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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 721
Ana-Maria Vutan ◽  
Erwin-Christian Lovasz ◽  
Corina-Maria Gruescu ◽  
Carmen Sticlaru ◽  
Elena Sîrbu ◽  

(1) Background: Scoliosis affects about 3% of the population and the number of children diagnosed with this condition is increasing. Numerous studies have been conducted in recent years to observe the effectiveness of rehabilitation specific exercises for this condition. In the present study we aim to observe if symmetrical exercises activate the back muscles in the same way in the case of children with mild scoliosis and those without postural deviations; (2) Methods: We used the thermal imaging camera, which allows a non-invasive, painless investigation that provides real-time information about muscle activity. The study qualitatively assessed muscle activation during exercises. In this study, 30 children were divided into two groups: 15 children diagnosed with mild scoliosis and 15 children without postural deviations; (3) Results: Acquisition of images after each exercise revealed an imbalance in the functioning of the back muscles in children with scoliosis, with areas of higher temperature after exercise on the convexity side of the scoliotic curve. In the second experiment in which children with scoliosis performed the required exercises under the supervision of a physiotherapist, they showed a symmetrical activation of the back muscles on the right and left side of the back; (4) Conclusions: In children without postural deviations, symmetrical exercises activate the muscles equally on the right and left sides of the back. In the case of children with scoliosis, the symmetrical exercises indicated in the rehabilitation programs should be performed only under the supervision of a physiotherapist to properly activate the back muscles.

Juan de Dios Unión-Sánchez ◽  
Manuel Jesús Hermoso-Orzáez ◽  
Manuel Jesús Hervás-Pulido ◽  
Blas Ogáyar-Fernández

Currently, LED technology is an established form of lighting in our cities and homes. Its lighting performance, durability, energy efficiency and light, together with the economic savings that its use implies, are displacing other classic forms of lighting. However, some problems associated with the durability of the equipment related to the problems of thermal dissipation and high temperature have begun to be detected, which end up affecting their luminous intensity and the useful life. There are many studies that show a direct relationship between the low quality of LED lighting and the aging of the equipment or its overheating, observing the depreciation of the intensity of the light and the visual chromaticity performance that can affect the health of users by altering circadian rhythms. On the other hand, the shortened useful life of the luminaires due to thermal stress has a direct impact on the LCA (Life Cycle Analysis) and its environmental impact, which indirectly affects human health. The purpose of this article is to compare the results previously obtained, at different contour temperatures, by theoretical thermal simulation of the 3D model of LED street lighting luminaires through the ANSYS Fluent simulation software. Contrasting these results with the practical results obtained with a thermal imaging camera, the study shows how the phenomenon of thermal dissipation plays a fundamental role in the lighting performance of LED technology. The parameter studied in this work is junction temperature (Tj), and how it can be used to predict the luminous properties in the design phase of luminaires in order to increase their useful life.

2022 ◽  
Stella Gerdemann ◽  
Ronja Büchner ◽  
Robert Hepach

Children sometimes show positive emotions in response to seeing others being helped, yet it remains poorly understood whether there is a strategic value to such emotional expressions. Here, we investigated the influence seeing a peer receive deserving help or not on children’s emotions, which were assessed while the peer was present or not. To measure children’s emotional expression, we used a motion depth sensor imaging camera, which recorded children’s body posture. Five-year-old children (N = 122) worked on a task which yielded greater rewards for them compared to their peer, rendering the peer to be in greater need of help. An adult––who was unaware of the different levels of neediness––then either helped the child who had a lesser need for help (less deserving outcome) or helped the needier peer (deserving outcome). Overall, both children showed a lowered body posture, a more negative emotional expression, after not being helped and an elevated body posture, a more positive emotional expression, after being helped. Seeing their peer (less deservedly) not receive help, and to a lesser extent being observed, blunted children’s otherwise positive emotions in response to receiving help. These results are discussed in the broader theoretical context of how children’s emotions sometimes reflect their commitment to cooperative relationships with peers.

2021 ◽  
Vol 58 (2) ◽  
pp. 92-118
Maciej Zawistowski

Aim: The article presents a set of parameters and settings for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), which is crucial in the operational work of the fire brigade and its importance for the quality of the final material obtained from an RGB camera or a thermal imaging camera. Introduction: Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are more often and more boldly used by various uniformed formations, including pilots of the State Fire Service and Volunteer Fire Brigades. Currently, they are used to perform recognition of situations and coordination of activities with the use of RGB and thermal imaging cameras. There are also other applications of UAV, including firefighting, but at the moment they are only conceptual solutions, as they have not been tested during an actual firefighting operation. According to the authors, a drone is currently only a carrier of additional devices and its functionality during the operation depends largely on certainty and reliability of a given UAV structure, as well as on the type and quality of the elements and sensors mounted on it. Methodology: A review of literature and press reports, as well as the authors’ experience in working with UAVs and the results of their research were used to analyse the topic. Conclusions: Indicating a set of key parameters for the UAVs used by fire brigade users is only possible to define its application. Therefore, in this study, the authors presented the most common use of unmanned aerial vehicles, for which key parameters were indicated and the impact of these factors on the obtained results of drones was described. Due to the frequent neglect of camera operation and the importance of their parameters, the authors described the most frequently set parameters of photographs and their impact on the final result, which is of key importance for the usefulness of the collected material.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 8
Shaojie Qu ◽  
Bo Li ◽  
Jiang Zhang ◽  
Yi Wang ◽  
Chenfan Li ◽  

The first Mars exploration mission from China (Tianwen-1) was launched on 23 July 2020 with the goal of “orbiting, landing, and roving”. The occurrence of dust storm activities is an important criterion of assessing atmospheric risk for the Tianwen-1 landing process. Dust storm activities from Mars Year (MY) 24 to MY32 in southern Utopia Planitia were identified. Most dust storms only appeared in one Mars Daily Global Map (MDGM), with a lifetime of less than or equal to solar longitude (Ls) = 0.5°. Only if the lifetime of a dust storm is greater than or equal to Ls = 1° can it reach the primary landing ellipse. From Ls = 0–50°, dust storms are mostly in the diffusion stage with a maximum speed of movement of 2479 km/Ls. Then, the speed gradually decreases to the minimum value of 368 km/Ls when the dust storm is in the dissipation stage. If a dust storm moves at an average speed of 750 km/Ls, the safe landing zone is a circle within a radius of 750 km centered on the primary landing ellipse. From March to May 2021, eight dust storms were identified in the Moderate Resolution Imaging Camera (MoRIC) mosaics. Because there was no dust storm activity in MoRIC mosaic on 13 May 2021, we concluded that there would be no dust storm in the primary landing ellipse on 15 May (MY36, Ls = 45.1°). Therefore, the landing time of the Tianwen-1 probe was finally determined as 15 May, which successfully landed in the south of the Utopia Planitia, and the in-situ investigation was carried out by the Zhurong Mars rover.

Biology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 1327
Aaron James Mah ◽  
Leili Ghazi Zadeh ◽  
Mahta Khoshnam Tehrani ◽  
Shahbaz Askari ◽  
Amir H. Gandjbakhche ◽  

The purpose of this study was to determine which thermometry technique is the most accurate for regular measurement of body temperature. We compared seven different commercially available thermometers with a gold standard medical-grade thermometer (Welch-Allyn): four digital infrared thermometers (Wellworks, Braun, Withings, MOBI), one digital sublingual thermometer (Braun), one zero heat flux thermometer (3M), and one infrared thermal imaging camera (FLIR One). Thirty young healthy adults participated in an experiment that altered core body temperature. After baseline measurements, participants placed their feet in a cold-water bath while consuming cold water for 30 min. Subsequently, feet were removed and covered with a blanket for 30 min. Throughout the session, temperature was recorded every 10 min with all devices. The Braun tympanic thermometer (left ear) had the best agreement with the gold standard (mean error: 0.044 °C). The FLIR One thermal imaging camera was the least accurate device (mean error: −0.522 °C). A sign test demonstrated that all thermometry devices were significantly different than the gold standard except for the Braun tympanic thermometer (left ear). Our study showed that not all temperature monitoring techniques are equal, and suggested that tympanic thermometers are the most accurate commercially available system for the regular measurement of body temperature.

2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (4) ◽  
pp. 83-87
Błażej Torzyk ◽  
Bogusław Więcek

The article presents the concept of using VNA (Vector Network Analyzer) to measure the temperature of the MOS transistor junction. The method assumes that the scattering parameters of the network consisting of the transistor depend on the temperature. The tests confirmed the influence of temperature on the S11 parameter and the input network capacity during ambient temperature changes in the range of 35–70 °C. Measurements were made for the gate-source (G-S) input of the system. The measurements were carried-out with the transistor in the ON/OFF states. In order to validate the measurements, the temperature of the tested element was recorded with the MWIR Cedip-Titanium thermal imaging camera.

2021 ◽  
Jianjun Liu ◽  
Chunlai Li ◽  
Rongqiao Zhang ◽  
Wei Rao ◽  
Xiaofeng Cui ◽  

AbstractAs part of the Tianwen-1 mission, the Zhurong rover successfully touched down in southern Utopia Planitia on 15 May 2021. On the basis of the new sub-metre-resolution images from the High Resolution Imaging Camera on board the Tianwen-1 orbiter, we determined that the Zhurong rover landed at 109.925° E, 25.066° N at an elevation of −4,099.4 m. The landing site is near the highland–lowland boundary1 and multiple suspected shorelines2–7. Under the guidance of the remote sensing survey, the Zhurong rover is travelling south for specific in situ investigation. Supported by the six payloads on board the rover8, its initial key targets are rocks, rocky fields, transverse aeolian ridges and subsurface structures along the path. Extended investigation will aim at troughs and cones in the distance. A better understanding of the formation mechanisms of these targets may shed light on the historical volcanism and water/ice activities within the landing area, as well as the activities of the wind. These results may reveal the characteristics and evolution of the ancient Martian environment and advance the exploration of the habitability of ancient Mars.

Sains Insani ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (3) ◽  
Hamidi Abdul Rahman

The belief in jinn possession is embedded in the Muslim faith. A previous quantitative study had identified symptoms of jinn possession. It shows that there are overlapping symptoms between jinn possession and mental disorders, leading to different diagnoses. An exploratory study was done to investigate the possibility of jinn possession amongst patients who have already been diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and epilepsy using four case studies. All the patients have at least five significant symptoms of jinn possession and were on medication for their respective mental disorders. Thermal images of the patients were recorded using a thermal imaging camera to monitor temperature change before and after ruqyah. The thermal images before and after ruqyah were compared, and it was observed that parts of the body temperature for all four patients became hotter after ruqyah, indicating that all of them have jinn possession. This reaction to ruqyah is considered as a sign of jinn possession by ruqyah practitioners. It is possible that some of those who have been diagnosed with mental disorders may also have an underlying jinn possession issue. Using ruqyah as a complementary therapy on this category of patients may bring better therapeutic benefits. Further studies need to be conducted to identify the extent of jinn possession amongst those with mental disorders. The symptoms of jinn possession can be used as a guide for identifying possible cases of jinn possession amongst those with mental disorders.   Kepercayaan wujudnya posesi jin adalah sebahagian dari aqidah Islam. Satu kajian kuantitatif telah mengenalpasti simptom-simptom posesi jin. Ia menunjukkan ada pertindihan simptom di antara posesi jin dan kecelaruan mental dan seterusnya menimbulkan diagnosis yang berbeza. Satu kajian rintis telah dijalankan untuk mengkaji kemungkinan adanya posesi jin di kalangan pesakit yang telah didiagnosis mengalami skizofrenia, kecelaruan bipolar dan epilepsi menggunakan empat kajian kes. Kesemua pesakit mempunyai sekurang-kurangnya lima simptom posesi jin yang signifikan dan mengambil ubat-ubatan untuk kecelaruan mental masing-masing. Imej termal pesakit diambil menggunakan kamera pengimejan termal untuk memantau perubahan suhu sebelum dan selepas ruqyah. Imej termal sebelum dan selepas ruqyah dibandingkan dan didapati sebahagian tubuh kesemua empat pesakit menjadi panas selepas ruqyah, satu indikasi bahawa kesemua mereka mengalami posesi jin. Reaksi terhadap ruqyah sebegini dianggap sebagai tanda posesi jin oleh perawat ruqyah. Ada kemungkinan separuh pesakit yang telah didiagnosis dengan kecelaruan mental mungkin mengalami posesi jin. Menggunakan ruqyah sebagai terapi komplementari ke atas kategori pesakit sebegini boleh menghasilkan faedah teraputik yang lebih tinggi. Kajian lanjutan diperlukan untuk mengenalpasti sejauh mana keberadaan posesi jin di kalangan pesakit kecelaruan mental. Simptom-simptom posesi jin boleh digunakan untuk mengenalpasti kemungkinan adanya kes posesi jin di kalangan pesakit kecelaruan mental.  

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (7) ◽  
pp. 87-90
Mohsin H. Albdery ◽  
Istvan Szabo

Any single machine rotary component in the process could result in downtime costs. It is necessary to monitor the overall machine health while it is in use. Bearing failure is one of the primary causes of machine breakdown in industry at high and low speeds. A vibration signature evaluation has historically determined misalignments in shafting systems. These misalignments are also responsible for the bearing increase in temperature. The purpose of this work is to undertake a comparative study to obtain the reliability of the effect of the amount of misalignment on bearing by using thermography measurement. An experimental study was performed in this paper to indicate the existence of machine misalignment at an early stage by measuring the bearing temperature using a thermal imaging camera. The effects of load, velocity, and misalignment on the bearings and their temperature increase have been investigated. The test bench's rolling-element bearing is an NTN UCP213-208 pillow block bearing. It has been observed that by tracking the change of temperature in bearings could lead to misalignment detection and the effect of the amount of misalignment on it.

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