Graphical Analysis
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Géotechnique ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 1-35
S. L. Chen ◽  
Y. N. Abousleiman

A novel graphical analysis-based method is proposed for analysing the responses of a cylindrical cavity expanding under undrained conditions in modified Cam Clay soil. The essence of developing such an approach is to decompose and represent the strain increment/rate of a material point graphically into the elastic and plastic components in the deviatoric strain plane. It allows the effective stress path in the deviatoric plane to be readily determined by solving a first-order differential equation with the Lode angle being the single variable. The desired limiting cavity pressure and pore pressure can be equally conveniently evaluated, through basic numerical integrations with respect to the mean effective stress. Some ambiguity is clarified between the generalized (work conjugacy-based) shear strain increments and the corresponding deviatoric invariants of incremental strains. The present graph-based approach is also applicable for the determination of the stress and pore pressure distributions around the cavity. When used for predicting the ultimate cavity/pore pressures, it is computationally advantageous over the existing semi-analytical solutions that involve solving a system of coupled governing differential equations for the effective stress components. It thus may serve potentially as a useful and accurate interpretation of the results of in-situ pressuremeter tests on clay soils.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 428
Kyong Ku Yun ◽  
Jong Beom Kim ◽  
Chang Seok Song ◽  
Mohammad Shakhawat Hossain ◽  
Seungyeon Han

There have been numerous studies on shotcrete based on strength and durability. However, few studies have been conducted on rheological characteristics, which are very important parameters for evaluating the pumpability and shootability of shotcrete. In those studies, silica fume has been generally used as a mineral admixture to simultaneously enhance the strength, durability, pumpability, and shootability of shotcrete. Silica fume is well-known to significantly increase the viscosity of a mixture and to prevent material sliding at the receiving surface when used in shotcrete mixtures. However, the use of silica fume in shotcrete increases the possibility of plastic shrinkage cracking owing to its very high fineness, and further, silica fume increases the cost of manufacturing the shotcrete mixture because of its cost and handling. Colloidal silica is a new material in which nano-silica is dispersed in water, and it could solve the above-mentioned problems. The purpose of this research is to develop high-performance shotcrete with appropriate levels of strength and workability as well as use colloidal silica for normal structures without a tunnel structure. Thereafter, the workability of shotcrete with colloidal silica (2, 3, and 4%) was evaluated with a particle size of 10 nm and silica fume replacement (4 and 7%) of cement. In this study, an air-entraining agent for producing high-performance shotcrete was also used. The rheological properties of fresh shotcrete mixtures were estimated using an ICAR rheometer and the measured rheological parameters such as flow resistance and torque viscosity were correlated with the workability and shootability. More appropriate results will be focusing on the Bingham model properties such that the main focus here is to compare all data using the Bingham model and its performance. The pumpability, shootability, and build-up thickness characteristics were also evaluated for the performance of the shotcrete. This research mainly focuses on the Bingham model for absolute value because it creates an exact linear line in a graphical analysis, which provides more appropriate results for measuring the shotcrete performance rather than ICAR rheometer relative data.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 ◽  
pp. 232-246
Olga Yu. Guseva ◽  
Inna O. Kazarova ◽  
Ilona Y. Dumanska ◽  
Mykhaylo A. Gorodetskyy ◽  
Lina V. Melnichuk ◽  

This research paper deals with identifying the basic prerequisites for the IT companies’ development in terms of tightening requirements for personal data protection. The article aimed at assessing the impact of personal data protection policy on the company development through the assessment of the efficiency of the use of intangible assets. The following methods were used in achieving this aim: comparative analysis, the method of horizontal analysis of company performance, correlation and regression analysis, graphical analysis, as well as the method of expert survey of the impact of macro-environmental factors on the company profitability level. It is established that the degree of personal data protection of customers of IT companies directly affects the financial performance of companies and contributes to the development of IT companies. The article proves that poorly developed personal data protection system of Ukrainian companies is related to the regulatory framework of the creation and registration of personal databases. The main world trends in the development of personal data protection were identified through the study of the provisions of international policy frameworks as compared to the legislation of Ukraine. The main area of application of the results obtained by the author are IT companies, in particular in the management of profitability in the context of strengthening the personal data protection. The obtained results are a contribution to scientific achievements in the field of personal data protection and business development for Central European countries. This is primarily due to the novel research objective.

2022 ◽  
Vol 131 ◽  
pp. 02007
Nikoleta Popova ◽  
Anna Georgieva ◽  
Vasilena Digalovska

The COVID-19 pandemic has changed all areas of human life and activity. A number of lifestyle changes associated with health risk factors have occurred, one of which is inactivity. The purpose of this study is to investigate the opinion of nursing students about their motor activity in the conditions of the COVID-19 pandemic. Material and methods: In our report, we have applied analysis of literary sources and a survey (on-line anonymous group survey). The opinion of 60 nursing students of second, third and fourth year at the Medical University – Varna was studied. The nurses received explanation for the purpose and methodology of the study, their anonymity was guaranteed, and their informed consent for the study was obtained. The study was conducted in August 2020–January 2021. Graphical analysis was used to visualize the observed processes and phenomena. To create the graphs, we used Microsoft Office Excel 2013. The data were processed using the IBM SPSS Statistics 19 statistical package. Results: The majority of the respondents shared that they had been less active compared to the time before the pandemic began. The search for alternatives for exercising and sports among students is hampered by a number of factors, which relate to the changes in the organization of life and educational activities associated with measures to stop the pandemic. Conclusion: The results of this study prove that the COVID-19 pandemic has had an impact on the lifestyle of the nursing students - most of them have reduced their motor activity. The data highlights the need to find alternatives and strategies to reduce the inactivity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 82 (1) ◽  
Jay Solanki ◽  
Jackson Levi Said

AbstractIn this paper, we develop a new class of analytical solutions describing anisotropic stellar structures of observed neutron stars using modified f(T) gravity. We use the off-diagonal tetrad that is best suitable for studying spherically symmetric objects in f(T) gravity. We develop exact solutions in the quadratic model of f(T) gravity by introducing physically reliable metric potentials that can describe a wide range of astrophysical systems. We then apply the model to investigate the stellar structures of four observed compact stars, 4U 1538-52, J0437-4715, J0030+0451, and 4U 1820-30. We calculate the values of model parameters for the stellar objects under examination in this paper. Comprehensive graphical analysis shows that the model describing anisotropic stellar structures is physically acceptable, causal, and stable. The model inherently exhibits the quadratic equation of state that can be utilized to investigate the material composition and stellar structures of the observed compact stars.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
pp. 205-221
Rahman Tafahomi ◽  
Reihaneh Nadi ◽  

The purpose of this study is to gain an understanding of how the architecture students deploy a range of graphical features to visualize SWOT, standing for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats. Architectural design studios provide students with a range of analytical techniques, and SWOT analysis is considered to be useful and effective, particularly at urban-scale design projects. However, it is a text-based framework and needs to be converted to thematic analysis maps across architecture and design fields. The main issue is that the determining factors affecting the way in which students choose graphical features to map the outputs of SWOT analysis is unclear at architectural design studios. The research employed qualitative methods, specifically observation, focus group, and graphical analysis, to examine SWOT maps produced by the architecture students. The findings demonstrated that the selection of graphical features in the process of producing SWOT analysis maps are dependent on scale of study (macro, meso, and micro), as well as location, spatial connection, and size of elements derived from SWOT matrix. For instance, lines and planes were most frequent features at macro level while the variety of symbols remarkably increased at micro level. In conclusion, the students personalized the process of mapping, meaning that they applied point, line, plane (shape), color, texture, and typography in several different ways. Therefore, SWOT analysis not only help architecture students to better understand the problems of their design projects, organize and consolidate information, and visualize opportunities and constraints, but could lead to the representation of realistic solutions in an innovative way.

Ahmad Mohammad Alsaad, Shatha Musa Al- Rawabdeh Ahmad Mohammad Alsaad, Shatha Musa Al- Rawabdeh

  The duty of Zaka is one of the important financial resources of the Islamic state, it is also an effective tool to eliminate poverty and reduce inequality between society members. As it guarantees a regular flow of funds every year which is spent in specified channels. The obligation of Zaka has a crucial role in economic recovery because of three main factors, which prohibit hoarding, promoting investment, and encourage that is why the duty of Zaka is accomodate with economics principles. This research aims to clarify and show the economic impact of Zaka fund development through theoretical, mathematical, and graphical analysis on macroeconomics variables which is related to Aggregate Supply. Researcher used theoretical, mathematical, graphical approaches for explanation economic variables. and used deductive approach through shows the effect of zakat on the aggregate supply. researcher concludes that the duty of Zaka is an effective economic tool, and its impact on the economy is cumulative, so it is considered one of the injection elements in the Islamic economy by preventing leakage, through prohibit hoarding, that’s why it has a positive impact on the supply of human and capital resources. The researcher recommends to work on promoting the revival of Zaka, and the Zakat should be compulsory not voluntary through laws and regulations.    

2021 ◽  
Vol 57 (2) ◽  
pp. 023004
Paulo José Sena dos Santos ◽  
Josemar de Siqueira Vargas ◽  
Amanda Vogel Cé ◽  
Tiago Fernandes Perfeito Correia ◽  
Weslley de Oliveira Dias ◽  

Abstract The difficulties in the interpretation of graphs in kinematics have been studied since the 1980s. To try to reduce students’ learning problems, the researchers point to the need for different didactic strategies, some with the use of new technologies. In this context, we present an experimental proposal that uses a line-following robot based on Arduino to teach graph interpretation in movements with constant velocity.

Ahmad Mohammad Alsaad, Shatha Musa Al-Rawabdeh Ahmad Mohammad Alsaad, Shatha Musa Al-Rawabdeh

This research aimed to clarify and show the economic impact of Zaka fund development through theoretical, mathematical, and graphical analysis on macroeconomics variables which is related to aggregate demand, Researchers used theoretical, mathematical, graphical approaches for explanation economic variables. and used deductive approach through shows the effect of zakat on the aggregate Demand. The researcher concludes that the duty of Zaka induces economic growth and protects the economy from risk fluctuations whether it is recession or inflation. The researcher recommends to work on promoting the revival of Zaka, and the Zakat should be compulsory not voluntary through laws and regulations, ࢫbecause it raises the level of economic activity through its direct effect to stimulate fund investment, raise consumer’s demand and expand the market.

2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (6) ◽  
pp. 16-28
V. A. Belyaev

IPO (initial public offering) is a widespread financing instrument in the world, however, the scientific community pays little attention to the dynamics of IPOs in the banking sector. The aim of the study is to critically analyze the dynamics of IPO transactions of credit institutions on the horizon from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2020. The research methodology includes analytical methods for collecting and processing information, comparative and graphical analysis of the database collected by the author and consisting of 305 IPOs of banks from 2000 to 2020. The study compares the dynamics of IPO transactions of credit institutions from developed and developing countries, identifies characteristics inherent in each market, and explains the differences in market dynamics. The study reveals clustering in the IPO market of credit institutions and compares clustering with the general market of initial public offerings. It is shown that lending institutions around the world have actively attracted funds through IPO, having placed their shares for a total of $ 218 billion. The bulk of the funds were attracted by banks from emerging markets, primarily from China. During this period, there were 3 IPO waves on the banking IPO market, characterized by a significant increase in placement volumes and profitability on the first day of trading. This clustering in the IPO market of credit institutions was not typical only for the banking sector but coincided with the global growth in the number of transactions and IPO yields. The author concludes that the placement of shares of credit institutions during the hot market period is the most promising in terms of the volume and dynamics of raising funds; the IPO market of credit institutions retains high growth potential, primarily in Asia and the CIS.

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