respiratory infection
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Author(s):  
Mahmoud Alsaiqali ◽  
Katrien De Troeyer ◽  
Lidia Casas ◽  
Rafiq Hamdi ◽  
Christel Faes ◽  
...  

Purpose: This study assesses the potential acute effects of heatwaves on human morbidities in primary care settings. Methods: We performed a time-stratified case-crossover study to assess the acute effects of heatwaves on selected morbidities in primary care settings in Flanders, Belgium, between 2000 and 2015. We used conditional logistic regression models. We assessed the effect of heatwaves on the day of the event (lag 0) and X days earlier (lags 1 to X). The associations are presented as Incidence Density Ratios (IDR). Results: We included 22,344 events. Heatwaves are associated with increased heat-related morbidities such as heat stroke IDR 3.93 [2.94–5.26] at lag 0, dehydration IDR 3.93 [2.94–5.26] at lag 1, and orthostatic hypotension IDR 2.06 [1.37–3.10] at lag 1. For cardiovascular morbidities studied, there was only an increased risk of stroke at lag 3 IDR 1.45 [1.04–2.03]. There is no significant association with myocardial ischemia/infarction or arrhythmia. Heatwaves are associated with decreased respiratory infection risk. The IDR for upper respiratory infections is 0.82 [0.78–0.87] lag 1 and lower respiratory infections (LRI) is 0.82 [0.74–0.91] at lag 1. There was no significant effect modification by age or premorbid chronic disease (diabetes, hypertesnsion). Conclusion: Heatwaves are associated with increased heat-related morbidities and decreased respiratory infection risk. The study of heatwaves’ effects in primary care settings helps evaluate the impact of heatwaves on the general population. Primary care settings might be not suitable to study acute life-threatening morbidities.


Author(s):  
Mana Sugimura ◽  
Odgerel Chimed-Ochir ◽  
Yui Yumiya ◽  
Akihiro Taji ◽  
Eisaku Kishita ◽  
...  

Abstract Introduction: Japan recently experienced two major heavy rain disasters: the West Japan heavy rain disaster in July 2018 and the Kumamoto heavy rain disaster in July 2020. Between the occurrences of these two disasters, Japan began experiencing the wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, providing a unique opportunity to compare the incidence of acute respiratory infection (ARI) between the two disaster responses under distinct conditions. Sources for Information: The data were collected by using the standard disaster medical reporting system used in Japan, so-called the Japan-Surveillance in Post-Extreme Emergencies and Disasters (J-SPEED), which reports number and types of patients treated by Emergency Medical Teams (EMTs). Data for ARI were extracted from daily aggregated data on the J-SPEED form and the frequency of ARI in two disasters was compared. Observation: Acute respiratory infection in the West Japan heavy rain that occurred in the absence of COVID-19 and in the Kumamoto heavy rain that occurred in the presence of COVID-19 were responsible for 5.4% and 1.2% of the total consultation, respectively (P <.001). Analysis of Observation and Conclusion: Between the occurrence of these two disasters, Japan implemented COVID-19 preventive measures on a personal and organizational level, such as wearing masks, disinfecting hands, maintaining social distance, improving room ventilation, and screening people who entered evacuation centers by using hygiene management checklists. By following the basic prevention measures stated above, ARI can be significantly reduced during a disaster.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262084
Author(s):  
Manuel Raab ◽  
Lisa M. Pfadenhauer ◽  
Dansira Doumbouya ◽  
Guenter Froeschl

Background Febrile illness is frequent among patients in the tropics. It is caused by a wide variety of common diseases such as malaria or gastrointestinal infections but also by less common but highly contagious pathogens with epidemic potential. This study describes the clinical features of adult and paediatric patients with febrile illness in in the largest tertiary referral hospital in south-eastern Guinea, a region at high risk for viral haemorrhagic fever outbreaks. The study further compares their diagnostic characteristics, treatments and outcomes with non-febrile patients in order to contribute to the local epidemiology of febrile illness. Methods We used retrospective data collection to record demographic and clinical data of all incoming patients during a study period of three months. For the follow-up study of inpatients, we retrospectively reviewed patient charts for diagnostic characteristics, diagnoses and outcomes. Results Of the 4317 incoming patients during the study period, 9.5% had a febrile illness. The most used diagnostic measures to identify causative agents in febrile patients were point-of-care tests and most treatments relied on antibiotics. Most common discharge diagnoses for febrile inpatients were malaria (9.6% adults, 56.7% children), salmonella gastroenteritis/typhoid (10.6% adults, 7.8% children) and respiratory infection/pneumonia (5.3% adults, 18.7% children). Inpatient mortality for children was significantly higher in febrile than non-febrile children (18.5% vs. 5.1%, p<0.001) and considerably higher in febrile than non-febrile adults (29.8% vs. 25.0%, p = 0.404). Conclusions Malaria, respiratory infection and gastroenteritis are considered the main causes for febrile illness. The wide reliance on rapid diagnostic tests to diagnose febrile patients not only risks to over- or under-diagnose certain diseases but also leaves the possibility of highly infectious diseases in febrile patients unexplored. Furthermore, the heavy reliance on antibiotics risks to cause antimicrobial resistance. High mortality rates in febrile patients, especially children, should be of concern to public health authorities.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Carmen Herrero-Rodríguez ◽  
Raquel Almansa ◽  
Amanda de la Fuente ◽  
Misericordia Martínez-Huélamo ◽  
Maria Pilar Vicente-Andres ◽  
...  

Abstract Early detection of patients with respiratory infection at risk of deteriorating could help to improve their outcome by facilitating immediate transfer to the hospital to receive the adequate level of care. In this regard, gene expression profiling is emerging as a promising tool to identify patients with infection at risk of suffering a complicated outcome. In a cohort of patients with respiratory infection attending to an Emergency Room at a community health centre, we quantified expression levels in blood of five genes involved in the granulocyte biology that have been previously described to be linked to infection severity: MMP8 (matrix metallopeptidase 8), LCN2 (lipocalin-2), LTF (lactotransferrin) and PRTN3 (proteinase 3) and FCER1A (receptor for Fc fragment of IgE, high affinity I). Expression levels of these genes were evaluated to predict hospitalization. Multivariate analysis adjusted by the National Early Warning Score (NEWS), neurovascular disease, hypertension and age revealed that all these genes independently predicted hospitalization. Nonetheless, the ratio between PRTN3/FCER1A outperformed individual genes to predict necessity of hospitalization (OR [CI95%], p: 8.36 [2.02-34.52],0.003). In conclusion, quantification of PRTN3/FCER1A gene expression ratio could represent a useful test to early identify those patients with respiratory infection at risk of deterioration in extra-hospital settings.


Author(s):  
Lei Zhao ◽  
Jing Li ◽  
Xiaoqing Zhou ◽  
Qianqian Pan ◽  
Weiming Zhao ◽  
...  

NK cells and pulmonary macrophages both are important components of innate immunity. The interaction between NK cells and pulmonary macrophages during chlamydial infection is poorly understood. In this study, we explored the effect of NK cells on regulation of pulmonary macrophage function during chlamydial respiratory infection. We found that NK depletion led to polarization of pulmonary macrophages from M1 to M2 phenotype, and it is related to reduced miR-155 expression in lung macrophage. Using adoptive transfer approach, we found that the recipients receiving lung macrophages isolated from C. muridarum-infected NK-cell-depleted mice exhibited an increased bacterial load and severe inflammation in the lung upon chlamydial challenge infection when compared with the recipients of lung macrophages from infected isotype control antibody treated mice. Herein, the effects of NK cells on macrophage polarization were examined in vitro. We found that NK cells from chlamydial-infected mice (iNK) significantly induced M1 polarization compared to that from uninfected mice (uNK). Inhibition of miR-155 expression in macrophages reduced M1 polarization induced by iNK, while miR-155 over-expression enhanced it. Furthermore, neutralization of IFN-γ in the coculture system decreased the expression of miR-155 by macrophages, and resulted in weakened M1 polarization. The data indicates that NK cells promote M1 polarization through up-regulation of miR-155 in macrophages by producing IFN-γ during chlamydial infection, and NK-regulated macrophage polarization is functionally relevant to host defense against the infection.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jiajia Dong ◽  
Wei Li ◽  
Qi Wang ◽  
Jiahao Chen ◽  
Yue Zu ◽  
...  

Oral microecosystem is a very complicated ecosystem that is located in the mouth and comprises oral microbiome, diverse anatomic structures of oral cavity, saliva and interactions between oral microbiota and between oral microbiota and the host. More and more evidence from studies of epidemiology, microbiology and molecular biology is establishing a significant link between oral microecosystem and respiratory diseases. Microbiota settling down in oral microecosystem is known as the main source of lung microbiome and has been associated with the occurrence and development of respiratory diseases like pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, cystic fibrosis lung disease and asthma. In fact, it is not only indigenous oral microbes promote or directly cause respiratory infection and inflammation when inhaled into the lower respiratory tract, but also internal environment of oral microecosystem serves as a reservoir for opportunistic respiratory pathogens. Moreover, poor oral health and oral diseases caused by oral microecological dysbiosis (especially periodontal disease) are related with risk of multiple respiratory diseases. Here, we review the research status on the respiratory diseases related with oral microecosystem. Potential mechanisms on how respiratory pathogens colonize oral microecosystem and the role of indigenous oral microbes in pathogenesis of respiratory diseases are also summarized and analyzed. Given the importance of oral plaque control and oral health interventions in controlling or preventing respiratory infection and diseases, we also summarize the oral health management measures and attentions, not only for populations susceptible to respiratory infection like the elderly and hospitalized patients, but also for dentist or oral hygienists who undertake oral health care. In conclusion, the relationship between respiratory diseases and oral microecosystem has been established and supported by growing body of literature. However, etiological evidence on the role of oral microecosystem in the development of respiratory diseases is still insufficient. Further detailed studies focusing on specific mechanisms on how oral microecosystem participate in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases could be helpful to prevent and treat respiratory diseases.


2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (2) ◽  
pp. 1399-1404
Author(s):  
Vica Natalia Gonga

Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is a respiratory infection that affect both upper or lower respiratory tracts.  The virus or bacteria causes ARI which lasts for 14 days. Indonesia had the highest mortality rate for ARI, in 2008 around 36.4% children infected; in 2009 around 32.1%; in 2010 around 18.2%; and in 2011 around 38.8%. The prevalence of ARI in Siwalima Health Center around 3240 children in 2020. Breastfeeding has huge benefit for both moms and babies. The prevalence of breastfeeding in Indonesia is 66.1%, but there are two provinces, West Papua (34%) and Maluku (37.2%) that have not reach the target yet. The purpose of this study is to find out if there is a correlation between Exclusive breastfeeding with history of Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) in children in November 2021 in Siwalima Village, Aru Island, Maluku. This study uses observational analytical research methods, and cross- sectional design. The subject of this study are children age 0 - 24 months and lived in Siwalima Village. The sample of this study is using total sampling technic and there are 186 respondents. Questioners with yes or no answer are using in this study. The result of Spearman test showed that there was a correlation between Exclusive breastfeeding with history of Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) in children in November 2021 in Siwalima Village, Aru Island, Maluku with a p value 0.01 < a = 0.000. There are 84 respondent (45.2%) had ARI and 102 respondent (34.8%) didn’t, also 91 respondents (48.9%) didn’t receive exclusive breastfeeding and 95 respondent receive exclusive breastfeeding. With this study, it is hoped that exclusive breastfeeding can be increased, especially for children aged 0 – 6 months in order to prevent infection.


2022 ◽  
Vol 159 ◽  
pp. 107019
Author(s):  
Daniel B. Odo ◽  
Ian A. Yang ◽  
Sagnik Dey ◽  
Melanie S. Hammer ◽  
Aaron van Donkelaar ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
pp. 171-174
Author(s):  
Yoni Astuti ◽  
Iman Permana ◽  
Bayu Ramadhan ◽  
Rahmawati Hussein

Over the past 30 years, forest fire has been one of main ecological issues in Indonesia. Human-caused deforestation was accused to be the reason behind this matter, apart from the drastic changing in global climate. Palangkaraya is one of the citiesaffected by haze of the forest fire in 2015; considered to be the worst year of forest fire with the value of PM10 was above the normal threshold. As the impact to the community wellbeing, the prevalence of acute respiratory infection (ARI) in October 2015was increasing especially in children. The research aimed to analyse the spatial distribution of children with ARI in October 2015 at Palangkaraya City. Data onARI number were collected from Primary Care under Public Health Office of Palangkaraya City. The PM 10 value was collected bythe Environmental Agency of Palangkaraya City. The spatial analyse method was conducted using theAverage Nearest Neighbour (ANN) method. The result shows that the number of ANN ratio is 0.761801. It means that the distribution pattern of children with ARI in Central Kalimantan during the forest fire in October 2015 was in cluster form. Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol. 21(1) 2022 Page : 171-174


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