Synechocystis Sp
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2021 ◽  
Vol 119 (1) ◽  
pp. e2116765118
Christopher J. Gisriel ◽  
Jimin Wang ◽  
Jinchan Liu ◽  
David A. Flesher ◽  
Krystle M. Reiss ◽  

Photosystem II (PSII) enables global-scale, light-driven water oxidation. Genetic manipulation of PSII from the mesophilic cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 has provided insights into the mechanism of water oxidation; however, the lack of a high-resolution structure of oxygen-evolving PSII from this organism has limited the interpretation of biophysical data to models based on structures of thermophilic cyanobacterial PSII. Here, we report the cryo-electron microscopy structure of PSII from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 at 1.93-Å resolution. A number of differences are observed relative to thermophilic PSII structures, including the following: the extrinsic subunit PsbQ is maintained, the C terminus of the D1 subunit is flexible, some waters near the active site are partially occupied, and differences in the PsbV subunit block the Large (O1) water channel. These features strongly influence the structural picture of PSII, especially as it pertains to the mechanism of water oxidation.

Metabolites ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 867
Kosuke Inabe ◽  
Ayaka Miichi ◽  
Mami Matsuda ◽  
Takanobu Yoshida ◽  
Yuichi Kato ◽  

Nitrogen is essential for the biosynthesis of various molecules in cells, such as amino acids and nucleotides, as well as several types of lipids and sugars. Cyanobacteria can assimilate several forms of nitrogen, including nitrate, ammonium, and urea, and the physiological and genetic responses to these nitrogen sources have been studied previously. However, the metabolic changes in cyanobacteria caused by different nitrogen sources have not yet been characterized. This study aimed to elucidate the influence of nitrate and ammonium on the metabolic profiles of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. When supplemented with NaNO3 or NH4Cl as the nitrogen source, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 grew faster in NH4Cl medium than in NaNO3 medium. Metabolome analysis indicated that some metabolites in the CBB cycle, glycolysis, and TCA cycle, and amino acids were more abundant when grown in NH4Cl medium than NaNO3 medium. 15N turnover rate analysis revealed that the nitrogen assimilation rate in NH4Cl medium was higher than in NaNO3 medium. These results indicate that the mechanism of nitrogen assimilation in the GS-GOGAT cycle differs between NaNO3 and NH4Cl. We conclude that the amounts and biosynthetic rate of cyanobacterial metabolites varies depending on the type of nitrogen.

Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 2757
Delfim Cardoso ◽  
Steeve Lima ◽  
Jorge Matinha-Cardoso ◽  
Paula Tamagnini ◽  
Paulo Oliveira

Cyanobacteria are a group of photosynthetic prokaryotes that contribute to primary production on a global scale. These microorganisms release vesicles to the extracellular environment, spherical nanosized structures, derived essentially from the outer membrane. Even though earlier works in model Gram-negative bacteria have hypothesized that outer membrane stability is crucial in vesicle formation, the mechanisms determining vesicle biogenesis in cyanobacteria remain unknown. Here, we report on the identification of six candidate genes encoding outer membrane proteins harboring SLH/OprB-domains in the genome of the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Using a genetics-based approach, one gene was found to encode an essential protein (Slr1841), while the remaining five are not essential for growth under standard conditions. Vesicle production was monitored, and it was found that a mutant in the gene encoding the second most abundant SLH/OprB protein in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 outer membrane (Slr1908) produces more vesicles than any of the other tested strains. Moreover, the Slr1908-protein was also found to be important for iron uptake. Altogether, our results suggest that proteins containing the SLH/OprB-domains may have dual biological role, related to micronutrient uptake and to outer membrane stability, which, together or alone, seem to be involved in cyanobacterial vesicle biogenesis.

2021 ◽  
Ryo Kariyazono ◽  
Takashi Osanai

Sigma factors are the subunits of bacterial RNA polymerase that govern the expression of genes by recognizing the promoter sequence. Cyanobacteria, which are oxygenic phototrophic eubacteria, have multiple alternative sigma factors that respond to various environmental stresses. The subgroup highly homologous to the primary sigma factor (SigA) is called the group 2 sigma factor. The model cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, has four group 2 sigma factors (SigB-E) conserved within the phylum Cyanobacteria. Among the group 2 sigma factors in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, SigE is unique because it alters metabolism by inducing the expression of genes related to sugar catabolism and nitrogen metabolism. However, the features of promoter sequence of the SigE regulon remains elusive. Here, we identified the direct targets of SigA and SigE by chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq). We then showed that the binding sites of SigE and SigA overlapped substantially, but SigE exclusively localized to SigE-dependent promoters. We also found consensus sequences from SigE-dependent promoters and confirmed their importance. ChIP-seq analysis showed both the redundancy and specificity of SigE compared with SigA, integrating information obtained from a previously adopted genetic approach and in vitro assays. The features of SigE elucidated in our study indicate its similarity with group 2 sigma factors of other bacteria, even though they are evolutionally irrelevant. Our approach is also applicable to other organisms and organelles, such as plant plastids, which have multiple group 2 sigma factors.

2022 ◽  
Vol 178 ◽  
pp. 108297
Kshitija Japhalekar ◽  
Sumana Srinivasan ◽  
Ganesh Viswanathan ◽  
K.V. Venkatesh

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Stefan Lucius ◽  
Alexander Makowka ◽  
Klaudia Michl ◽  
Kirstin Gutekunst ◽  
Martin Hagemann

Cyanobacteria perform plant-like oxygenic photosynthesis to convert inorganic carbon into organic compounds and can also use internal carbohydrate reserves under specific conditions. A mutant collection with defects in different routes for sugar catabolism was studied to analyze which of them is preferentially used to degrade glycogen reserves in light-exposed cells of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 shifted from high to low CO2 conditions. Mutants defective in the glycolytic Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas pathway or in the oxidative pentose-phosphate (OPP) pathway showed glycogen levels similar to wild type under high CO2 (HC) conditions and were able to degrade it similarly after shifts to low CO2 (LC) conditions. In contrast, the mutant Δeda, which is defective in the glycolytic Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway, accumulated elevated glycogen levels under HC that were more slowly consumed during the LC shift. In consequence, the mutant Δeda showed a lowered ability to respond to the inorganic carbon shifts, displayed a pronounced lack in the reactivation of growth when brought back to HC, and differed significantly in its metabolite composition. Particularly, Δeda accumulated enhanced levels of proline, which is a well-known metabolite to maintain redox balances via NADPH levels in many organisms under stress conditions. We suggest that deletion of eda might promote the utilization of the OPP shunt that dramatically enhance NADPH levels. Collectively, the results point at a major regulatory contribution of the ED pathway for the mobilization of glycogen reserves during rapid acclimation to fluctuating CO2 conditions.

mSystems ◽  
2021 ◽  
Sang-Hyeok Cho ◽  
Yujin Jeong ◽  
Seong-Joo Hong ◽  
Hookeun Lee ◽  
Hyung-Kyoon Choi ◽  

Cyanobacteria are a compelling biochemical production platform for their ability to propagate using light and atmospheric CO 2 via photosynthesis. However, the engineering of strains is hampered by limited understanding of photosynthesis under diverse environmental conditions such as high-light and low-temperature stresses.

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