control measure
Recently Published Documents





Sidnei R. de Marchi ◽  
Ricardo F. Marques ◽  
Prissila P. dos S. Araújo ◽  
Ilgner T. D. Silva ◽  
Dagoberto Martins

ABSTRACT The presence of weeds as a consequence of pasture degradation is one of the main problems facing livestock worldwide. Thus, knowing the interference aspects and the appropriate time for weed management is essential for applying a particular control measure. This research aimed to study the weed interference on the morphostructural and nutritional quality of the Marandu palisade grass in conditions of renewal or maintenance of pasture. The experiments were conducted in a randomized block design, with four replicates and treatments consisted of eight growth periods of coexistence between Marandu palisade grass and weeds (0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, and 120 days). Forage grass was characterized at the end of the experimental period, corresponding to 120 days of coexistence, and the main morphostructural and nutritional components were determined. Under the renewal or maintenance process, the weeds interfere in the morphostructural and nutritional quality of pasture areas with Marandu palisade grass. In vitro organic matter digestibility of Marandu palisade grass is negatively influenced by weeds, suggesting that control measures for renewal or maintenance areas should be adopted within 24 and 18 days of coexistence, respectively.

2022 ◽  
pp. tobaccocontrol-2021-056879
Marko Vladisavljevic ◽  
Jovan Zubović ◽  
Olivera Jovanovic ◽  
Mihajlo Djukic ◽  
Natasa Trajkova Najdovska ◽  

Background and objectiveTobacco tax evasion undermines the goal of tobacco taxes as a tobacco control measure to make tobacco products less affordable, increases the health risks for those who smoke and decreases the government revenue. This paper analyses the tobacco tax evasion in six Western Balkan (WB) countries: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia and Serbia. The aim of this research is to estimate the size of the illicit market and identify the main determinants of tax evasion activities in the Southeastern European region.Data and methodsData from 2019 Survey on Tobacco Consumption in Southeastern Europe (STC-SEE) are used. STC-SEE provides uniquely comparable nationally representative data on smoking behaviour for adult (18–85 years old) population for each country. Tax evasion is defined on the basis of available information on tax stamps, health warnings, price and the place of purchase, in accordance with the previous research on tax evasion. In order to estimate the determinants of illicit purchases we use binary choice model of tax evasion.ResultsThe study finds that 20.4% of all current smokers in WB countries evade taxes on tobacco products, with evasion being much more frequent for hand-rolled (HR) tobacco (86.7%) than for the manufactured cigarettes (MC) (8.6%). While HR is predominantly illicit in all six countries, MC evasion varies significantly, with evasion being significantly higher in Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Results further suggest that tax evasion is higher in the statistical regions where institutional capacities to tackle illicit trade are lower, in municipalities bordering countries with high MC evasion, as well as among smokers with low income, women and elderly. We also provide evidence that higher tobacco taxes and prices do not increase illicit consumption.ConclusionThe findings from the research suggest that in order to decrease tax evasion, governments should put additional effort to strengthen institutional capacities to tackle illicit tobacco markets. Furthermore, improving regional coordination in development and implementation of tobacco control policies, including the prevention of illicit market, is essential in lowering evasion in all WB countries. Finally, WB countries should regulate and enforce excise tax stamp requirements on the HR tobacco market to a much higher degree.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (2) ◽  
pp. 163-175
Vincent PK Titanji

Despite enormous efforts deployed and considerable positive results obtained in the global fight against the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) the scourge remains a major international public health hazard. The main control measures at the onset consisted in the application of barrier and hygiene measures to stop the spread of the virus and case identification and clinical management of symptoms in the absence of widely available anti-COVOD-19 drugs. Vaccination as a major control measure became widely available in the advanced countries of the global north, but not in Africa where less than 5-10% 0f the population are vaccinated against COVID-19. However, African countries, possibly excluding South Africa, have been less impacted by COVID-19 pandemic as they registered fewer cases, hospitalizations and deaths. Herein it is postulated that the wide use of African traditional Phytomedicines (herbal medicines) has contributed, at least in part, to the better control of the COVID-19 pandemic in Africa. Abundant evidence in the literature suggests the availability of anti-viral, anti-oxidant and immune-stimulatory agents in the proposed COVID-19 herbal remedies., these activities being similar to those the standard drugs used in the standard treatment/ management of COVID-19. The review also examines a number of COVID-19 herbal medicines including COVID Organics CVO (Madagascar) ADSAR, ELISIR COVID, COROCUR (Cameroon) IHP Detox Tea (Nigeria) and COVIDEX (Uganda) and notes that though approved by the competent authorities in the respective African countries, these phytomedicines have not been approved by the WHO. It is proposed that additional studies be carried out to validate the Africa herbal remedies for possible use as stand-alone or complementary treatment of COVID-19 in addition to vaccination and barrier and hygiene control measures.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Isabel Rodrigues ◽  
Vítor Ramos ◽  
Jacinto Benhadi-Marín ◽  
Aránzazu Moreno ◽  
Alberto Fereres ◽  

AbstractPhilaenus spumarius is a vector of Xylella fastidiosa, one of the most dangerous plants pathogenic bacteria worldwide. There is currently no control measure against this pathogen. Thus, the development of vector control strategies, like generalist predators, such as spiders, could be essential to limit the spread of this vector-borne pathogen. In this study, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based approach was developed to principally detect DNA of P. spumarius in the spider’s gut. Accordingly, 20 primer pairs, targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and cytochrome b (cytB) genes, were tested for specificity, sensitivity, and efficiency in detecting P. spumarius DNA. Overall, two primer sets, targeting COI gene (COI_Ph71F/COI_Ph941R) and the cytB gene (cytB_Ph85F/cytB_Ph635R), showed the highest specificity and sensitivity, being able to amplify 870 pb and 550 bp fragments, respectively, with P. spumarius DNA concentrations 100-fold lower than that of the DNA of non-target species. Among these two primer sets, the cytB_Ph85F/cytB_Ph635R was able to detect P. spumarius in the spider Xysticus acerbus, reaching 50% detection success 82 h after feeding. The feasibility of this primer set to detect predation of P. spumarius by spiders was confirmed in the field, where 20% of the collected spiders presented positive amplifications.

Herwin Pisestyani ◽  
Nisa Nurul Fitria ◽  
Ardilasunu Wicaksono

Abstract There is still lack of bruselosis in beef cattle in Barru District, South Sulawesi. The aim of this study was to analyze data about the temporary distribution of disease by measuring spreading speed, and spatial distribution by mapping risk areas for bruselosis over the past three years. The data of this study was collected using the records from Dinas Peternakan and conducting interviews using structured questionnaires. This research was a descriptive study by measuring the incidence rate and describing the risk map using geographic information system (GIS). The results of this study indicate that, based on the incidence rate, the average of distribution rate of bruselosis in beef cattle in Barru is 5 cases per 10 000 heads/year. This incidence rate always decreases every year. There was no sub-district that classified as high risk. There was one area that classified as medium risk namely sub-district of Mallusetasi. Control measure that have been carried out by goverment were successful to reduce the spread of disease. Keywords: Beef cattle; Bruselosis; Incidence rate; Occurrence; Risk.   Abstrak Informasi mengenai penyebaran kejadian penyakit pada sapi potong di Kabupaten Barru Sulawesi selatan masih kurang. Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis data distribusi kejadian penyakit secara temporal dengan mengukur kecapatan penyebaran, dan secara spasial dengan memetakan wilayah berisiko bruselosis selama tiga tahun terakhir. Data dalam penelitian ini menggunakan rekapan dari Dinas Peternakan dan wawancara mendalam menggunakan kuesioner terstruktur. Penelitian ini mengunakan metode deskriptif dengan mengukur incidence rate dan menggambarkan peta risiko menggunakan geographic information system. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa berdasarkan incidence rate, kecepatan rata-rata penyebaran bruselosis pada sapi potong di Kabupaten Barru sebesar 5 kasus per 10 000 ekor/tahun. Nilai incidence rate tersebut selalu menurun setiap tahunnya. Kejadian penyakit paling tinggi terjadi di Kecamatan Mallusetasi dengan incidence rate sebesar 35 kasus per 10 000 ekor/tahun. Terdapat satu wilayah yang tergolong ke dalam risiko sedang, yaitu Kecamatan Mallusetasi. Tindakan pengendalian yang telah dilakukan oleh pemerintah setempat dikatakan berhasil dalam menekan tingkat kejadian penyakit. Kata kunci: Bruselosis; Incidence rate; Risiko; Sapi potong; Tingkat kejadian

2022 ◽  
Vol 50 ◽  
Luiza Soares Ribeiro ◽  
Haide Valeska Scheid ◽  
Lucas Dos Santos Marques ◽  
Fabiano Da Rosa Venancio ◽  
Elisa Rocha Da Silva ◽  

Background: A listeriosis outbreak in a sheep fattening feedlot in the Southern Region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil is described. This disease is caused by Listeria monocytogenes and represents a risk to public health since it affects not only ruminants but also humans. This agent is widely spread in the environment, such as in the soil and water. It is also found in decaying vegetable matter and the feces and fluids of domestic animals. The aim of this study was to describe a listeriosis outbreak in sheep raised in feedlots, its epidemiology, and to establish the importance of this disease in this type of sheep management system, evaluate the possible sources of infection, and suggest ways to control it.Cases: Sheep were kept in a 2-sector shed, one with east solar orientation and the other with west solar orientation, the latter with free access to domestic birds. Sheep were fed silage and concentrate. Seven sheep were affected, 5 died and 2 recovered. Clinically, the sheep displayed loss of balance, excessive drooling, and tremors; one exhibited circling, head deviation, apathy, nystagmus, lateral recumbency, paddling, and labored breathing. At necropsy, macroscopic lesions were not found, and histologically several micro-abscesses and perivascular cuffs with lymphocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils were present in the brain stem. Listeria monocytogenes suspected colonies were observed in the microbiological culture, and the bacteria was identified by biochemical analysis. The immunohistochemistry test in brain stem sections was positive for the antibody BD DifcoTM Listeria O Antiserum Poly Serotypes 1 and 4.Discussion: A listeriosis outbreak in a feedlot sheep was confirmed through epidemiological findings, histological lesions, bacterial culture, and immunohistochemistry analysis. This infection is frequent in sheep fed silage of poor quality or other food with improper storage and lack of hygiene. In the present outbreak, the bacteria were isolated from silage. However, it is likely that domestic birds, which were raised in the same place and had free access to the west sector of the feedlot, were the initial source of infection, because the sheep from the opposite sector (east) did not get ill. The disease caused by environmental contamination or through contact with fluids and feces of ducks, chickens, cattle, and pigs has already been described in outbreaks that occurred in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul. Sheep aggregation in feedlot systems is also a favorable factor for the development of the bacteria and the occurrence of outbreaks because the accumulation of feces and urine cause humidity on the stalls. This allows outbreaks to occur in other seasons of the year, such as in the outbreak reported herein. The exchange of silage that served as food for sheep was another control measure, and new cases were not reported 8 months after these procedures were taken. In the outbreak studied, 2 sheep that exhibited clinical signs were treated with oxytetracycline and recovered. Some authors report that treatment for listeriosis is inefficient because neurological lesions are irreversible. Nonetheless, other studies have reported the recovery of some animals when they were treated with oxytetracycline or a combination of oxytetracycline and dexamethasone or ampicillin and gentamicin like in the outbreak described in this paper.Keywords: Listeria monocytogenes, central nervous system, silage, feedlot, ovine.

2022 ◽  
Vol 82 ◽  
J. Iqbal ◽  
S. Ahmad ◽  
Q. Ali

Abstract Entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) now a possible safer microbial control measure that could be considered as a substitute for chemical control of insect pests. Three EPF viz., Metarihizium anisopliae, Isaria furnosoroseus and Beauveria bassiana were evaluated for their virulence against the grubs of Khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium (Everts) under laboratory conditions. The isolates were applied by two methods viz., diet incorporation and an immersion method with 3rd instar 20 grubs of T. granarium for each. The virulence of EPF was determined using percent mortality. Significantly higher mortality was observed in M. anisopliae applied through immersion (98.33%) and diet incorporation (93.33%) methods followed by B. bassiana (90.83 and 85.83%, respectively). The mortality caused by I. furnosoroseus was statistically lower in immersion and diet incorporation methods i.e. 81.67 and 73.33%, respectively. Based on the immersion method, all EPF were studied for multiple conidial concentration i.e., 1×104, 1×105, 1×106, 1×107 and 1×108 under the same in-vitro conditions. All the isolates were pathogenic to grub of T. granarium at the highest conidial concentration. M. anisopliae was proved the most effective virulent resulting in 98.33% mortality of the pest with LT50 4.61 days at 1 × 108 conidial concentration followed by 90.83 and 81.67 percent mortality with 5.07 and 8.01 days LT50, in the application of B. bassiana and I. furnosoroseus, respectively. M. anisopliae showed higher efficacy and could be considered as promising EPF for the development of myco-insecticides against effective biocontrol of T. granarium.

I Gusti Nyoman Wiantara ◽  

The occurrence of the Covid-19 pandemic forced the entire community to adjust itself by implementing a new order of life known as the “new normal” in every activity. Likewise, restaurant businesses are not immune from the impact of the Covid- 19 pandemics, so adjustments must be made so that restaurants can continue to operate and customer health and safety-related to Covid-19 can be carried out properly and correctly. To increase the sales volume of its products, it can do several things, including Lower Menu Prices, Give Special Discounts, Create More Durable Food Packaging, Prepare Food Delivery, Restaurant Business Starts Switching to Use Technology, Communication Between Businesses & Customers, Perform Marketing Plans and Pay Attention to Current Culinary Trends. Meanwhile, to make the restaurant operational cost-efficient, several strategies can be carried out, including Designing Cost Control Measure (CCM), re-identifying budgeting short-term and long-term, prioritizing cash flow safe and stable, reorganizing or redesigning the largest expenditure, and planning a more efficient division of labor fair and impartial. Furthermore, to guarantee customer safety from being exposed to Covid-19, restaurants can do the following: Communicate Safety and sanitation measures clearly and consistently, Avoid self-served dishes, Advice to maintain distance, Make strict rules regarding the use of masks on staff and diners, Offers waiting list and online pre-order facilities, Continues to offer no-contact options, Competes aggressively with retail options, Offers packaged dining options in the long term, Performs clear and systematic cleaning.

2021 ◽  
pp. 104-108
О. S. Kononenko ◽  
N. V. Shishkin ◽  
T. G. Derova

In the Southern Federal District, winter wheat is a main food crop. One of the most important factors that can destabilize gross grain yields and reduce grain crop productivity are parasitic organisms. One of the most common wheat diseases is septoria blotch (Zymoseptoria tritici). The purpose of the current study was to analyze the biological cycle of distribution, harmfulness, measures to combat septoria blotch on winter wheat. The paper has considered the importance of winter wheat septoria disease in various countries and in Russia. There was noted a leading position in distribution and harmfulness of the disease, and according to the results of study conducted by Russian and foreign researchers, it was found that this pathogen was inferior in importance only to wheat rust. There were presented three types of septoria blotch pathogens and there was established a dominant type in the Southern Federal District. Yield losses caused by septoria blotch can reach upto 30-40%, and the optimal temperature for its development and spread is from 5 to 20°C, with frequent precipitation. There have been given the technological methods under which the crop damage by pathogens increased. There have been presented the measures to combat septoria blotch and there has been described the most effective, economical and environmentally friendly method, namely the development of resistant varieties and their introduction into production. There has been considered qualitative and quantitative resistance of varieties. Currently there have been identified 21 major septoria blotch resistance genes. There has been considered longevity of stb-genes and the reasons for its loss. It has been established that the development of winter wheat varieties resistant to septoria blotch is a priority issue of breeding, since this control measure reduces yield losses and potential reserve of the pathogen in the agrocenosis.

Giulia Savioli ◽  
Bouda Vosough Ahmadi ◽  
Violeta Muñoz ◽  
Manon Schuppers

Indirect costs of animal disease outbreaks often significantly exceed the direct costs. Despite their importance, indirect costs remain poorly characterised due to their complexity. In this study, we developed a framework to assess the indirect costs of a hypothetical African Swine Fever outbreak in Switzerland. We collected data through international and national stakeholder interviews, analysis of national disease control regulations and industry data. We developed a framework to capture the resulting qualitative and quantitative data, categorise the impacts of these regulations, and rank the impacts in order of importance. We then developed a spreadsheet model to calculate the indirect costs of one category of control measure for an individual group of stakeholders. We developed a decision tree model to guide the most economically favourable implementation plan for a given control measure category, under different outbreak scenarios. Our results suggest that the most important measure/impact categories were ‘Transport logistics’, ‘Consumer demand’, ‘Prevention of wild boar and domestic pig contact’ and ‘Slaughter logistics’. In our hypothetical scenario, the greatest costs associated with ‘Prevention of wild boar and domestic pig contact’ were due to assumed partial or total depopulation of pig farms in order to reduce herd size to comply with the simulated control regulations. The model also provides suggestions on the most economically favourable strategy to reduce contact between wild boar and domestic pigs in control areas depending on the duration of the outbreak. Our approach provides a new framework to integrate qualitative and quantitative data to guide disease control strategy. This method could be useful in other countries and for other diseases, including in data- and resource-poor settings, or areas with limited experience of animal disease outbreaks.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document