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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 658
Alexandre Joushomme ◽  
André Garenne ◽  
Mélody Dufossée ◽  
Rémy Renom ◽  
Hermanus Johannes Ruigrok ◽  

It remains controversial whether exposure to environmental radiofrequency signals (RF) impacts cell status or response to cellular stress such as apoptosis or autophagy. We used two label-free techniques, cellular impedancemetry and Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM), to assess the overall cellular response during RF exposure alone, or during co-exposure to RF and chemical treatments known to induce either apoptosis or autophagy. Two human cell lines (SH-SY5Y and HCT116) and two cultures of primary rat cortex cells (astrocytes and co-culture of neurons and glial cells) were exposed to RF using an 1800 MHz carrier wave modulated with various environmental signals (GSM: Global System for Mobile Communications, 2G signal), UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System, 3G signal), LTE (Long-Term Evolution, 4G signal, and Wi-Fi) or unmodulated RF (continuous wave, CW). The specific absorption rates (S.A.R.) used were 1.5 and 6 W/kg during DHM experiments and ranged from 5 to 24 W/kg during the recording of cellular impedance. Cells were continuously exposed for three to five consecutive days while the temporal phenotypic signature of cells behavior was recorded at constant temperature. Statistical analysis of the results does not indicate that RF-EMF exposure impacted the global behavior of healthy, apoptotic, or autophagic cells, even at S.A.R. levels higher than the guidelines, provided that the temperature was kept constant.

Marie Audouin ◽  
Nicolas Philippe ◽  
Fabien Bernardeau ◽  
Mariann Chaussy ◽  
Sergio Pons Ribera ◽  

The use of bio-based material is now widespread in insulation concrete, for example hemp concrete. The bio-based materials in concrete provide many advantages: lightness, sound and thermal insulation, hydrothermal regulation while contributing to a reduction in the environmental impact due to the carbon capture during the plant growth. The development of materials incorporating plant is therefore an important objective for the construction. The next step will be to introduce bio-based materials in structural mortars and concretes. The project FIBRABETON proposes to substitute synthetic or metallic fibers by natural fibers in screed and slab. After a selection of biomass on the resources availability, separation and fractionation are the key step in processing to obtain technical natural fibers. Bulk fiber shaping and packaging methods for easy handling and transportation are tested. Then, functionalization of technical natural fibers by physical & chemical treatments to improve the durability with cement paste is carried out. The second step concerns the introduction of treated or not treated fibers in mortar and concrete formulations. The variation of the nature of the biomass, fibers shape and dosage in concrete are studied. The workability, the compressive strength and withdrawal resistance are measured in order to obtain the best formulation parameters. The evolution of properties over time is also evaluated. The project FIBRABETON is carried out with ESTP, FRD and Vicat and is subsidized by ADEME, Grand Est region and FEDER.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Anella Saggese ◽  
Ylenia De Luca ◽  
Loredana Baccigalupi ◽  
Ezio Ricca

Abstract Background Members of the Bacillus genus produce a large variety of antimicrobial peptides including linear or cyclic lipopeptides and thiopeptides, that often have a broad spectrum of action against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We have recently reported that SF214, a marine isolated strain of Bacillus pumilus, produces two different antimicrobials specifically active against either Staphylococcus aureus or Listeria monocytogenes. The anti-Staphylococcus molecule has been previously characterized as a pumilacidin, a nonribosomally synthesized lipopetide composed of a mixture of cyclic heptapeptides linked to fatty acids of variable length. Results Our analysis on the anti-Listeria molecule of B. pumilus SF214 indicated that it is a peptide slightly smaller than 10 kDa, produced during the exponential phase of growth, stable at a wide range of pH conditions and resistant to various chemical treatments. The peptide showed a lytic activity against growing but not resting cells of Listeria monocytogenes and appeared extremely specific being inactive also against L. innocua, a close relative of L. monocytogenes. Conclusions These findings indicate that the B. pumilus peptide is unusual with respect to other antimicrobials both for its time of synthesis and secretion and for its strict specificity against L. monocytogenes. Such specificity, together with its stability, propose this new antimicrobial as a tool for potential biotechnological applications in the fight against the dangerous food-borne pathogen L. monocytogenes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 67 (4) ◽  
pp. 306-312
Zang Ping ◽  
Xue Jun ◽  
Wang Yan ◽  
Zhang Jun

Pediatric allergic asthma is a chronic disease that affects the lungs and airways. If a child is exposed to certain stimulants such as pollen inhalation, colds, or respiratory infections, the lungs become inflamed and if left untreated can lead to dangerous asthma attacks. One of the most important treatments for this disease is the use of leukotriene modulators, such as montelukast. But recently, due to easier access, cheaper prices and fewer side effects, attention has shifted to non-chemical treatments. Gan-Cao (Glycyrrhizae uralensis), as traditional Chinese medicine, has been proved to have a good therapeutic effect on experimental allergic asthma. But its anti-asthma mechanism is currently unclear. Therefore, the study aimed the comparison between the effect of Gan-Cao and montelukast on the expression of T-bet and GATA-3 genes in children with allergic asthma. For this purpose, fifty children with allergic asthma were divided into two groups. The first group was treated with montelukast for one month. The second group was treated with Gan-Cao root extract. Then the peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated, their RNA was extracted, and the relative expression of T-bet and GATA3 transcription factors was evaluated by Real-time PCR. The relationship between them and risk factors for asthma was assessed by relevant statistical tests. The result showed the expression of the GATA3 gene (P = 0.102), T-bet gene (P = 0.888), and the expression ratio of T-bet/GATA-3 genes (P = 0.061) was not significantly different between the two groups. It showed that Gan-Cao can affect the expression of these genes just as much as montelukast. Therefore, this Chinese herb can be used as an alternative or supplement medicine to treat allergic asthma in children.

Effects of chemical treatments with benzoyl chloride, acetone and alkali on the physical and mechanical properties of Orange Peel Particulate (OPP) reinforced epoxy composite materials have been studied. Hand lay-up technique was applied to manufacture the composites. The experimental results illustrate that chemical treatment with benzoyl chloride has a considerable impact. The properties of OPP reinforced composite material have been enhanced by 15% (for tensile test) and 30% (in case of flexural test) due to benzoyl chloride treatment as compared to raw OPP composites. It is evident from Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) that non cellulosic content was removed from the surface of the fiber due to benzoyl chloride treatment. After chemical treatment there was good interfacial bonding between matrix and filler material as observed in SEM micrographs. From the experimental observations, it can be seen that among all fabricated composites, set of composites with 30% filler loading yields excellent mechanical properties.

2022 ◽  
Vol 28 (1) ◽  
pp. 120-129
Yeganeh Basiri ◽  
Nematollah Etemadi ◽  
Mahdi Alizadeh ◽  
Ali Nikbakht ◽  
Ghodratollah Saeidi

Abstract Eremurus spectabilis is a new, commercially valuable specialty cut flower, but little is known about the applicable treatments to extend the vase-life and maintaining the ornamental quality of this flower. Therefore, the present study was aimed at investigating the impacts of nano-silver, essential oils, and chemical treatments on keeping ornamental quality and vase-life of cut inflorescences of Foxtail lily. The cut inflorescences were placed in different vase solutions containing salicylic acid (100 and 200 mg L-1), methyl jasmonate (25 and 50 mg L-1), silver thiosulfate (0.1 mM) plus isothiazolinone (0.001 and 0.005 mL L-1), nano-silver (5, 10, and 15 mg L-1), thymol (75 and 120 mg L-1), and menthol (75 and 120 mg L-1), which were applied as continuous and pulsing methods. According to the results, all treatments considerably improved the post-harvest performance of Foxtail lily cut flowers. Although there were no significant differences among nano-silver (NS) treatments, the cut inflorescences kept in vase solution containing 10 mg L-1 of NS exhibited the longest vase life (~14 days) and the best ornamental quality. Nano-silver treatment followed by silver-thiosulfate significantly improved solution uptake by flowering inflorescences, thereby delaying the water balance loss and keeping relative fresh weight. Furthermore, 50 mg L-1 methyl jasmonate- and 75 mg L-1 menthol-treated cut inflorescences exhibited significantly higher vase-life longevity by ~ 6 and 4 days, total soluble solutes by 28.38% and 19.12%, and solution uptake rate by 76.46% and 140.6%, respectively, as compared to control. Overall, 10 mg L-1 NS can be recommended as a commercial preservative solution to delay flower senescence and improve the vase life and keeping the quality of foxtail cut inflorescence.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (20) ◽  
pp. 165-171
Tincuța-Marta Gocan ◽  
Ileana Andreica ◽  
Daniela-Sabina Poșta ◽  
Vasile Lazăr ◽  
Sándor Rózsa ◽  

The cut flowers are living organs, with intense metabolic activity, subjected to a rapid aging process compared to the undetached flowers from the mother plant. Improving the life of cut flowers is one of the most important factors for customer satisfaction. The effect of silver thiosulphate (STS) and commercial mixtures was studied in carnation cut flowers and kept in randomized vases according to experimental factors. Three commercial mixtures were used (Chrysal, Flower Food, Fleur̛ Rose) and for thiosulphate four levels (0 or control, 0.03, 0.06 and 0.9 mM). The interaction of the two factors studied was insignificant for most traits, including wilting percentage and vase lifespan, which may involve the application of both substances alone is sufficient to improve post-harvest quality and is not necessary to use simultaneously in the preservative solution. The results also showed that following the interaction of the two factors, treatment with 0.06 mM silver thiosulphate can be applied to improve the post-harvest quality of blossom cut flowers and commercial chemical mixtures can be successfully replaced.

Insects ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 32
Lacey J. Jenson ◽  
James J. Becnel ◽  
Jeffrey R. Bloomquist

Previous studies have shown that insect cell cultures stop dividing, form clumps, and can be induced to grow processes reminiscent of axons, when the culture medium is supplemented with 20-hydroxyecdysone, insulin, or an agent that mimics their action, such as the ecdysone agonist, methoxyfenozide. Those cell growing processes resemble nerve cells, and the present study evaluates the ultrastructure of these cultures by transmission electron microscopy. Sf21 cells treated with 20-hydroxyecdysone (with or without veratridine amendment) and subjected to ultrastructural analysis had a similar somatic appearance to control cells, with slight changes in organelles and organization, such as a greater number of cytoplasmic vacuoles and mitochondrial granules. Finger-like projections were observed between control and treated cells. However, no structural markers of synaptic contacts (e.g., vesicles or synaptic thickenings) were observed in controls, 20-hydroxyecdysone, or 20-hydroxyecdysone + veratridine treated cells. It is concluded that additional agents would be required to induce functional synaptogenesis in Sf21 cells.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (6) ◽  
pp. 388-394
Hyun Jung Park ◽  
Sung Ja Rhie ◽  
Insop Shim

Obesity is a chronic disease of increasing prevalence in most countries, which leads to substantial increase in morbidity, and mortality in association with diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, hypertension, and other cardiovascular diseases. Many factors have been attributed to an epidemic of obesity including sedentary lifestyle, high-fat diets (HFD), and consumption of large amount of modern fast foods. Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (PG) has several pharmacological and physiological effects. In particular, PG and saponin fractions from PG show a variety of efficacies such as antifatigue, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and obesity. We have revealed that ginseng and ginsenosides can decrease food intake energy expenditure by stimulating appetite regulatory hormones and can reduce energy intake. Exercise/physical activity is well known as modality for treating the disease of overweight and obesity. It is suggested that natural products and their combinations with exercise may produce a synergistic activity that increases their bioavailability and action on multiple molecular targets, offering advantages over chemical treatments. This review is aimed at evaluating the antiobesity efficacy of ginseng and ginsenosides and delineating the mechanisms by which they function. Finally, we review information regarding interactions between ginseng and physical exercise in protecting against weight gain and obesity.

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