Serum Components
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2021 ◽  
So-Young Choi ◽  
Obida Boboeva ◽  
Ji Yeon Ham ◽  
Chang-Hyeon An ◽  
Sung Tak Lee ◽  

Abstract Description of the content of simple bone cyst (SBC) has been controversial. This study aimed to evaluate and give a clearer picture of the contents of the SBC cavity. Nineteen patients SBC confirmed by histopathological examination, between 2014 and 2016, were included in this study. The clinical, radiographic, surgical and laboratory findings of SBC cavity content was analyzed. For statistical analysis, paired samples t-test was used to evaluate the difference of components among cavity fluid, blood and serum. All 19 SBC cases radiographically and surgically revealed a fluid-filled cavity. The average age of the patients was 21.3±13.2 years. Any sex predominance was not found. SBCs were more often found in the anterior mandible site (n=12, 63.2%). All lesions were filled with clear straw-colored or low concentrated blood-colored flood. Although the laboratory analysis of the fluid showed components similar to those in blood and serum, the statistical analysis showed that the fluid components were not significantly different only for eosinophils (p = 0.43) and basophils (p = 0.06) counts as blood components, and sodium (p = 0.76), potassium (p = 0.08) and chloride (p = 0.13) concentration as serum components. Within a limitation of this study, the results shows that SBC is fluid-filled cavity and the cavity fluid is more likely similar to the serum rather than the blood regarding the internal components.

2021 ◽  
Kazuya Kusama ◽  
Rulan Bai ◽  
Yuta Matsuno ◽  
Atsushi Ideta ◽  
Toshihiro Sakurai ◽  

Abstract Pregnancy loss predominantly occurs during periods between blastocyst hatching and conceptus (embryo plus extraembryonic membranes) implantation to the endometrium in cattle. Insufficient biochemical communication between conceptus and endometrium has been suspected as the primary cause for early embryonic losses. If molecules regulating this communication were identified, molecular mechanisms associated with early pregnancy success or loss could be better understood. To identify novel factors as detection markers of non-pregnant or females undergoing embryonic loss, blood sera from embryo-transferred heifers on day 7 (day 0 = day of estrus) were collected on day 17, 20, or 22, which were subjected to metabolome and global proteome iTRAQ analyses. On each sample, the metabolome analysis partly divided serum components into pregnant or not. In the iTRAQ analysis, heatmap analysis with 25 unique proteins separated into pregnant or not on day 20 or 22. Furthermore, receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis identified five candidate proteins detecting non-pregnant heifers, of which SNX5 in day 22 sera had the highest area under the curve (AUC), 0.983. We also detected SNX5 in day 22 sera from non-pregnant heifers using western blotting. These results suggest that high SNX5 in day 22 sera could predict early pregnancy loss in heifers.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (12) ◽  
pp. 6434
Aldona Kasprzak

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common aggressive carcinoma types worldwide, characterized by unfavorable curative effect and poor prognosis. Epidemiological data re-vealed that CRC risk is increased in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its serum components (e.g., hyperglycemia). High glycemic index diets, which chronically raise post-prandial blood glucose, may at least in part increase colon cancer risk via the insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling pathway. However, the underlying mechanisms linking IGF-1 and MetS are still poorly understood. Hyperactivated glucose uptake and aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect) are considered as a one of six hallmarks of cancer, including CRC. However, the role of insulin/IGF-1 signaling during the acquisition of the Warburg metabolic phenotypes by CRC cells is still poorly understood. It most likely results from the interaction of multiple processes, directly or indirectly regulated by IGF-1, such as activation of PI3K/Akt/mTORC, and Raf/MAPK signaling pathways, activation of glucose transporters (e.g., GLUT1), activation of key glycolytic enzymes (e.g., LDHA, LDH5, HK II, and PFKFB3), aberrant expression of the oncogenes (e.g., MYC, and KRAS) and/or overexpression of signaling proteins (e.g., HIF-1, TGF-β1, PI3K, ERK, Akt, and mTOR). This review describes the role of IGF-1 in glucose metabolism in physiology and colorectal carcinogenesis, including the role of the insulin/IGF system in the Warburg effect. Furthermore, current therapeutic strategies aimed at repairing impaired glucose metabolism in CRC are indicated.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (6) ◽  
pp. e0252341
Conor McQuaid ◽  
Andrea Halsey ◽  
Maëva Dubois ◽  
Ignacio Romero ◽  
David Male

The ability to target therapeutic agents to specific tissues is an important element in the development of new disease treatments. The transferrin receptor (TfR) is one potential target for drug delivery, as it expressed on many dividing cells and on brain endothelium, the key cellular component of the blood-brain barrier. The aim of this study was to compare a set of new and previously-described polypeptides for their ability to bind to brain endothelium, and investigate their potential for targeting therapeutic agents to the CNS. Six polypeptides were ranked for their rate of endocytosis by the human brain endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3 and the murine line bEnd.3. One linear polypeptide and two cyclic polypeptides showed high rates of uptake. These peptides were investigated to determine whether serum components, including transferrin itself affected uptake by the endothelium. One of the cyclic peptides was strongly inhibited by transferrin and the other cyclic peptide weakly inhibited. As proof of principle the linear peptide was attached to 2nm glucose coated gold-nanoparticles, and the rate of uptake of the nanoparticles measured in a hydrogel model of the blood-brain barrier. Attachment of the TfR-targeting polypeptide significantly increased the rates of endocytosis by brain endothelium and increased movement of nanoparticles across the cells.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
M. Fata Moradali ◽  
Mary E. Davey

AbstractOur understanding of how the oral anaerobe Porphyromonas gingivalis can persist below the gum line, induce ecological changes, and promote polymicrobial infections remains limited. P. gingivalis has long been described as a highly proteolytic and asaccharolytic pathogen that utilizes protein substrates as the main source for energy production and proliferation. Here, we report that P. gingivalis displays a metabolic plasticity that enables the exploitation of non-proteinaceous substrates, specifically the monocarboxylates pyruvate and lactate, as well as human serum components, for colonization and biofilm formation. We show that anabolism of carbohydrates from pyruvate is powered by catabolism of amino acids. Concomitantly, the expression of fimbrial adhesion is upregulated, leading to the enhancement of biofilm formation, stimulation of multispecies biofilm development, and increase of colonization and invasion of the primary gingival epithelial cells by P. gingivalis. These studies provide the first glimpse into the metabolic plasticity of P. gingivalis and its adaptation to the nutritional condition of the host niche. Our findings support the model that in response to specific nutritional parameters, P. gingivalis has the potential to promote host colonization and development of a pathogenic community.

Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (5) ◽  
pp. 1407
Jun-Kyu Park ◽  
Jeong Bae Kim ◽  
Yuno Do

In conservation physiology, analyzing the physiological response of an organism to understand its ability to adapt to environmental changes is a key technique in establishing a successful conservation strategy. Veterinary clinical examinations determine the physiological condition of animals accurately and safely, and this examination is synergistic when combined. The accuracy and safety of a clinical examination makes it advantageous for use in amphibians with high species diversity and numerous endangered species. However, it is necessary to establish a reference interval (RI) for precise interpretations and identification of animals with abnormalities through individual unit testing. We have established RIs for the immunity, serum components, bone mineral density (BMD), and body composition of black-spotted pond frogs (Pelophylax nigromaculatus). Black-spotted pond frogs are a common species and are widely distributed in East Asia, with suitable characteristics for environmental monitoring. Serum was extracted from 151 male frogs to establish the RI for bacterial killing ability in order to represent immunity. We also used the serum to establish an RI of ten additional serum components to determine the nutritional status, organ function status, body osmotic pressure, and homeostasis conditions. The BMD and three body composition measures for diagnosing food intake status and nutritional condition were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The RI was recorded as the mean ± standard deviation, median, first (25%) to third (75%) quantile range, 95% confidence interval of the mean and median, and the 95% percentile (2.5%–97.5% range) of all components. The use of combined clinical veterinary examinations aids our understanding of the physiological conditions of an individual according to biotic and abiotic factors on a complex spatiotemporal scale in an ecosystem.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Do T. Hue ◽  
John L. Williams ◽  
Kiro Petrovski ◽  
Cynthia D. K. Bottema

Abstract Provision of good quality colostrum is essential for the passive immunity and nutrition of newborn calves. In order to better predict the quality of colostrum and the transfer of passive immunity, the relationships between colostrum components and between calf serum components were examined in this study. Samples of bulk tank milk, colostrum pooled from several cows 0–4 d postpartum, and colostrum collected from individual cows twice daily for 3 d post-partum were compared. With the exception of fat percentage, there were strong correlations between the levels of the components in the pooled colostrum and in the individual cow colostrum collected 0–1 d postpartum. The correlations between total solids as measured by Brix refractometry and total protein, immunoglobulin G (IgG), lactose % and protein % in colostrum within 1 d postpartum and pooled colostrum were 0.92, 0.90, −0.88 and 0.98, respectively. These high correlations enabled these colostrum components to be accurately predicted from Brix % and therefore, the volume of colostrum required to feed neonate calves can be optimised based on Brix refractometry to avoid failure of passive immunity transfer. To assess whether the components obtained from colostrum were correlated in calf blood, newborn calves were separated from their dams before suckling and blood sampled before feeding (day 0), and on days 1 and 7, after receiving colostrum or milk twice a day. The correlations between glucose, total protein, IgG, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels in the calf blood were lower than the correlations observed between the colostrum components. The highest correlation was between serum protein measured by refractometer and serum IgG within one week postpartum. GGT activity was not a good indicator of serum IgG levels. However, serum protein refractometer measurements predicted serum IgG level with high accuracy, providing an on-farm test to determine that calves have received sufficient passive immunity and colostrum components.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (5) ◽  
pp. 1492
Kim Han ◽  
Komudi Singh ◽  
Matthew J. Rodman ◽  
Shahin Hassanzadeh ◽  
Yvonne Baumer ◽  

Intermittent fasting and fasting mimetic diets ameliorate inflammation. Similarly, serum extracted from fasted healthy and asthmatic subjects’ blunt inflammation in vitro, implicating serum components in this immunomodulation. To identify the proteins orchestrating these effects, SOMAScan technology was employed to evaluate serum protein levels in healthy subjects following an overnight, 24-h fast and 3 h after refeeding. Partial least square discriminant analysis identified several serum proteins as potential candidates to confer feeding status immunomodulation. The characterization of recombinant IGFBP1 (elevated following 24 h of fasting) and PYY (elevated following refeeding) in primary human CD4+ T cells found that they blunted and induced immune activation, respectively. Furthermore, integrated univariate serum protein analysis compared to RNA-seq analysis from peripheral blood mononuclear cells identified the induction of IL1RL1 and MFGE8 levels in refeeding compared to the 24-h fasting in the same study. Subsequent quantitation of these candidate proteins in lean versus obese individuals identified an inverse regulation of serum levels in the fasted subjects compared to the obese subjects. In parallel, IL1RL1 and MFGE8 supplementation promoted increased CD4+ T responsiveness to T cell receptor activation. Together, these data show that caloric load-linked conditions evoke serological protein changes, which in turn confer biological effects on circulating CD4+ T cell immune responsiveness.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Huai-Bin Hu ◽  
Zeng-Qing Song ◽  
Guang-Ping Song ◽  
Sen Li ◽  
Hai-Qing Tu ◽  

AbstractDynamic assembly and disassembly of primary cilia controls embryonic development and tissue homeostasis. Dysregulation of ciliogenesis causes human developmental diseases termed ciliopathies. Cell-intrinsic regulatory mechanisms of cilia disassembly have been well-studied. The extracellular cues controlling cilia disassembly remain elusive, however. Here, we show that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a multifunctional bioactive phospholipid, acts as a physiological extracellular factor to initiate cilia disassembly and promote neurogenesis. Through systematic analysis of serum components, we identify a small molecular—LPA as the major driver of cilia disassembly. Genetic inactivation and pharmacological inhibition of LPA receptor 1 (LPAR1) abrogate cilia disassembly triggered by serum. The LPA-LPAR-G-protein pathway promotes the transcription and phosphorylation of cilia disassembly factors-Aurora A, through activating the transcription coactivators YAP/TAZ and calcium/CaM pathway, respectively. Deletion of Lpar1 in mice causes abnormally elongated cilia and decreased proliferation in neural progenitor cells, thereby resulting in defective neurogenesis. Collectively, our findings establish LPA as a physiological initiator of cilia disassembly and suggest targeting the metabolism of LPA and the LPA pathway as potential therapies for diseases with dysfunctional ciliogenesis.

2020 ◽  
Vol 36 (2) ◽  
pp. 246-255
S. A. Bolu ◽  
O. O. Balogun

An experiment was conducted to compare the haematology and some serum constituents and performance of broilers fed diets containing improved (addition of anti-microbial and anti-oxidant) locally produced natural vitamin premix (LPNVP), LPNVP without improvement and commercial vitamin premix (CVMP). Haematology of the birds was not affected by the dietary treatments. However, red blood cell (RBC) count was significantly high (P<0.05) for the birds fed diet containing improved LPNVP The haemoglobin, PCK, RBC and WBC values observed for birds fed improved LPNVP were 13 gm%, 32%, 246 x 1012/L and 3.1 x 1010/L respectively. Serological parameters observed in the study were not significantly different (P>0,.05) for all the dietary conditions studied. Birds fed diet containing improved LPNVP also recorded comparable serum components to control diet containing the commercial vitamin/’mineral premix. Serum calcium, phosphorus, glucose, ureate, creatinine and total protein observed for birds fed diet containing improved LPNVP were 2.32%, 0.70%, 3.60Mmo/L, 2.9Mmo/L, 0.25Mmol/L, 58Mmol/L and 66g/100ml respectively. Feed intake, weight gain and feed utilization were similar (P>0.05) for the various dietary treatments. Birds fed improved LPNVP based diets tended to record better feed intake than did the control birds on CVMP based diets and unimproved LPNVP. Generally, improvement of LPNVP tended to give better performance of broilers than did other dietary treatments.

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