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2021 ◽  
Vol 33 (2) ◽  
pp. 325-333
Yasir Iftikhar ◽  
Muhammad Noman ◽  
Muhammad A. Zeshan ◽  
Ashara Sajid ◽  
Qaiser Shakeel ◽  

Electronics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 99
Shahood uz Zaman ◽  
Xuyuan Tao ◽  
Cedric Cochrane ◽  
Vladan Koncar

E-textiles is a new hybrid field developed with the help of the integration of electronic components into our daily usage of textile products. These wearable e-textiles provide user-defined applications as well as normal textile clothing. The medical field is one of the major leading areas where these new hybrid products are being implemented, and relatively mature products can be observed in the laboratory as well as in commercial markets. These products are developed for continuous patient monitoring in large-scale hospital centers as well as for customized patient requirements. Meanwhile, these products are also being used for complex medical treatments and the replacement of conventional methods. This review manuscript contains a basic overview of e-textile systems, their components, applications, and usages in the field of medical innovations. E-textile systems, integrated into customized products for medical needs, are discussed with their proposed properties and limitations. Finally, some recommendations to enhance the e-textile system’s integration into the medical field are argued.

Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 2803
Yuval Tadmor ◽  
Amir Raz ◽  
Shira Reikin-Barak ◽  
Vivek Ambastha ◽  
Eli Shemesh ◽  

Chemical thinning of apple fruitlets is an important practice as it reduces the natural fruit load and, therefore, increases the size of the final fruit for commercial markets. In apples, one chemical thinner used is Metamitron, which is sold as the commercial product Brevis® (Adama, Israel). This thinner inhibits the electron transfer between Photosystem II and Quinone-a within light reactions of photosynthesis. In this study, we investigated the responses of two apple cultivars—Golden Delicious and Top Red—and photosynthetic light reactions after administration of Brevis®. The analysis revealed that the presence of the inhibitor affects both cultivars’ energetic status. The kinetics of the photoprotective mechanism’s sub-processes are attenuated in both cultivars, but this seems more severe in the Top Red cultivar. State transitions of the antenna and Photosystem II repair cycle are decreased substantially when the Metamitron concentration is above 0.6% in the Top Red cultivar but not in the Golden Delicious cultivar. These attenuations result from a biased absorbed energy distribution between photochemistry and photoprotection pathways in the two cultivars. We suggest that Metamitron inadvertently interacts with photoprotective mechanism-related enzymes in chloroplasts of apple tree leaves. Specifically, we hypothesize that it may interact with the kinases responsible for the induction of state transitions and the Photosystem II repair cycle.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Catherine R. Virelli ◽  
Ayeshah G. Mohiuddin ◽  
James L. Kennedy

AbstractPharmacogenomics (PGx) is the study of genetic influences on an individual’s response to medications. Improvements in the quality and quantity of PGx research over the past two decades have enabled the establishment of commercial markets for PGx tests. Nevertheless, PGx testing has yet to be adopted as a routine practice in clinical care. Accordingly, policy regulating the commercialization and reimbursement of PGx testing is in its infancy. Several papers have been published on the topic of challenges, or ‘barriers’ to clinical adoption of this healthcare innovation. However, many do not include recent evidence from randomized controlled trials, economic utility studies, and qualitative assessments of stakeholder opinions. The present paper revisits the most cited barriers to adoption of PGx testing: evidence for clinical utility, evidence for economic effectiveness, and stakeholder awareness. We consider these barriers in the context of reviewing PGx literature published over the past two decades and emphasize data from commercial PGx testing companies, since they have published the largest datasets. We conclude with a discussion of existing limitations to PGx testing and recommendations for progress.

Ling Li ◽  
Wayne Xinwei Wan

AbstractExpected losses anchored to purchase prices can affect actual transactions in different property sectors. Utilizing the data of over a million commercial and residential property transactions in Hong Kong from 1991 to 2015, we find that sellers facing nominal losses relative to their prior purchase prices attained higher selling prices than their counterparts. We suggest two market factors to account for the extent of the loss effect on the market transaction prices. First, the loss effect is only prominent when comparable transaction information is not readily accessible, such as in the less-transacted commercial property market. Second, our results suggest the relevance of the loss effect to the boom-bust property cycle in both the residential and commercial markets. The effect of expected losses on transaction prices is relatively weak in the bust period between 1998 and 2003 when the Hong Kong property market lost almost two-thirds of its value, and it enlarges with the market recovering. The loss effect is not attenuated at the aggregate market level but is associated with strong reductions in price declines in the bust period and in the commercial market. These results have implications for understanding the market adjustment of the loss effect in the property market and its association with the aggregate market dynamics in a boom-bust property cycle.

Eveligh Prado-Carpio ◽  
María de Lourdes Olivo-Garrido ◽  
Manuel Quiñonez-Cabeza ◽  
Christine M. Beitl ◽  
Moisés Martínez-Soto ◽  

The bivalve mollusk, Anadara tuberculosa (Black Shell, in Spanish Concha prieta, "CP"), is found on America's Pacific coast, where it is harvested for subsistence and commercial markets. This paper aims to diagnose the performance of the black shell's value chain. We also identify several challenges that must be addressed to improve the sustainability of the black shell fishery in Ecuador. The descriptive methodology was quantitative, with a non-experimental, field, cross-sectional, and ex post facto design. Similar questionnaires were designed, validated, and applied to each link in the production chain to collect information. The performance of the value chain was diagnosed in the dimensions of productivity, competitiveness, and quality of life, reaching a 75.1% index, a result that indicates that the value chain has a moderate to good performance level. However, the value chain can be improved if the following challenges are met: 1) Restoration of the mangrove ecosystem, 2) Promotion of low-intensity shellfish aquaculture, 3) Good sanitary management and purification, 4) Promotion of value-focused ventures, 5) Strengthening of organizations and agreements for the use and custody of mangroves, and 6) Strengthening of institutions that contribute to the advancement of these challenges.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (8) ◽  
Zachary P. Morehouse ◽  
Gabriella L. Ryan ◽  
Caleb M. Proctor ◽  
Akelachi Okparanta ◽  
Will Todd ◽  

AbstractThe use of Cannabis sativa, or Hemp, in commercial, recreational, and pharmacological applications is on the rise in the United States and worldwide. Many of these applications have guidelines associated with them dependent on the concentration of cannabinoid molecules that keep the products classified as hemp versus marijuana or that allow the producer to comment on the purity and potency of their product. Herein, we propose a method for homogenization of hemp that results in small particle sizes, uniform samples, and does not alter the cannabinoid concentrations during processing, allowing for optimal and reproducible potency testing. Using a novel “active grinding media” we homogenized commercially available hemp to analyze approximately 100 mg samples of homogenate via sieve analysis and high-performance liquid chromatography to assess the resulting size and potency of the sample when using this methodology. When processing hemp samples with our proposed methodology, we have demonstrated the ability to produce 60.2% of all particles < 1.25 mm with increased cannabinoid recovery compared to homogenates with larger average particle sizes. Maintaining sample temperatures below 35 °C during processing, we showed that our method does not thermally induce decarboxylation reactions that would result in major cannabinoid profile changes. We have developed a method for hemp processing via homogenization that does not alter the cannabinoid profile during processing, while consistently producing small particle sizes in a uniformly processed sample. This method allows for optimal and reproducible hemp processing when evaluating hemp and hemp-based products being brought to commercial markets.

2021 ◽  
Pauline O'Connor

Over the last 15 years or so, Canadian social enterprises have consistently identified lack of access to financing as an important barrier to their growth and sustainability (e.g., Bridge & Corriveau 2009; Mulholland et al 2011; Treurnicht 2011; McIsaac & Moody 2013; Malhotra et al. 2010; Flatt et al. 2013; CTFSF 2010). Social enterprises in other jurisdictions have echoed a similar complaint (e.g., SEUK 2011, 2013). The same period has also witnessed the emergence of “social investment markets” in several jurisdictions. Social investment markets offer the promise of providing social enterprises and other social purpose organizations with the types and amount of financing they need, outside of mainstream commercial markets. Keywords: CVSS, Centre for Voluntary Sector Studies, Working Paper Series,TRSM, Ted Rogers School of Management Citation:

Forests ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 631
Patrick N. McGovern ◽  
Yulia A. Kuzovkina ◽  
Raju Y. Soolanayakanahally

A variety of Salix L. (Willow) tree and shrub cultivars provide resources for significant commercial markets such as bioenergy, environmental applications, basket manufacturing, and ornamental selections. The International Poplar Commission of the Food and Agriculture Organization (IPC FAO) has maintained the Checklist for Cultivars of Salix L. (Willow) since 2015 and now lists 968 epithet records in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet format. This Proof-of-Concept (POC) investigates using an SQL database to store existing IPC Salix cultivar information and provide users with a format to compare and submit new Salix cultivar entries. The original IPC data were divided into three separate tables: Epithet, Species, and Family. Then, the data were viewed from three different model perspectives: the original Salix IPC spreadsheet data, the Canadian (PWCC), and the Open4st database. Requirements for this process need to balance database integrity rules with the ease of adding new Salix cultivar entries. An integrated approach from all three models proposed three tables: Epithet, Family, and Pedigree. The Epithet and Family tables also included Species data with a reference to a website link for accepted species names and details. The integrated process provides a more robust method to store and report data, but would require dedicated IT personnel to implement and maintain long-term. A potential use case scenario could involve users submitting their Checklist entries to the Salix administrator for review; the entries are then entered into a test environment by IT resources for final review and promotion to a production online environment. Perhaps the most beneficial outcome of this study is the investigation of various strategies and standards for Epithet and Family recording processes, which may benefit the entire Populus and Salix communities.

Sylvester Kyei-Gyamfi ◽  
Theophilus Awennyemi Abutima ◽  
Bernard Akyeampong Amoh

This paper focuses primarily on the current conditions of girls engaged in the ‘Kaya’ business in commercial markets in urban areas in Ghana. The paperaims at establishing the failure of the family and government in addressing the ‘kayayie’ phenomenon in Ghana. The specific objectives are to find the causes, consequences, and attempts made by government to address the phenomenon, and the way forward. The methodology for writing this paper is essentially that of a desk review of available literature and information from the Ministry of Gender Children and Social Protection (MoGCSP), supplemented with academic materials and personal observations. The paper poses the question: why has the family and government failed to address the ‘kayayei’ phenomenon in Ghana? It is positioned on Everett Lee’s Push and Push Model (1960) which explains migration as having factors that either push or pull individuals to move out of places of origin. A major finding of this paper is that budget challenges affect the government’s capacity to provide funds and sustain projects aimed at improving the welfare of kayayei. The paper does not only recommend that issues relating to ‘Kayayei’ should be prioritised but also that a national data collection exercise be embarked upon to collect accurate figures to enable government take informed decisions, and to enhance monitoring and evaluation.

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