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Weihang He ◽  
Xiaoqiang Liu ◽  
Bin Hu ◽  
Dongshui Li ◽  
Luyao Chen ◽  

Coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) has become a public health emergency of concern worldwide. COVID-19 is a new infectious disease arising from Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It has a strong transmission capacity and can cause severe and even fatal respiratory diseases. It can also affect other organs such as the heart, kidneys and digestive tract. Clinical evidence indicates that kidney injury is a common complication of COVID-19, and acute kidney injury (AKI) may even occur in severely ill patients. Data from China and the United States showed that male sex, Black race, the elderly, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and higher body mass index are associated with COVID-19‐induced AKI. In this review, we found gender and ethnic differences in the occurrence and development of AKI in patients with COVID-19 through literature search and analysis. By summarizing the mechanism of gender and ethnic differences in AKI among patients with COVID-19, we found that male and Black race have more progress to COVID-19-induced AKI than their counterparts.

2022 ◽  
Vol 83 (1) ◽  
Elsabry Abu Amra ◽  
Sohir Ali Abd El Rehim ◽  
Fakhr Mostafa Lashein ◽  
Heba Seleem Shoaeb

Abstract Background Animal venoms have been known as a source of drugs beneficial to human health. Accordingly, this study was designed to determine the effect of bradykinin potentiating factor (BPF) separated from honey bee venom, Apis mellifera on histological structure, thyroid and male sex hormones of the thyroid gland and testis in a model of hypothyroid male white rats induced by carbimazole. Results This study includes male rats divided into 6 main and sub-groups (10 rats in each group). Control group, carbimazole group, levothyroxine group, BPF group, carbimazole group treated with levothyroxine and carbimazole group treated with BPF. At the end of experiments (60 days) rats were sacrificed and dissected; the blood was collected for determination of thyroid and male sex hormones. Also, the thyroid gland and testis were taken to histological study. The results indicated that, carbimazole group showed a highly significant decrease in thyroid hormones (T4, T3, Ft4 and Ft3) and male sex hormones (LH, FSH and testosterone), but a significant increase in TSH compared to control group. The results revealed that, treated groups with levothyroxine or BPF have significant increase in thyroid and male sex hormones and significant decreasein TSH. A significant improvement was detected in co-treated groups (hypothyroid groups) with levothyroxine or (BPF). Also, the present study showed a histopathological change in thyroid gland and testis of hypothyroid male rats. Conclusion Treated hypothyroid rats with levothyroxine as a drug and BPF as a natural product showed an improvement of these complications induced by carbimazole in thyroid gland and testis. Therefore, BPF may be benefical in treatment of hypothyroidism.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 341
Yunha Nam ◽  
Chang-Min Choi ◽  
Young Soo Park ◽  
HyunA Jung ◽  
Hee Sang Hwang ◽  

Background: Although early-stage lung cancer has increased owing to the introduction of screening programs, high recurrence rate remains a critical concern. We aimed to explore biomarkers related to the prognosis of surgically resected non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: In this retrospective study, we collected medical records of patients with NSCLC and matched tissue microarray blocks from surgical specimens. Semiquantitative immunohistochemistry was performed for measuring the expression level of fibroblast activation protein-alpha (FAP-α), Jagged-1 (JAG1), and CUB-domain-containing protein 1 (CDCP1). Results: A total of 453 patients who underwent complete resection between January 2011 and February 2012 were enrolled; 55.2% patients had stage I NSCLC, and 31.1% presented squamous cell carcinoma. Disease stage was a significant risk factor for recurrence and death, and age ≥ 65 years and male sex were associated with poor overall survival. FAP-a and JaG1 were not related to survivals, while CDCP1-expressing patients exhibited poor disease-free and overall survival. Moreover, CDCP1 expression in stage I NSCLC was significantly associated with recurrence. Conclusions: Old age, male sex, and high pathological stage were poor prognostic factors in patients with NSCLC who underwent surgical resection. Furthermore, CDCP1 expression could serve as a biomarker for poor prognosis in stage I NSCLC.

BMC Surgery ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Shohei Fujita ◽  
Masaru Kimata ◽  
Kenji Matsumoto ◽  
Yuichi Sasakura ◽  
Toshiaki Terauchi ◽  

Abstract Background The frequency of gallstones is higher in patients who have undergone gastrectomy than in the general population. While there have been some studies of gallstone formation after open gastrectomy, there are few reports of gallstones after laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG). Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the incidence of gallstones after LG. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of 184 patients who underwent LG between January 2011 and May 2016 at Saiseikai Utsunomiya Hospital. After gastrectomy, abdominal ultrasonography was generally performed every 6 months for 5 years. Patients who underwent cholecystectomy before LG, underwent simultaneous cholecystectomy, and did not undergo abdominal ultrasonography, with an observation period of < 24 months, were excluded from the study. Finally, 90 patients were analyzed. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed whenever biliary complications occurred. Patient characteristics were compared using the two-tailed Fisher’s exact test or Chi-square test. In addition, the risk factors for postoperative gallstones were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. Results Among the 90 patients included in this study, 60 were men (78%), and the mean age was 65.5 years. Laparoscopic total gastrectomy was performed for 15 patients and laparoscopic distal gastrectomy for 75 patients. D2 lymph node dissection was performed for 8 patients (9%), whereas 68 patients underwent LG with Roux-en-Y reconstruction (76%). Gallstones were detected after LG in 27 of the 90 (30%) patients. Multivariate analysis identified Roux-en-Y reconstruction and male sex as significant risk factors of gallstones after gastrectomy. The incidence of gallstones was significantly higher (53%) in male patients who underwent Roux-en-Y reconstruction. Symptomatic gallstones after laparoscopic cholecystectomy were found in 6 cases (6/27, 22%), and all patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Conclusion Roux-en-Y reconstruction and male sex were identified as significant risk factors for gallstones after LG.

Gerontology ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Yusuke Asai ◽  
Hidetoshi Nomoto ◽  
Kayoko Hayakawa ◽  
Nobuaki Matsunaga ◽  
Shinya Tsuzuki ◽  

<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> Old age is an independent risk factor (RF) for severe COVID-19; evidence for clinico-epidemiological characteristics among elderly COVID-19 patients is scarce. We aimed to analyze clinical and epidemiological characteristics and comorbidities associated with COVID-19 inpatients in age-stratified populations of an elderly COVID-19 cohort. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> We conducted a retrospective cohort study, using nationwide registry data of COVID-19 patients hospitalized before October 31, 2020 (major information entered in the registry as of December 28, 2020). Participants were divided by age according to the Japan Geriatrics Society and the Japan Gerontological Society: pre-old (65–74 years), old (75–89 years), and super-old (≥90 years). Multivariable logistic regression (MLR) analyses were conducted to identify stratified risk and relationships with comorbidities associated with worse outcomes in different age-groups of elderly patients. Demographics and supportive care were evaluated by category. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Data of 4,701 patients from 444 hospitals were included. Most patients (79.3%) had at least one comorbidity; the proportion of patients with hypertension was high in all categories. The proportion of patients with dementia, cardiovascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease increased with age. The percentage of patients who underwent invasive mechanical ventilation/extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was lower in the super-old group. In total, 11.5% of patients died (5.3%, pre-old; 15.2%, old; and 22.4%, super-old). MLR showed that the risk of critical illness differed among age-groups. Male sex was a significant RF in all ages. Collagen disease, moderate to severe renal disorder, and dialysis were significant RFs in older patients, while hematological malignancies and metastatic tumors were more important RFs for severe disease in relatively younger patients. Most of the RFs for critical illnesses were associated with death. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Differences in the epidemiological and clinical characteristics among the different age-groups were found.

Yusaku Kajihara

Background: Movement restrictions during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have inflicted stress and affected drinking behavior. However, limited information is available on the changes in alcohol use among the Japanese population.Method: This retrospective study included 371 subjects aged 20–74 years who underwent medical checkups at Fuyoukai Murakami Hospital before (April 1, 2019 to December 31, 2019) and during the COVID-19 pandemic (April 1, 2020 to May 31, 2020). All data were extracted from medical records. Changes in alcohol consumption and severity were also investigated. A logistic regression model was used to identify the risk factors associated with increased drinking, and seven variables were sequentially introduced into the model—age (≤ 49 years), male sex, prior instructions for alcohol restriction, medication for lifestyle-related diseases (e.g., hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hyperuricemia), depression or insomnia, essential workers, and smoking.Results: The median age was 46 years, and 81.7% subjects were men. In total, 25.1% subjects increased their alcohol intake, and 24.5% subjects reduced their alcohol intake. The rates of excessive alcohol consumption (≥ 60 g ethanol per day) were 15.9% and 16.7% in the pre-COVID-19 period and during the COVID-19 pandemic, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified only age ≤ 49 years as a risk factor for increased drinking (adjusted odds ratio, 2.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.22–3.99; p = 0.009).Conclusion: Approximately one-fourth of the subjects reported increased drinking, although the overall severity remained stable. The importance of alcohol reduction, particularly among young people, should be emphasized.

Heart ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. heartjnl-2021-320333
Timion A Meijs ◽  
Steven A Muller ◽  
Savine C S Minderhoud ◽  
Robbert J de Winter ◽  
Barbara J M Mulder ◽  

ObjectiveThe clinical and prognostic implications of a hypertensive response to exercise after repair of coarctation of the aorta (CoA) remain controversial. We aimed to determine the prevalence of a hypertensive response to exercise, identify factors associated with peak exercise systolic blood pressure (SBP) and explore the association of peak exercise SBP with resting blood pressure and cardiovascular events during follow-up.MethodsFrom the Dutch national CONgenital CORvitia (CONCOR) registry, adults with repaired CoA who underwent exercise stress testing were included. A hypertensive response to exercise was defined as a peak exercise SBP ≥210 mm Hg in men and ≥190 mm Hg in women. Cardiovascular events consisted of coronary artery disease, stroke, aortic complications and cardiovascular death.ResultsOf the original cohort of 920 adults with repaired CoA, 675 patients (median age 24 years (range 16–72 years)) underwent exercise stress testing. Of these, 299 patients (44%) had a hypertensive response to exercise. Mean follow-up duration was 10.1 years. Male sex, absence of a bicuspid aortic valve and elevated resting SBP were independently associated with increased peak exercise SBP. Peak exercise SBP was positively predictive of office SBP (β=0.11, p<0.001) and 24-hour SBP (β=0.05, p=0.03) at follow-up, despite correction for baseline SBP. During follow-up, 100 patients (15%) developed at least 1 cardiovascular event. Peak exercise SBP was not significantly associated with the occurrence of cardiovascular events (HR 0.994 (95% CI 0.987 to 1.001), p=0.11).ConclusionsA hypertensive response to exercise was present in nearly half of the patients in this large, prospective cohort of adults with repaired CoA. Risk factors for increased peak exercise SBP were male sex, absence of a bicuspid aortic valve and elevated resting SBP. Increased peak exercise SBP independently predicted hypertension at follow-up. These results support close follow-up of patients with a hypertensive response to exercise to ensure timely diagnosis and treatment of future hypertension.

2022 ◽  
Vol 32 (1) ◽  
pp. 13
Elisabeth Sekaringtyas Medistya Putri ◽  
Soebagijo Adi S ◽  
Mohammad Budiarto

Highlight:1. One of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in diabetes mellitus patients is coronary heart disease (CHD).2. The risk factors for coronary heart disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients were observed.3. The risk factors of CHD more commonly found in T2DM patients were high-risk age, male sex, hypertension and dyslipidemia.Abstract:Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic syndrome that becomes a concern in almost all countries in the world, particularly developing countries. Changes in lifestyle and genetic factors are causing the incidence of this disease to continue to increase every year. Nowadays, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) caused by insulin resistance is the most common kind. One of its complications known as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes is coronary heart disease (CHD). Insulin resistance can lead to the atherosclerosis process that is the basis of coronary heart disease. It is said that conditions of hyperglycemia, hypercoagulable state, and high cholesterol can induce the process of atherosclerosis. Besides diabetes mellitus, the other risk factors that increase the incidence of CHD are sex, age, family history, dyslipidemia, smoking, hypertension, and obesity. Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the risk factors for coronary heart disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of diabetes mellitus patients with coronary heart disease was conducted in Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2014. Data were taken from medical records at the Department of Internal Medicine. Incomplete medical records were not included in this study. Risk factors analyzed were age, sex, history of hypertension and dyslipidemia. Results of this study were presented in a frequency distribution table. Results: Based on the data of 70 samples, risk factors of CHD in T2DM patients are found as follows: 44 (62.9%) samples were male, 56 (80%) high-risk aged group, 48 (68.6%) with dyslipidemia, and 50 (71.4%) with hypertension, while 24 (34.3%) samples had three risk factors at once. Conclusion: High-risk aged, male sex, hypertension, and dyslipidemia are more commonly found in T2DM patients with CHD. The more risk factors that one may have will increase the occurrence of cardiovascular disease within 10 years forward.

Healthcare ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 90
Stephane Olindo ◽  
Pauline Renou ◽  
François Martial ◽  
Nathalie Heyvang ◽  
Lea Milan ◽  

Purpose: Opportunistic pharmacy-based screening of atrial fibrillation (AF) appears effective, but the proportion of detected citizens is unknown. The aim of our real-life study was to determine rates of screening in a community population according to age group and gender. Methods: We conducted four community campaigns of pharmacy-based single-time point AF screening that involved individuals ≥65 years. We used a single-lead and hand-held device MyDiagnostick (6229 EV Maastricht, The Netherlands) that generates a 60-s ECG trace. All pharmacies of the communities (n = 54) were involved. Rates of screening were assessed on the base of the French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies data and were expressed as percentage and 95% Confidence interval (CI). Results: We screened 4208 individuals (Mean age, 74.2 ± 6.6 years; females, 60.2%). The screening rate in citizens aged ≥65 years was 17.2% (16.6–17.7), and higher in females than in males (17.9% [17.3–18.6] versus 16.0 [15.3–16.8], p < 0.001). The 70–74 age group showed the highest rate (25.7% [24.4–27]) compared to other groups. After 74 years, screening rates decreased steadily with age and dropped to 4.8% [3.8–6.1] in very elderly (≥90). Among the 188 (4.47%) positive screening, 117 (2.78%) showed an AF that was unknown in 53 (1.26%). Increasing age (OR: 1.05 [1.00–1.09], p = 0.04), male sex (OR: 4.30 [2.33–7.92], p < 0.0001) and high CHA2DS2-Vasc (OR: 1.59 [1.21–2.09], p = 0.0008) were independent predictors of unknown AF. Conclusion: Single-lead AF detection performed in community pharmacies result in screening one in six elderly citizens. Although male sex and elderly predicted unknown AF diagnosis, they were less involved in such designed campaigns.

Stefan Kabisch ◽  
Oda Sophia Hedemann ◽  
Andreas F. H. Pfeiffer

Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a risk factor for periodontitis. Data on risk-modifying factors for periodontitis in diabetes patients are limited. Aims We tested whether sex, age, type of diabetes, metabolic state, comorbidities, complications, measures of well-being and quality of life are predicting periodontitis in a German diabetes outpatient cohort. Methods In total, 1180 out of 1293 participating DM patients completed questionnaires on quality of life, dental hygiene and health. All patients also filled out a modified version of the periodontitis risk questionnaire by the American Association for Periodontology, from which the status of “assumed periodontitis” was deducted. In a subset of participants (n = 461), we measured or inquired the most recent Community Parodontal Index (CPI), providing an objective measure for clinically diagnosed periodontitis. For all subjects, DM history and phenotype, major metabolic parameters (HbA1c, BMI, LDL and total cholesterol levels), general health risk factors, comorbidities and medication were collected. Results Clinically diagnosed (CPI > 2) and assumed periodontitis was detected in 60–67% of our patients. Male sex and oral health-related quality of life were associated with clinically diagnosed periodontitis. Male sex, age, smoking, dental hygiene, dental control and diabetes-related quality of life independently predicted assumed periodontitis. Conclusion In DM patients, quality of life and lifestyle factors which systemically alter microvascular and immunological functions seem to predict periodontitis. Further studies are needed for replication and for pathomechanistic clarification.

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