hydrogen plasma
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2022 ◽  
Nicolas Mantel ◽  
David Bowden ◽  
Stanislav Herashchenko ◽  
Mike Fursdon ◽  
David Hancock ◽  

Abstract In the conceptual design of EU-DEMO, damage to plasma-facing components under disruption events is planned to be mitigated by specific sacrificial limiter components. A new limiter concept has been proposed using lattice structures fabricated with tungsten powder by additive manufacturing techniques. The major potential benefits of using a lattice structure for limiters are the possibility to customise the thermal conductivity and structural compliance of the structure to manage temperatures and stress within material limits and lower sensitivity to crack propagation. This paper presents the results of the first investigations into the production, characterisation, and high heat flux testing of the lattices to assess their suitability for DEMO limiters. First stage prototypes have been manufactured from tungsten and tungsten tantalum mixed powder with two distinct laser power bed fusion processes, namely pulsed laser and continuous laser with heated bed. The samples are characterised in terms of mass, volume, density, extent of microcracks and voids, level of un-melted or partially melted particulates, texture and grain size, as well as tantalum segregation when applicable. High transient (0.25ms) heat load testing, with hydrogen plasma of energy density up to ~3 MJm-2 was carried out at KIPT on the QSPA Kh-50. These tests have shown that the energy absorbed by latticed targets preheated at 500°C is close to that absorbed by solid tungsten, suggesting that they may be used for limiter applications with the added advantage of adjustment of the heat transfer and stiffness performance by geometry design or material properties.

2022 ◽  
Vol 1048 ◽  
pp. 121-129
Samit Karmakar ◽  
Soumik Kumar Kundu ◽  
Aditya Mukherjee ◽  
Sujit Kumar Bandyopadhyay ◽  
Satyaranjan Bhattacharyya ◽  

Microstructural analysis of commercially available cold-rolled polycrystalline copper foil, etched and annealed in an in-house developed Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (PE-CVD) reactor, have been carried out using x-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The annealing experiments were carried out under a vacuum environment, keeping the working pressure of the reactor at 50×10-3 mbar, for three different time spans of 30 mins, 45 mins and 1 hour at 823 K (550 °C) and 923 K (650 °C) respectively in presence of hydrogen plasma. The XRD studies reveal the significance of annealing time at two different temperatures for the determination of physical and microstructural parameters such as the average grain size and micro-strain in copper lattice by Williamson-Hall (W-H) method.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-1
Tae In Lee ◽  
Min Ju Kim ◽  
Eui Joong Shin ◽  
Gyusoup Lee ◽  
Jaejoong Jeong ◽  

А.В. Уваров ◽  
В.А. Шаров ◽  
Д.А. Кудряшов ◽  
А.С. Гудовских

Investigations of atomic-layer deposition of GaP layers on Si substrates with different orientations and with different preliminary surface treatment have been carried out. The deposition of GaP was carried out by the method of plasma enhanced atomic-layer deposition using in situ treatment in argon plasma. It was shown that at the initial stage of the growth of GaP layers on precisely oriented (100) Si substrates and with misorientation, two-dimensional growth occurs both after chemical and plasma surface treatment. Upon growth on (111) substrates, after plasma treatment of the surface, a transition to three-dimensional growth is observed, at which the size of islands reaches 30–40 nm. The smallest root-mean-square roughness of the surface of the growing GaP layers (<0.1 nm) was achieved for (100) substrates with a misorientation of 4 °. The GaP layers grown on (100) substrates had a roughness of ~ 0.1 nm, and on substrates with the (111) orientation - 0.12 nm. It was found that the surface treatment of Si substrates with the (100) orientation in hydrogen plasma leads to a slight increase in the surface roughness of growing GaP layers (0.12–0.14 nm), which is associated with the effect of inhomogeneous etching of silicon in hydrogen plasma. When treating the (100) silicon surface in argon plasma, the surface roughness does not change significantly in comparison with the chemical surface treatment. On the surface of substrates with preliminary deposition of an epitaxial Si layer with a thickness of 4 nm, the morphology of GaP layers is the same as in the case of using hydrogen plasma.

2022 ◽  
Vol 82 (1) ◽  
Qiang Li ◽  
Yanni Zhu ◽  
Towe Wang

AbstractConsidering a Schwarzschild black hole surrounded by a fully ionized hydrogen plasma, we study the effect of the gravitational field of the plasma particles on the shadow. We take a formalism in which this effect is unified with the refractive effect of the plasma medium studied previously, but the two effects are characterized by two independent parameters. For semi-realistic values of parameters, we find their corrections to the shadow radius are both negligible, and the gravitational correction can overtake the refractive correction for active galactic nuclei of masses larger than $$10^9M_{\odot }$$ 10 9 M ⊙ . With unrealistically large values of parameters, we illustrate the two effects on the light trajectories and the intensity map.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (3) ◽  
pp. 151-157
Agnieszka Rzeźnikiewicz ◽  
Jacek Górka ◽  

Cutting is usually one of initial and basic operations of the manufacturing process of welded structures and realization constructions elements. Thermal cutting, in particular plasma arc cutting is often used to prepare elements. The plasma arc cutting process involves melting and ejecting the liquid metal from the cutting gap with a highly concentrated plasma electric arc which is generated between the non-consuable electrode and the workpiece. The paper presents the results of research on the influence of plasma gas on structural changes and chemical compositions changes resulting unalloyed steel cutting by air plasma arc. It was shown that in the air plasma arc cutting process the amorphous layer with a very high nitrogen content (about 1.6%) and a hardness of 750 HV 0.2 was used. This high nitriding effect is due to the diffusion of nitrogen from the plasma gas. As a result of the interaction of air plasma arc gases on the liquid metal, the cutting surface is carburized (about 0.5%). The alloy components are also burnt according to the theory of selective oxidation of chemical elements. The material structure after the air plasma cutting process shows the structures between the structure formed after oxygen cutting processs and nitrogen plasma cutting process. The process of argon-hydrogen plasma cutting has the least influence on the cut material.

Rupali Paul ◽  
Gunjan Sharma ◽  
Kishor Deka ◽  
Sayan Adhikari ◽  
Rakesh Moulick ◽  

Abstract The role of hot electrons in the charging of dust grains is investigated in a two-temperature hydrogen plasma. A variety of dust particles are introduced into the system and secondary electron emission (SEE) from each of the dust grains has been reported. A cylindrical Langmuir probe is used for determining the plasma parameters and a Faraday cup is connected to an electrometer in order to measure the dust current. The electrometer readings confirm the electron emission from the dust and SEE is observed from the tungsten dust in a low-pressure experimental plasma device for the first time.

2021 ◽  
Vol 119 (24) ◽  
pp. 241601
J. Ellis ◽  
D. Köpp ◽  
N. Lang ◽  
J. H. van Helden

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (4) ◽  
pp. 198-210
M. K. Dosbolayev ◽  
A. B. Tazhen ◽  
T. S. Ramazanov

This paper presents the experimental results on electron, ion temperatures and densities in a pulsed plasma accelerator. The values of electron densities and temperatures were computed using the methods of relative intensities of Hα and Hβ lines, Hβ Stark broadening, and the technique is based on Faraday cup beam current measurements. In this work, a linear optical spectrometer S-100 was used to acquire the emission spectra of hydrogen and air plasmas. In this spectrum, there are some lines due to Fe, Cu, N2, O2, and H2. The series of visible lines in the hydrogen atom spectrum are named the Balmer series. The spectral emissions of iron and copper occur throughout the gas breakdown and ignition of an arc discharge, during the erosion and sputtering of materials. The vacuum chamber and coaxial electrodes were made. The electron temperatures and densities in a pulsed plasma accelerator, measured via relative intensities of spectral lines and Stark broadening, at a charging voltage of a capacitor bank of 3 kV and a working gas pressure in a vacuum chamber of 40 mTorr, were 2.6 eV and 1.66 · 1016 cm−3 for hydrogen plasma. These results were compared with the Faraday cup beam current measurements. However, no match was found. Considering and analyzing this distinction, we concluded that the spectral method of plasma diagnostics provides more accurate results than electrical measurement. The theory of probe measurements can give approximate results in a moving plasma.

Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (24) ◽  
pp. 4301
Alenka Vesel ◽  
Rok Zaplotnik ◽  
Gregor Primc ◽  
Miran Mozetič ◽  
Tadeja Katan ◽  

The biocompatibility of body implants made from polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is inadequate; therefore, the surface should be grafted with biocompatible molecules. Because PTFE is an inert polymer, the adhesion of the biocompatible film may not be appropriate. Therefore, the PFTE surface should be modified to enable better adhesion, preferably by functionalization with amino groups. A two-step process for functionalization of PTFE surface is described. The first step employs inductively coupled hydrogen plasma in the H-mode and the second ammonia plasma. The evolution of functional groups upon treatment with ammonia plasma in different modes is presented. The surface is saturated with nitrogen groups within a second if ammonia plasma is sustained in the H-mode at the pressure of 35 Pa and forward power of 200 W. The nitrogen-rich surface film persists for several seconds, while prolonged treatment causes etching. The etching is suppressed but not eliminated using pulsed ammonia plasma at 35 Pa and 200 W. Ammonia plasma in the E-mode at the same pressure, but forward power of 25 W, causes more gradual functionalization and etching was not observed even at prolonged treatments up to 100 s. Detailed investigation of the XPS spectra enabled revealing the surface kinetics for all three cases.

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