minimal inhibitory concentrations
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Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 506
Jie Lu ◽  
Zhiqiang Huang ◽  
Yusheng Liu ◽  
Huimin Wang ◽  
Min Qiu ◽  

Flavonoids have important biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant and whitening, which is a potential functional food raw material. However, the biological activity of Fengdan peony flavonoid is not particularly clear. Therefore, in this study, the peony flavonoid was extracted from Fengdan peony seed meal, and the antioxidant, antibacterial and whitening activities of the peony flavonoid were explored. The optimal extraction conditions were methanol concentration of 90%, solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:35 g:mL, temperature of 55 °C and time of 80 min; under these conditions, the yield of Fengdan peony flavonoid could reach 1.205 ± 0.019% (the ratio of the dry mass of rutin to the dry mass of peony seed meal). The clearance of Fengdan peony total flavonoids to 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, hydroxyl radical and 2,2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) free radical could reach 75%, 70% and 97%, respectively. Fengdan peony flavonoid could inhibit the growth of the Gram-positive bacteria. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of Fengdan peony flavonoid on S. aureus, B. anthracis, B. subtilis and C. perfringens were 0.0293 mg/mL, 0.1172 mg/mL, 0.2344 mg/mL and 7.500 mg/mL, respectively. The inhibition rate of Fengdan peony flavonoid on tyrosinase was 8.53–81.08%. This study intensely illustrated that the antioxidant, whitening and antibacterial activity of Fengdan peony total flavonoids were significant. Fengdan peony total flavonoids have a great possibility of being used as functional food materials.

Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 102
Daniela Fortini ◽  
Slawomir Owczarek ◽  
Anna Dionisi ◽  
Claudia Lucarelli ◽  
Sergio Arena ◽  

Background: A collection of human-epidemiologically unrelated S. enterica strains collected over a 3-year period (2016 to 2018) in Italy by the national surveillance Enter-Net Italia was analysed. Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibility tests, including the determination of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for colistin, were performed. Colistin resistant strains were analysed by PCR to detect mobile colistin resistance (mcr) genes. In mcr-negative S. enterica serovar Enteritidis strains, chromosomal mutations potentially involved in colistin resistance were identified by a genomic approach. Results: The prevalence of colistin-resistant S. enterica strains was 7.7%, the majority (87.5%) were S. Enteritidis. mcr genes were identified only in one strain, a S. Typhimurium monophasic variant, positive for both mcr-1.1 and mcr-5.1 genes in an IncHI2 ST4 plasmid. Several chromosomal mutations were identified in the colistin-resistant mcr-negative S. Enteritidis strains in proteins involved in lipopolysaccharide and outer membrane synthesis and modification (RfbN, LolB, ZraR) and in a component of a multidrug efflux pump (MdsC). These mutated proteins were defined as possible candidates for colistin resistance in mcr-negative S. Enteritidis of our collection. Conclusions: The colistin national surveillance in Salmonella spp. in humans, implemented with genomic-based surveillance, permitted to monitor colistin resistance, determining the prevalence of mcr determinants and the study of new candidate mechanisms for colistin resistance.

Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 318
Mohamed E. El-Hefnawy ◽  
Sultan Alhayyani ◽  
Mohsen M. El-Sherbiny ◽  
Mohamed I. Sakran ◽  
Mohamed H. El-Newehy

Fabrication of electrospun nanofibers based on the blending of modified natural polymer, hydroxyl propyl starch (HPS) as one of the most renewable resources, with synthetic polymers, such as polyurethane (PU) is of great potential for biomedical applications. The as-prepared nanofibers were used as antimicrobial sheets via blending with biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), which were prepared in a safe way with low cost using the extract of Nerium oleander leaves, which acted as a reducing and stabilizing agent as well. The biosynthesized AgNPs were fully characterized by various techniques (UV-vis, TEM, DLS, zeta potential and XRD). The obtained results from UV-vis depicted that the AgNPs appeared at a wavelength equal to 404 nm affirming the preparation of AgNPs when compared with the wavelength of extract (there are no observable peaks). The average particle size of the fabricated AgNPs that mediated with HPS exhibited a very small size (less than 5 nm) with excellent stability (more than −30 mv). In addition, the fabricated nanofibers were also fully characterized and the obtained data proved that the diameter of nanofibers was enlarged with increasing the concentration of AgNPs. Additionally, the findings illustrated that the pore sizes of electrospun sheets were in the range of 75 to 350 nm. The obtained results proved that the presence of HPS displayed a vital role in decreasing the contact angle of PU nanofibers and thus, increased the hydrophilicity of the net nanofibers. It is worthy to mention that the prepared nanofibers incorporated with AgNPs exhibited incredible antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microbes that actually presented in human wounds. Moreover, P. aeruginosa was the most sensitive species to the fabricated nanofibers compared to other tested ones. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) values of AgNPs-3@NFs against P. aeruginosa, and E. faecalis, were 250 and 500 mg/L within 15 min, respectively.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Anja Müller ◽  
Keisuke Sakurai ◽  
Diana Seinige ◽  
Kunihiko Nishino ◽  
Corinna Kehrenberg

The prototype fexA gene confers combined resistance to chloramphenicol and florfenicol. However, fexA variants mediating resistance only to chloramphenicol have been identified, such as in the case of a Staphylococcus aureus isolate recovered from poultry meat illegally imported to Germany. The effects of the individual mutations detected in the fexA sequence of this isolate were investigated in this study. A total of 11 fexA variants, including prototype fexA and variants containing the different previously described mutations either alone or in different combinations, were generated by on-chip gene synthesis and site-directed mutagenesis. The constructs were inserted into a shuttle vector and transformed into three recipient strains (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella Typhimurium). Subsequently, minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of florfenicol and chloramphenicol were determined. In addition, protein modeling was used to predict the structural effects of the mutations. The lack of florfenicol-resistance mediating properties of the fexA variants could be attributed to the presence of a C110T and/or G98C mutation. Transformants carrying fexA variants containing either of these mutations, or both, showed a reduction of florfenicol MICs compared to those transformants carrying prototype fexA or any of the other variants. The significance of these mutations was supported by the generated protein models, indicating a substitution toward more voluminous amino-acids in the substrate-binding site of FexA. The remaining mutations, A391G and C961A, did not result in lower florfenicol-resistance compared to prototype fexA.

Lutfur Rahman ◽  
Sabahat Asif ◽  
Ata Ullaha ◽  
Waheed S. Khan ◽  
Asma Rehman

Abstract: The rapid emergence of multidrug resistant bacterial strains clearly highlights the need for the development of new antimicrobial compounds/materials to address associated healthcare challenges. Meanwhile, the adverse side effects of conventional antibiotics on human health urge the development of new natural product-based antimicrobials to minimize the side effects. In this respect, we concisely review the recent scientific contributions to develop natural product-based nano-antibiotics. The focus of the review is on the use of flavonoids, peptides, and cationic biopolymer functionalized metal/metal oxide nanoparticles as efficient tools to hit the MDR bacterial strains. It summarizes the most recent aspects of the functionalized nanoparticles against various pathogenic bacterial strains with respect to their minimal inhibitory concentrations and mechanism of action at the cellular and molecular levels. At the end, the future perspectives to materialize the in vivo applications of nano-antimicrobials are suggested on the basis of the available research.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 214
Daria Chlebek ◽  
Tomasz Płociniczak ◽  
Sara Gobetti ◽  
Agata Kumor ◽  
Katarzyna Hupert-Kocurek ◽  

The Pseudomonas qingdaonensis ZCR6 strain, isolated from the rhizosphere of Zea mays growing in soil co-contaminated with hydrocarbons and heavy metals, was investigated for its plant growth promotion, hydrocarbon degradation, and heavy metal resistance. In vitro bioassays confirmed all of the abovementioned properties. ZCR6 was able to produce indole acetic acid (IAA), siderophores, and ammonia, solubilized Ca3(PO4)2, and showed surface active properties and activity of cellulase and very high activity of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase (297 nmol α-ketobutyrate mg−1 h−1). The strain degraded petroleum hydrocarbons (76.52% of the initial hydrocarbon content was degraded) and was resistant to Cd, Zn, and Cu (minimal inhibitory concentrations reached 5, 15, and 10 mM metal, respectively). The genome of the ZCR6 strain consisted of 5,507,067 bp, and a total of 5055 genes were annotated, of which 4943 were protein-coding sequences. Annotation revealed the presence of genes associated with nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, sulfur metabolism, siderophore biosynthesis and uptake, synthesis of IAA, ethylene modulation, heavy metal resistance, exopolysaccharide biosynthesis, and organic compound degradation. Complete characteristics of the ZCR6 strain showed its potential multiway properties for enhancing the phytoremediation of co-contaminated soils. To our knowledge, this is the first analysis of the biotechnological potential of the species P. qingdaonensis.

Pharmaceutics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 36
Anita Bogdanov ◽  
László Janovák ◽  
Jasmina Vraneš ◽  
Tomislav Meštrović ◽  
Sunčanica Ljubin-Sternak ◽  

Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) is an obligate intracellular bacterium linked to ocular and urogenital infections with potentially serious sequelae, including blindness and infertility. First-line antibiotics, such as azithromycin (AZT) and doxycycline, are effective, but treatment failures have also been reported. Encapsulation of antibiotics in liposomes is considered an effective approach for improving their local effects, bioavailability, biocompatibility and antimicrobial activity. To test whether liposomes could enhance the antichlamydial action of AZT, we encapsulated AZT in different surface-charged elastic liposomes (neutral, cationic and anionic elastic liposomes) and assessed their antibacterial potential against the C. trachomatis serovar D laboratory strain as well as the clinical isolate C. trachomatis serovar F. A direct quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method was used to measure chlamydial genome content 48 h post infection and to determine the recoverable chlamydial growth. All the liposomes efficiently delivered AZT to HeLa 229 cells infected with the laboratory Chlamydia strain, exhibiting the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and the minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of AZT even 4–8-fold lower than those achieved with the free AZT. The tested AZT-liposomes were also effective against the clinical Chlamydia strain by decreasing MIC values by 2-fold relative to the free AZT. Interestingly, the neutral AZT-liposomes had no effect on the MBC against the clinical strain, while cationic and anionic AZT-liposomes decreased the MBC 2-fold, hence proving the potential of the surface-charged elastic liposomes to improve the effectiveness of AZT against C. trachomatis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (17) ◽  
pp. e124101724268
Larissa Lorrane Rodrigues Borges ◽  
Alécia Daila Barros Guimarães ◽  
Fanciellen Morais-Costa ◽  
Eduardo Robson Duarte ◽  
Márcia Martins ◽  

The antimicrobial activity of Caryocar brasiliense and Annona crassiflora leaves extracts was evaluated against Escherichia coli strains through a sensitivity test by the agar diffusion method and by the evaluation of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) by the microdilution technique followed by plating. The sanitizing efficiency of these extracts in reducing E. coli cells biotransferred from L. sativa leaves to polypropylene surfaces was evaluated after an exposure time of 5 minutes. All strains were sensitive to antibacterials and the formation of an inhibition halo was observed for the extracts against all strains tested. The C. brasiliense extract showed better antimicrobial action against E. coli strains, with a MIC of 1.09 mg/mL, while the MIC of A. crassiflora extract was 5.58 mg/mL. No MBC was found for plant extracts. The strains were not able to form biofilms under the conditions studied, however, there was biotransfer and adhesion of E. coli to polypropylene. The highest counts of E. coli cells biotransferred and, consequently, adhere to the polypropylene coupons were observed when 5 log CFU/mL was inoculated, with a mean count of 4.53 ± 0.66 log CFU/cm2. It was verified that the treatment with the extract solutions in the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) totally reduced the number of E. coli cells adhered to the polypropylene coupons. The results obtained indicate that the use of extracts from both species as antibacterials is promising.

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (4(Suppl.)) ◽  
pp. 1545
Anaam M. Rasheed ◽  
Sinan M. M. Al-Bayati ◽  
Dr.Rehab A.M. Al-Hasani ◽  
Muna Ali Shakir

Two Schiff bases, namely, 3-(benzylidene amino) -2-thioxo-6-methyl 2,5-dihydropyrimidine-4(3H)-one (LS])and 3-(benzylidene amino)-6-methyl pyrimidine 4(3H, 5H)-dione(LA)as chelating ligands), were used to prepare some complexes of Cr(III), La(III), and Ce(III)] ions. Standard physico-chemical procedures including metal analysis M%, element microanalysis (C.H.N.S) , magnetic susceptibility, conductometric measurements, FT-IR and UV-visible Spectra were used to identify Metal (III) complexes and  Schiff bases (LS) and (LA). According to findings, a [Cr(III) complex] showed six coordinated octahedral geometry, while [La(III), and Ce(III) complexes]were structured with coordination number seven.  Schiff's bases and mineral complexes were examined in vitro to investigate potential inhibition against Gram-positive bacteria such as Pseudonomous aerugionosa and Gram-negative bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus. The low concentration for inhibition has been also determined by studying the minimal inhibitory concentrations MIC .Antibiotics (Ampicillin, Amoxicillin) have been chosen to contrast their activity. Furthermore, Anti-fungal activity against two types of fungi ʺAspergillus flavusʺ and ʺPenicillum Spp.ʺ was studied for these compounds. The results of the antibacterial activity were better compared to the standard drugs.

Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 3145
Noam Shani ◽  
Simone Oberhaensli ◽  
Hélène Berthoud ◽  
Remo S. Schmidt ◽  
Hans-Peter Bachmann

As components of many cheese starter cultures, strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis (LDL) must be tested for their antimicrobial susceptibility to avoid the potential horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance (ABR) determinants in the human body or in the environment. To this end, a phenotypic test, as well as a screening for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in genome sequences, is commonly performed. Historically, microbiological cutoffs (MCs), which are used to classify strains as either ‘sensitive’ or ‘resistant’ based on the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of a range of clinically-relevant antibiotics, have been defined for the whole group of the obligate homofermentative lactobacilli, which includes LDL among many other species. This often leads to inaccuracies in the appreciation of the ABR status of tested LDL strains and to false positive results. To define more accurate MCs for LDL, we analyzed the MIC profiles of strains originating from various habitats by using the broth microdilution method. These strains’ genomes were sequenced and used to complement our analysis involving a search for ARGs, as well as to assess the phylogenetic proximity between strains. Of LDL strains, 52.1% displayed MICs that were higher than the defined MCs for kanamycin, 9.9% for chloramphenicol, and 5.6% for tetracycline, but no ARG was conclusively detected. On the other hand, all strains displayed MICs below the defined MCs for ampicillin, gentamycin, erythromycin, and clindamycin. Considering our results, we propose the adaptation of the MCs for six of the tested clinically-relevant antibiotics to improve the accuracy of phenotypic antibiotic testing.

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