equilibrium phase
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JOM ◽  
2022 ◽  
Junjie Shi ◽  
Yuchao Qiu ◽  
Xingbang Wan ◽  
Bin Yu ◽  
Min Chen ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
Daria Zvyagintseva ◽  
Helgi Sigurdsson ◽  
Valerii K. Kozin ◽  
Ivan Iorsh ◽  
Ivan A. Shelykh ◽  

AbstractPolaritonic lattices offer a unique testbed for studying nonlinear driven-dissipative physics. They show qualitative changes of their steady state as a function of system parameters, which resemble non-equilibrium phase transitions. Unlike their equilibrium counterparts, these transitions cannot be characterised by conventional statistical physics methods. Here, we study a lattice of square-arranged polariton condensates with nearest-neighbour coupling, and simulate the polarisation (pseudospin) dynamics of the polariton lattice, observing regions with distinct steady-state polarisation patterns. We classify these patterns using machine learning methods and determine the boundaries separating different regions. First, we use unsupervised data mining techniques to sketch the boundaries of phase transitions. We then apply learning by confusion, a neural network-based method for learning labels in a dataset, and extract the polaritonic phase diagram. Our work takes a step towards AI-enabled studies of polaritonic systems.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 285
Victor V. Dyakin ◽  
Nuka V. Dyakina-Fagnano ◽  
Laura B. Mcintire ◽  
Vladimir N. Uversky

In humans, age-associated degrading changes, widely observed in molecular and cellular processes underly the time-dependent decline in spatial navigation, time perception, cognitive and psychological abilities, and memory. Cross-talk of biological, cognitive, and psychological clocks provides an integrative contribution to healthy and advanced aging. At the molecular level, genome, proteome, and lipidome instability are widely recognized as the primary causal factors in aging. We narrow attention to the roles of protein aging linked to prevalent amino acids chirality, enzymatic and spontaneous (non-enzymatic) post-translational modifications (PTMs SP), and non-equilibrium phase transitions. The homochirality of protein synthesis, resulting in the steady-state non-equilibrium condition of protein structure, makes them prone to multiple types of enzymatic and spontaneous PTMs, including racemization and isomerization. Spontaneous racemization leads to the loss of the balanced prevalent chirality. Advanced biological aging related to irreversible PTMs SP has been associated with the nontrivial interplay between somatic (molecular aging) and mental (psychological aging) health conditions. Through stress response systems (SRS), the environmental and psychological stressors contribute to the age-associated “collapse” of protein homochirality. The role of prevalent protein chirality and entropy of protein folding in biological aging is mainly overlooked. In a more generalized context, the time-dependent shift from enzymatic to the non-enzymatic transformation of biochirality might represent an important and yet underappreciated hallmark of aging. We provide the experimental arguments in support of the racemization theory of aging.

Kyongok Kang

Abstract Bacteriophage DNA fd-rods are long and stiff rod-like particles which are known to exhibit a rich equilibrium phase behavior. Due to their helical molecular structure, they form the stable chiral nematic (N*) mesophases. Very little is known about the kinetics of forming various phases with orientations. The present study addresses the kinetics of chiral-mesophases and N*-phase, by using a novel image-time correlation technique. Instead of correlating time-lapsed real-space microscopy images, the corresponding Fourier images are shown for time-correlated averaged orientations. This allows to unambiguously distinguish to detect the temporal evolution of orientations on different length scales, such as domain sizes (depending on their relative orientations), and the chiral pitch within the domains. Kinetic features are qualitatively interpreted in terms of replica symmetry breaking of elastic deformations in the orthogonal directional axes of chiral-mesophase domains, as well by the average twist angle and the order parameter. This work can be interesting for characterizing other types of charged rods, mimicking super-cooled liquids and orientation glasses.

Chai-Wei Lin ◽  
Yu-Lin You ◽  
Yi-An Chen ◽  
Tzu-Chan Wu ◽  
Cheng-Feng Lin

Objective: To investigate the effects of a 6-week integrated training program on the ankle joint reposition sense and postural stability in ballet dancers. Methods: Sixteen female ballet dancers participated in the study and underwent a 6-week integrated training program consisting of plyometric, proprioception and core stability exercises along with a home program involving additional ankle muscle strengthening and stretching. The ankle joint reposition tests and the parameters of the center of pressure (COP) while performing grand-plie (deep squatting) and releve en demi-pointe (standing on balls of foot) movements were measured before and after training. Results: After 6 weeks, participants showed significantly smaller absolute ankle joint reposition errors in dorsiflexion (p = 0.031), plantarflexion (p = 0.003) and eversion (p = 0.019) compared to the pre-training measurement. Furthermore, after training, a significantly slower average COP speed at pre-equilibrium during grand-plie movement (p = 0.003) and pre-equilibrium phase of releve en demi-pointe (p = 0.023) were observed. In addition, the maximum COP displacement in the medial-lateral direction was significantly smaller at pre-equilibrium phase during grand-plie (p = 0.044) and releve en demi-pointe movements (p = 0.004) after training. Conclusions: The 6-week integrated training program improved the ankle joint reposition sense and postural control in the medial-lateral direction during grand-plie and releve en demi-pointe movements.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2144 (1) ◽  
pp. 012004
P V Panin ◽  
I A Bogachev ◽  
E A Lukina

Abstract Chemical composition, structure, and technological properties have been investigated for metal powder compositions (MPCs) of a new six-component TiAl-based alloy with Gd microadditions: Ti-31.0Al-2.5V-2.5Nb-2.5Cr-0.4Gd, wt.% (Ti-44.5Al-2V-1Nb-2Cr-0.1Gd, at.%). Three MPCs fractions (10–63, 40–100, 80–120 μm) were produced by electrode induction melting and inert gas atomization technique and targeted for the additive synthesis of parts. It is shown that the chemical composition of the MPCs for the main elements corresponds to that of the electrode. In contrast, a 1.5-fold increase of the oxygen content in the MPCs was observed, which is being the result of natural oxidation of powder particles upon air environment due to developed specific surface. It has been determined that the phase composition of the MPCs (γ+α(α2)+β) differs from the equilibrium phase composition of the electrode (γ+α2)+β0/B2) and corresponds to a rapidly quenched metastable state, which indicates high solidification rates in the atomization process, exceeding critical cooling rates of the alloy. The technological properties, specifically the powder flowability, were found to be improved for 40–100 and 80–120 μm fractions, making them applicable for additive synthesis of parts from the studied alloy by selective electron-beam melting method

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Shun-Li Shang ◽  
Hui Sun ◽  
Bo Pan ◽  
Yi Wang ◽  
Adam M. Krajewski ◽  

AbstractForming metallurgical phases has a critical impact on the performance of dissimilar materials joints. Here, we shed light on the forming mechanism of equilibrium and non-equilibrium intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in dissimilar aluminum/steel joints with respect to processing history (e.g., the pressure and temperature profiles) and chemical composition, where the knowledge of free energy and atomic diffusion in the Al–Fe system was taken from first-principles phonon calculations and data available in the literature. We found that the metastable and ductile (judged by the presently predicted elastic constants) Al6Fe is a pressure (P) favored IMC observed in processes involving high pressures. The MoSi2-type Al2Fe is brittle and a strong P-favored IMC observed at high pressures. The stable, brittle η-Al5Fe2 is the most observed IMC (followed by θ-Al13Fe4) in almost all processes, such as fusion/solid-state welding and additive manufacturing (AM), since η-Al5Fe2 is temperature-favored, possessing high thermodynamic driving force of formation and the fastest atomic diffusivity among all Al–Fe IMCs. Notably, the ductile AlFe3, the less ductile AlFe, and most of the other IMCs can be formed during AM, making AM a superior process to achieve desired IMCs in dissimilar materials. In addition, the unknown configurations of Al2Fe and Al5Fe2 were also examined by machine learning based datamining together with first-principles verifications and structure predictions. All the IMCs that are not P-favored can be identified using the conventional equilibrium phase diagram and the Scheil-Gulliver non-equilibrium simulations.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Rodolfo Chavez-Dominguez ◽  
Mario Perez-Medina ◽  
Dolores Aguilar-Cazares ◽  
Miriam Galicia-Velasco ◽  
Manuel Meneses-Flores ◽  

Pathogens or genotoxic agents continuously affect the human body. Acute inflammatory reaction induced by a non-sterile or sterile environment is triggered for the efficient elimination of insults that caused the damage. According to the insult, pathogen-associated molecular patterns, damage-associated molecular patterns, and homeostasis-altering molecular processes are released to facilitate the arrival of tissue resident and circulating cells to the injured zone to promote harmful agent elimination and tissue regeneration. However, when inflammation is maintained, a chronic phenomenon is induced, in which phagocytic cells release toxic molecules damaging the harmful agent and the surrounding healthy tissues, thereby inducing DNA lesions. In this regard, chronic inflammation has been recognized as a risk factor of cancer development by increasing the genomic instability of transformed cells and by creating an environment containing proliferation signals. Based on the cancer immunoediting concept, a rigorous and regulated inflammation process triggers participation of innate and adaptive immune responses for efficient elimination of transformed cells. When immune response does not eliminate all transformed cells, an equilibrium phase is induced. Therefore, excessive inflammation amplifies local damage caused by the continuous arrival of inflammatory/immune cells. To regulate the overstimulation of inflammatory/immune cells, a network of mechanisms that inhibit or block the cell overactivity must be activated. Transformed cells may take advantage of this process to proliferate and gradually grow until they become preponderant over the immune cells, preserving, increasing, or creating a microenvironment to evade the host immune response. In this microenvironment, tumor cells resist the attack of the effector immune cells or instruct them to sustain tumor growth and development until its clinical consequences. With tumor development, evolving, complex, and overlapping microenvironments are arising. Therefore, a deeper knowledge of cytokine, immune, and tumor cell interactions and their role in the intricated process will impact the combination of current or forthcoming therapies.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Mariusz A. Pietruszka

AbstractBlood is the basic medium in the existence, evolution and physiological balance of animals and represents the biochemical “Internet” of the body; at least human blood exhibit the presence of an emergent phase that is highly unusual. Homeostasis, the state of the optimal functioning of the body, is maintained in living organisms by many chemical and physical conditions, particularly temperature. However, no regulatory mechanism has been identified that has led to a predetermined (molecularly encoded) optimal, individually variable, very specific temperature of around 36 °C. Additionally, the homeostatic temperature range, which is kept within predetermined limits, is merely an empirical fact. In the following, I will show that the reference temperature that is necessary to achieve homeostasis can be established, and a preset homeostatic range can be determined, using an original experimental method and refined tools of mathematical physics related to the nonlinear measures of the complexity of human blood. Moreover, signatures of a macroscopic coherent state in a non-equilibrium system at a critical temperature are obtained.

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