length, bolls per plant, boll weight, sympo-boll distance, Ginning Out Turn%, staple length (rg = 0.9199**), and fiber strength along with seed cotton yield were evaluated for their potential utilization via selection in seed cotton yield improvement. Significant positive genetic correlations were estimated for monopodial branches per plant (rg = 0.9722**), sympodial branches per plant (rg = 0.7098**), sympodial branch length (rg = 0.617**), bolls per plant (rg = 0.8271**), boll weight (rg = 0.8065**), sympo-boll distance (rg = 0.6507**), Ginning Out Turn (GOT)% (rg = 0.7541**), staple length (rg = 0.9199**), and fiber strength (rg = 0.7534**) with seed cotton yield. A path analysis of all the yield traits under study revealed strong positive direct effects of monopodial branch length (1.1556), sympo-boll distance (0.8173) and staple length (0.7633), while plant height exerted a highly strong direct negative effect (-1.2096) on yield. It is concluded that a direct selection based on monopodial branch length and sympo-boll distance, and staple length is effective, whereas, monopodial branch length, and sympodial branch length are good selection indicators via bolls per plant for yield improvement in cotton.
The effect of tin content in an Al-Sn alloy in the range from 0 to 100 at.% on its mechanical properties was studied. An increase in the tin content leads to a monotonic decrease in the microhardness and conditional yield stress of the Al-Sn alloy from 305 to 63 MPa and from 32 to 5 MPa, respectively. In addition, Young’s modulus and the shear modulus of the Al-Sn alloy decreases from 65 to 52 GPa and from 24 to 20 GPa, respectively. The effect of tin content in the Al-Sn matrix alloy in the range from 0 to 50 at.% on the strength of a carbon fiber/aluminum-tin-matrix (CF/Al-Sn) composite wire subject to three-point bending was also investigated. Increasing tin content up to 50 at.% leads to a linear increase in the composite wire strength from 1450 to 2365 MPa, which is due to an increase in the effective fiber strength from 65 to 89 at.%. The addition of tin up to 50 at.% to the matrix alloy leads to the formation of weak boundaries between the matrix and the fiber. An increase in the composite wire strength is accompanied by an increase in the average length of the fibers pulled out at the fracture surface. A qualitative model of the relationship between the above parameters is proposed.
Cotton is a very important crop that consists of traits with different associationship due to genetic and environmental factors. In order to determine the degree of association between seed cotton yield and important traits, a study was done using an RBD experiment with 30 hybrids. Seed cotton yield, plant height, GOT, number of sympodial braches, boll weight, bolls per plant, span length, fineness and strength data were collected and analysed. The experiment was done with 30 F1 hybrids have delivered through Line x Tester mating configuration utilizing six lines and five testers were planted in a Randomized Block Design (RBD) with two replications at the Department of Cotton, TNAU, Coimbatore. Seed cotton yield per plant was found to have significant positive genotypic connection with boll weight (0.5810), number of bolls per plant (0.3867), plant height (0.422) and ginning percent (0.2182) however altogether and contrarily related with consistency proportion at genotypic level. The phenotypic relationship esteems likewise uncovered that seed cotton yield per plant had highly huge and positive phenotypic connection with number of bolls per plant (0.3470) and boll weight (0.4763). Path coefficients were processed to assess the commitment of individual characters to yield in cotton. The way investigation demonstrated high certain immediate impact of number of bolls per plant (0.4743) and fiber strength (0.6880) on seed cotton yield. Micronaire value displayed high sure circuitous impact on seed cotton yield through range length (0.3393), the outcome showed that number of bolls per plant had a high sure relationship with seed cotton yield and sympodial per plant recorded low certain connection with seed cotton yield. It was therefore concluded that selection of high yielding cotton hybrids could emphasize more on lint yield, boll weights, plant height and bolls per plant for better-performing lines. Gin outturn and fibre strength could be used indirectly to improve seed cotton yield through other traits.
Molecular interventions have helped to explore the genes involved in fiber length, fiber strength, and other quality parameters with improved characteristics, particularly in cotton. The current study is an extension and functional validation of previous findings that Gh_A07G1537 influences fiber length in cotton using a chromosomal segment substitution line MBI7747 through RNA-seq data. The recombinant Gh_A07G1537 derived from the MBI7747 line was over-expressed in CCRI24, a genotype with a low profile of fiber quality parameters. Putative transformants were selected on MS medium containing hygromycin (25mg/ml), acclimatized, and shifted to a greenhouse for further growth and proliferation. Transgene integration was validated through PCR and Southern Blot analysis. Stable integration of the transgene (ΔGh_A07G1537) was validated by tracking its expression in different generations (T0, T1, and T2) of transformed cotton plants. It was found to be 2.97-, 2.86-, and 2.92-folds higher expression in T0, T1, and T2 plants, respectively, of transgenic compared with non-transgenic cotton plants. Fiber quality parameters were also observed to be improved in the engineered cotton line. Genetic modifications of Gh_A07G1537 support the improvement in fiber quality parameters and should be appreciated for the textile industry.