k fertilization
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Changkai Liu ◽  
Xue Wang ◽  
Heng Chen ◽  
Houyu Xia ◽  
Bingjie Tu ◽  

Abstract Pot experiments were conducted in 2017, 2019, and 2020 to examine the effects of potassium nutrition on the nutritional components of vegetable soybeans with different K efficiency at immature and mature stages. Two vegetable soybean varieties with higher K efficiency and two varieties with lower K efficiency were studied in the low available K soil under the condition of no K and normal K fertilization. The results indicated that almost all nutritional components in vegetable soybean were affected by K, genotypes, inter-annual differences, and their interactions. In general, no K fertilization increased protein and amino acid concentrations but decreased oil, soluble sugar, sucrose, K, Mg, and Fe concentrations in immature and mature vegetable soybean. The sensitivity of nutritional components to K nutrition differed among varieties. For instance, K high-efficiency varieties generally exhibited higher protein and amino acid concentrations without K application. K high-efficiency vegetable soybeans are low-K tolerance varieties to isoflavones. The results of this study provide insights for high yield and quality vegetable soybean breeding against soil K deficiency.

Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 180
Han-Mei Tseng ◽  
Tzy-Ming Lu ◽  
Lean-Teik Ng

Cynanchum taiwanianum is an important plant used in traditional medicine. The increasing demand and lack of information regarding its cultivation have become concerns for sustainability. This study examined the effects of nitrogen and potassium fertilization rates on the growth and biosynthesis of main bioactive compounds, including cynandione A and polyphenolic compounds, in field-cultivated C. taiwanianum. Two field experiments were conducted using three levels of nitrogen (N100, N150 and N200) and three levels of potassium (K100, K150 and K200) treatments. The experimental variables were either N or K fertilizer. The results showed that, aside from N200, N and K fertilization significantly increased C. taiwanianum shoot and tuber biomass. High N fertilization resulted in low total phenolic and total flavonoid contents in shoots and tubers, but the effects of K fertilization were minimal. Cynandione A, an important bioactive compound, was only detected in tubers; its content were enhanced with the increasing K fertilization, but reduced with excess N fertilization (N200). Although N and K fertilizers are important for C. taiwanianum tuber production, the yield of cynandione A was associated with K but not N fertilization rates. These results provide some essential information for the optimal production of C. taiwanianum tubers and functional compounds. Further studies are required to examine the mechanism(s) of cynandione A biosynthesis and its compartmentation in plant tissues.

M. Aurangzeib ◽  
S. Hussain ◽  
A. Rehim ◽  
M. A. Bashir ◽  
H. M. A. Raza

Understanding the dynamics of potassium (K) and its availability is fundamental in its efficient use as an important nutrient. The objectives of present study were to compare standard K extraction methods for extractable K and kinetics of K adsorption on five different textured soils. The soils were analyzed for physico-chemical properties, extractable K contents and kinetics of K adsorption. The soils had variable contents of soluble (8-52mg kg-1), exchangeable (13-215mg kg-1), fixed (488-1836mg kg-1), structural (2936-26362mg kg-1) and total K (3438-28517mg kg-1). Except soluble K, the amount of K in different forms was significantly (P?0.05) correlated with clay contents, electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC) and calcium carbonate in soils. Different methods variated the extracted K in different textured soils. Mehlich-III, ammonium acetate, AB-DTPA, and calcium chloride extracted K was maximum in sandy clay loam (298mg kg-1, 267mg kg?1, 226mg kg-1, and 113mg kg-1) and lowest was in loamy sand (33mg kg-1, 24mg  kg-1, 30mg kg-1, and 24mg   kg-1) respectively. Elovich and power function models best explained the K kinetics adsorption, as rate of adsorption constants were negatively correlated with sand contents in the soil type. Pearson correlation showed that the extractability of K by different methods and kinetics of K adsorption were dependent on soil texture EC, CEC and calcium carbonate contents. Hence, soil physico-chemical properties should be considered in recommending rate of K fertilization along with crop K demand and soil extractable K.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (24) ◽  
pp. 11869
Patrick Marcuzzo ◽  
Federica Gaiotti ◽  
Marco Lucchetta ◽  
Lorenzo Lovat ◽  
Diego Tomasi

Potassium concentration in grape berries can affect acidity and pH in must and wines. Under the current warming scenario, where preserving equilibrated value for these grape parameters is increasingly challenging, K fertilization could represent a tool to manage grape composition. In this study, the effect of potassium fertilization was investigated over 4 years (2013–2016) in field-grown grapevines (Vitis vinifera cv. Glera). Four different potassium rates (0, 15, 30, 60 kg K2O ha−1 year−1) were tested and agronomic responses, grape quality as well as K concentration in the berry were recorded over the four years. At harvest, yield parameters and total soluble solids were unaffected by potassium fertilization. On the contrary, the titratable acidity of the musts was increased by the higher rate of potassium (K60), and both tartaric and malic acids showed higher values when the K rate was higher. K fertilization did not affect the pH, as all the treatments displayed comparable pH values and in an optimal range for winemaking. Overall, in our experimental conditions, medium potassium inputs showed better results on Glera grape quality compared to low K rates, by promoting higher titratable acidity levels without altering the pH in musts.

Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 2624
Andrei Kuzin ◽  
Alexei Solovchenko

K (K) is of paramount importance for apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.), not only for tree growth and development but also for the size and quality of fruit yield. The apple plant’s demand for K varies, along with the progression of phenological phases, during the growing season. The K demand peaks during ripening of fruits featuring relatively high concentration of K comparable to that of the leaves. The mainstream method of apple tree K fertilization is through application of the fertilizer to the soils to improve K uptake by the roots. The bioavailability of K depends on assorted various factors, including pH, interaction with other nutrients in soil solution, temperature, and humidity. An important role in making the K from soil available for uptake by plants is played by plant growth-promoting microorganisms (PGPM), and the specific role of the PGPM is discussed. Advantages of fertigation (the combination of irrigation and fertilization) as an approach include allowing to balance application rate of K fertilizer against its variable demand by plants during the growing season. Excess K in the soil leads to competitive inhibition of calcium uptake by plants. The K-dependent deficiency of Ca leads to its predominant channeling to the leaves and hence to its decline in fruits. Consequently, the apple fruits affected by the K/Ca imbalance frequently develop physiological disorders in storage. This emphasizes the importance of the balanced K application, especially during the last months of the growing season, depending on the crop load and the actual K demand. The potential use of modern approaches to automated crop load estimation through machine vision for adjustment of K fertilization is underlined.

2021 ◽  
pp. 46173
Armando Tasistro ◽  
Robertony Camas-Gómez ◽  
Ivan Ortiz-Monasterio

Introduction. Maize (Zea mays L.) production in La Frailesca region, Mexico, is limited by sandy soils, low in potassium (K), and with acidic arable layers and subsoils. There is information on the management of lime but not on amendments that could be used for subsoil acidity — such as gypsum — nor on the interactions between amendments for soil acidity and K fertilization. Objective. To evaluate the effects of K and gypsum on maize and on previously limed soils. Materials and methods. The evaluations were conducted in farmers’ fields in La Frailesca region, Chiapas (Mexico) in 2016 and 2017. Four gypsum rates (0, 1.25, 2.5 and 5 t ha-1) and four K rates (0, 60, 90, and 120 kg ha-1 as K2O) were factorially combined in a randomized block design, with three replicates. In both years, before the beginning of the experiments, dolomitic lime was applied to the experimental area following standard practices. Responses of crop yield, soil exchangeable K, Ca, Mg, and Al, and soil pH were obtained. Results. Maize yields increased with gypsum (stabilizing at 1.25-3.0 t ha-1), and K (stabilizing at 70-120 kg ha-1 of K2O) applications. In soils, K application increased exchangeable K content, while gypsum increased exchangeable Ca content and pH, and decreased exchangeable Al content. Liming increased pHCa and exchangeable Ca and Mg contents, and lowered the exchangeable Al content in the top 7.5 cm of soil. Conclusion. Soils with exchangeable K (≤0.3 cmolc kg-1) were responsive to K fertilization. The positive effects on yields from gypsum were probably linked to a greater Ca supply in the top 7.5 cm. These results are encouraging about the benefits of the combined application of dolomitic lime, gypsum, and K, but longer evaluations are needed to properly determine the effects of gypsum on subsoil acidity.

Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 2370
Breno Leonan de Carvalho Lima ◽  
Ênio Farias de França e Silva ◽  
João Henrique Zonta ◽  
Cícero Pereira Cordão Terceiro Neto ◽  
Claudivan Feitosa de Lacerda ◽  

Treated domestic sewage (TDS) can contribute to plant nutrition and improve crop production. However, there are no data for its use in coloured cotton under a deficit or excess irrigation in combination with potassium fertilization rates (KRs), mainly under semiarid tropical conditions. The research was conducted using a randomized complete block design in a factorial scheme (5 × 5, irrigation regimes vs. potassium rates), plus an additional treatment as the control ((5 × 5) + 1). The treatments consisted of five TDS irrigation regimes (50, 75, 100, 125, and 150% of crop evapotranspiration—ETC) and five KRs (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200% of the local crop recommendation), plus a control—CT— (irrigated with fresh water at 100% ETC and fertilized according to the local crop recommendation) and four replications. The optimal crop yield, water use efficiency, and potassium use efficiency were obtained when TDS was applied as a deficit irrigation treatment of 75% of ETc or as full irrigation (100% of ETC) and when associated with moderate increases in K fertilization. These treatments also resulted in a better fibre quality when compared to the CT, meeting or exceeding the requirements of the textile industry. Therefore, moderate deficit irrigation with TDS is indicated as an important strategy to save fresh water and to reduce the use of fertilizers, while having the potential to increase profit margins for cotton production in tropical semiarid regions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Zhiyi Zhang ◽  
Dongbi Liu ◽  
Maoqian Wu ◽  
Ying Xia ◽  
Fulin Zhang ◽  

AbstractThe aims of the present study were to provide scientific bases for rational use of crop straw to substitute chemical potassium (K) input. The effects of potassium fertilization and straw incorporation on soil K balance and K supplying in a long-term (14 years) field experiment. Five treatments were examined: (1) no fertilization (CK); (2) mineral fertilizing (NPK); (3) straw 6000 kg h m−2 (S); (4) NPK with straw 3000 kg h m−2 (NPK1/2S); and (5) NPK with straw 6000 kg h m−2 (NPKS). K composition, K balance and quantity-intensity (Q/I) relationship were studied. Under no fertilization or low straw returned conditions, soil K was unbalanced and deficienct seriously. Straw return at 6000 kg h m−2 per season with fertilization improved the soil potassium supply and K balance. Long-term K surplus (4 or 5 years), compared with NPK, the NPKS significantly increased non-special K adsorption (Knsa) and non-exchangeable K (Kne) by 5.7–11.2 mg kg−1 and 65.7–128.1 mg kg−1, respectively. Q/I relationship showed cropping without straw K or without fertilizer K resulted in lower quantity (nonspecifically and specifically held K i.e. – ∆K0 and Kx) and intensity (equilibrium activity ratio i.e. CR0K) of K in tested soils. K-fertilization with straw maintain higher exchangeable K (EK0) and a higher difference between EK0 and minimum exchangeable K(EKmin), and would help to prevent depletion in non-exchangeable pool of soil K under intensive cropping. Additionally, The straw return mainly decreased potential buffering capacity for exchangeable pool (PBCKn), 43.92–48.22% of added K in soil might be converted to exchangeable pool while it was 25.67–29.19% be converted to non-exchangeable pool. The contribution of exchangeable K towards plant K uptake would be higher in the soil with straw than the soil without straw and the non-exchangeable K would be the long-term fixed K as a supplement to the potassium pool. K fertilizer with 6000 kg h m−2 straw return in each crop season increased soil available K and slowly available K. The findings underlined importance of the straw return and contribution for sustain K supplying ability of soils.

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