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Updated Saturday, 08 May 2021

Oleksandr Stremoukhov ◽  
Oleh Koshovyi ◽  
Mykola Komisarenko ◽  
Igor Kireyev ◽  
Andriy Gudzenko ◽  

All over the world, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are taken annually by about three hundred million people and this figure is constantly increasing. At the same time, NSAIDs are also one of the most common causes of side effects of drug therapy. The development and implementation of new anti-inflammatory drugs, including those of plant origin, with minimal side effects is an urgent task of modern pharmaceutical science. Vaccinium corymbosum L. (family Ericaceae), which is gaining more and more popularity among berry crops and is successfully cultivated in Ukraine, is promising in this direction for research. The aim: phytochemical analysis of dry extracts from blueberry leaves to establish the possibility of creating new drugs with anti-inflammatory activity. Materials and methods. The objects of the study were dry extracts of northern highbush blueberry leaves. The content of amino acids and phenolic compounds was determined by HPLC and spectrophotometry. The prototypal activity was studied in vivo and in vitro. Research results. 4 dry extracts were obtained from northern highbush blueberry leaves. In the extracts obtained by HPLC, 7 amino acids were identified, including 3 essential ones: arginine, histidine, and phenylalanine. As a result of the HPLC study, 7 phenolic compounds were identified in extracts from the leaves of northern highbush blueberry: 5 flavonoids - rutin, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, quercetin and kaempferol and 2 hydroxycinnamic acids, chlorogenic and caffeic acid. For the first time, the anti-inflammatory effect of extracts from blueberry leaves was investigated. It was revealed that extract 1 at a dose of 50 mg/kg and extract 4 modified with arginine at a dose of 25 mg/kg have the highest anti-inflammatory activity. Conclusions. The results of the conducted studies indicate that extracts from the leaves of northern highbush blueberry in terms of the content of biologically active substances are promising sources for the creation of new drugs and dietary supplements with anti-inflammatory activity

Iuliia Korzh ◽  
Tatyana Romanko ◽  
Alina Volkova ◽  
Lubov Tereshсhenko

The aim. To conduct a structural analysis of the volume of government spending on the purchase of antituberculosis drugs (anti-TB D) within 2014–2018. Materials and methods. In the study, we used information on public procurement of anti-TB D for 2014–2018 presented on the website of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine in the section “Procurement of Medicines”, as well as statistical data of the “Center for Public Health of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine” on the incidence of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in the population. Analytical and comparative, system, and logical methods, as well as economic analysis were used. With the help of synthesis the conclusions and recommendations were formed. Results. It was found that in 2014-2018, the MDR-TB incidence rate increase had a positive dynamics in reducing the number of registered cases. For example, in 2015 this indicator was 2.56 %, and in 2018 it was -7.93 %. It was proven that public procurement of anti-TB D in physical terms was chaotic. Thus, in 2015/2014, the growth rate of anti-TB D number was 35.55 %, in 2016/2015 – -31.59 %, in 2017/2016 – 15.31 %, in 2018/2017 – 6.13 %. It was found that the dynamics of the growth rate of purchases of TB D in the national currency and USD had some differences. For example, in 2015, expenses increased by 55.02 % in the national currency, while in dollar terms this indicator decreased by 15.64 % compared to 2014. At the same time, in 2018 there was a positive trend of increasing the volume of public spending in monetary terms. Thus, in 2018, the growth rate in the national currency was 53.16 %, and in USD – 49.83 %. It was found that in the structure of public spending there was a tendency for an insignificant predominance of foreign anti-TB D. Based on the comparative analysis of government spending on groups of anti-TB D by the priority of their use in treatment regimens according to the standards it was determined that the process of anti-TB D purchasing did not meet the priority criteria for treatment. It complicates the implementation of the process of reforming TB care in connection with the construction of an outpatient model.

Anastasiia Sytryn ◽  
Iryna Cholak ◽  
Oksana Yemelianova ◽  
Uliana Karpiuk

The aim. The aim of this work was to conduct a microscopic and phytochemical study of the seeds of chia (Salvia hispanica L.). Materials and methods. Chia seeds were examined macroscopically and microscopically. To study the qualitative composition of the main groups of biologically active substances, histochemical, microchemical and chemical reactions were used. Hydroxycinnamic acids were identified by paper chromatography. To obtain a lipophilic extract, a Soxhlet apparatus and an exhaustive chloroform extraction method were used. The study of the quantitative content of fatty acids was carried out by gas chromatography. The content of polysaccharides in the raw material was determined by the gravimetric method. According to the SPhU method, the raw material swelling index was determined. Results. The main macro- and microscopic features of chia seeds have been established. Histochemical reactions, microchemical reactions made it possible to establish the presence of mucus and fatty oils in chia seeds. With the help of chemical reactions, the presence of flavonoids in the raw material was established. The quantitative content of fatty oils is 24.0±1.2 %. The content of water-soluble polysaccharides in the whole raw material was 4.01±0.07 %, in the crushed raw material - 5.04 ± 0.05 %. As a result of determining the swelling index, it was found that this indicator for the whole chia seeds was 20, and for the crushed ones – 17. The content of hydroxycinnamic acids in the chia seeds was 1.07±0.03 %. 9 fatty acids have been identified, among which linoleic acid predominates in terms of content. Conclusions. The presence and quantitative content of mucus, fatty oils, water-soluble polysaccharides, flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids, fatty acids was confirmed in the seeds of chia (Salvia hispanica L.). The obtained data can be used to develop regulatory documentation for chia seeds in order to use this raw material in pharmacy and medicine

Oksana Mishchenko ◽  
Natalia Palagina ◽  
Yuliia Larianovskaya ◽  
Tatyana Gorbach ◽  
Viktor Khomenko ◽  

The aim: to investigate the effect of a new derivative of 4-aminobutanoic acid (compounds KGM-5) on the level of neurotransmitters and neurotransmitter amino acids and the structural-functional state of the hippocampus of rats with acute cerebrovascular accident (ACVA). Materials and methods. ACVA was reproduced in rats by occlusion of the left carotid artery under anesthesia (sodium thiopental (35 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i/p). 5 groups of animals were used: intact control (IC, n=6), untreated animals with ACVA (CP, n=13); animals with ACVA (n=14), which were treated for 5 days with KGM-5 at a dose of 30 mg/kg i/p, animals with ACVA (n=13), who received i/p comparison drug “Picamilon” (17 mg/kg). There was a group of pseudo-operated animals (POA, n=8). Withdrawal of animals from the experiment was performed on day 6 after modeling ACVA by painless euthanasia under anesthesia. Histological examinations of CA1 and CA3 zones of the ventral hippocampus were performed with staining of sections with thionine by the method of Nissl and hematoxylin, eosin. In the rat brain, neurotransmitter amino acids and neurotransmitters were identified. Statistical processing was performed using the W-Shapiro-Wills test to verify the normality of the distribution and the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-test. The accepted significance level is p<0.05. Results. Under the influence of the compound KGM-5 and “Picamilon” in the CA1 zone of the hippocampus, the number of normochromic neurons increased by 20 % and 16.6 %, respectively, hyperchromic pycnomorphic neurons and shadow cells decreased respectively by 5.8; 2.9 times and 6.3; 3.5 times, the index of alteration of neurons decreased by 6 times and 4.8 times, respectively, the area of ​​the perikaryon of these neurons increased by 39.7 % and 77.8 %, respectively, compared with KP (p<0.05). Both studied agents showed a less pronounced normalizing effect on the CA3 area of the hippocampus. The new compound KGM-5 showed a normalizing effect similar to “Picamilon” on the level of neurotransmitter amino acids and neurotransmitters in the brain of rats with ACVA. Conclusions. Therapeutic administration of KGM-5 increases the survival of ventral hippocampal neurons, reducing the relative proportion of irreversibly altered cells, and helps to restore impaired levels of neurotransmitter amino acids and neurotransmitters in the brain of rats with ACVA. The neuroprotective effect of the new compound KGM-5 corresponds to this comparison drug “Picamilon”

Yaroslava Butko ◽  
Oksana Tkachova ◽  
Tetyana Tishakova ◽  
Anatoly Gordienko ◽  
Yevhen Bondariev

Pharmacotherapy of chemical skin injuries remains an urgent issue today due to its serious health consequences and possible development of complications. Topical treatment is one of the most effective methods of wound treatment using hydrophilic ointments and creams. For now, range of hydrophilic medicinal products with a broad spectrum of action is limited. That is why a search and development of new hydrophilic ointments and creams remains an urgent challenge. The aim. The aim of this research was to study effectiveness of ointment “Prolidoxid” and cream “Dexpanthenol with ceramides” on the experimental chemical burn model in rats. Materials and methods. Wound healing effect of ointment “Prolidoxid” and cream “Dexpanthenol with ceramides” was proved by the study of planimetric and hematological parameters on the model of acetic acid burns in rats. Results. Using animal model of chemical burns it was found that ointment “Prolidoxid” and cream “Dexpanthenol with ceramides” accelerate wound healing on Day 5 and Day 6, consequently, compared to untreated control animals, but in comparison with the action of reference medicine wounds were healed two days faster. Hematological parameters showed that studied medicines inhibit inflammation and reactivate blood rheological properties. Conclusions. The results suggest that effectiveness of cream “Dexpanthenol with ceramides” is higher than for one-component cream “Dexpanthenol”, but ointment “Prolidoxid” exceeds therapeutic action of ointment “Wundahyl” as reported by hematological and planimetric parameters

Olga Posilkina ◽  
Iryna Bondarieva ◽  
Volodymyr Malyi ◽  
Iryna Timanyuk ◽  
Zhanna Mala

The aim of the work is to study the features of effective management of product's assortment in small, medium and large pharmacy chains. Materials and methods. The study of the features of the assortment policy of pharmacies that are part of pharmacy chains of different sizes was conducted using a questionnaire of 421 heads of pharmacies. The relationship between the size of the pharmacy chain and the approaches used to form the product's assortment is studied and the presence of the procedure of product's assortment formation in pharmacies is analyzed using Pearson's criteria c2 and c2 maximum likelihood (M-L c2). The importance of the influence of the size of the pharmacy network on the scores of the efficiency of the business process of forming the product range, as well as its width and intensity of updating using non-parametric analysis of variance Kraskal-Wallis; Manfer-Whitney test with Bonferroni correction for pairwise comparisons of pharmacy network clusters and correlation analysis. The presence of drugs in treatment protocols was analyzed using the Z-test to compare the frequency of drug administration. Peculiarities of introduction and withdrawal of drugs and medical products to the range of different size pharmacy chains criteria c2 Pearson's and maximum likelihood (M-L c2) are determined. System and logical analysis is used to systematize the existing approaches to product's assortment management in pharmacy chains of different sizes. Results. It is established that with the increase in the size of pharmacy chains the tendency to use a centralized approach to the analysis and formation of the range in chains increases, when the list of assortment items is fully created and approved at the head office of the chain. The importance of the relationship between the breadth of the assortment of pharmacies and the size of the chain, which includes a pharmacy. Thus, large and mega-chains support the assortment, which on average includes up to 8.5 thousand items of medicines and medical devices, medium - 4-5 thousand assortment's items, and in half of the establishments of small pharmacy chains the range may include from 2,5 to 3 thousand names of medicines and medical devices. It is established that regardless of the size of the pharmacy chain, the inclusion of medicines / medical products in the range of pharmacies most often takes into account the factor of seasonality of demand and taking into account the core range, i.e. the list of 100-150 most popular items in the pharmaceutical market. When withdrawing medicines or medical products from the assortment of pharmacies from all three clusters are often guided by indicators of low profitability of sales and lack of orders for goods for more than three months. Conclusions. The analysis of the assortment policy of pharmacy chains of different sizes showed that in most of the studied institutions it is quite effective. The obtained results allow us to conclude that the effectiveness of the formation and analysis of the assortment is achieved through the use of different approaches to the centralization of this business process depending on the size of the pharmacy chain

Tetiana Tsykalo ◽  
Serhiy Trzhetsynskyi

The aim of the work was to study the monosaccharide composition of WSPS, PS and HC, isolated from the raw materials of Camelina sativa and Camelina microcarpa and to establish the quantitative content of these fractions. Materials and methods. The analysis of the composition of biologically active substances of carbohydrate nature was carried out in herb and seeds of Camelina sativa (variety “Slavutych”) and Camelina microcarpa. Samples of seeds for growing plants were provided by the National Center for Genetic Resources of Plants of Ukraine (The Plant Production Institute ND. V.YA. YURIEVA, NAAS of Ukraine). For the studies, the carbohydrates were separated by the Bailey method into monosaccharide fractions, which were used for TLC and quantification using a modified Dreywood spectrophotometric method with anthrone reagent in concentrated sulfuric acid. Results. The presence of glucose, galactose and arabinose was determined in the hydrolysates of polysaccharide fractions of Camelina sativa of herb and seeds. Galactose, glucose, arabinose and xylose were found in the hydrolysates of polysaccharide fractions of Camelina microcarpa herb and seeds. The highest content of WSPS was determined in the herb of Camelina sativa, and the lowest - in the seeds of Camelina microcarpa. PS in the largest number were also found in the herb, and in the smallest – in the seeds of Camelina sativa. The content of the amount of HC was the highest in the herb of Camelina sativa, and the smallest – in the seeds of Camelina sativa. Conclusions. The presence of 3 monosaccharides in the raw material of Camelina sativa and 4 monosaccharides in the raw material of Camelina microcarpa was established by TLC. The quantitative content of monosaccharide fractions was determined by the spectrophotometric method, which in total predominated in Camelina sativa

Yurii Pulnyi ◽  
Hanna Panfilova ◽  
Ellona Shelkova ◽  
Oleksandr Kabachnyi ◽  
Vitaly Chernukha

The aim: to conduct epidemiological studies on cancer of the trachea, bronchi, lungs as important components in the development of effective directions for increasing the effectiveness of pharmaceutical support for cancer patients in Ukraine. Materials and methods. The study used data from special literature, which presents the results of research on cancer in different countries of the world and data from the National Cancer Registry from 2014-2019 by indicators of morbidity and mortality of the population of Ukraine from cancer of the trachea, bronchi and lungs, including by gender. General theoretical (historical, analytical-comparative, systemic, graphic, logical, hypothetical-deductive) and applied (mathematical-statistical, epidemiological) research methods were used. Results. It was found that during 2014-2018 in terms of morbidity and mortality of the population from cancer of the trachea, bronchi and lungs in Ukraine, there was a positive dynamics of decline. So, in terms of incidence rates, which are standardized by WHO in 2018, the data decreased compared to 2014 by 8.4 %, and according to the “Ukrainian standard” – by 7.0 %. Mortality rates, which were standardized by WHO, decreased in 2018 compared to 2014 by 12.1 %, and those presented according to the “Ukrainian standard” – by 11.1 %. It was proved that the average data on morbidity and mortality of male patients were 6.2 and 7.4 times higher than in the same data for female patients. The different nature of changes in morbidity and mortality rates of patients in accordance with their gender in the dynamics of years has been established. So, for the female cohort of patients, the incidence and mortality rate from cancer of the trachea, bronchi and lungs during 2014-2018 had a complex zigzag character of changes, and in 2019, compared with the data of 2014, they increased by 22.54 % and 23.6 %, respectively. In the male cohort of patients, we observed a positive trend towards a decrease in mortality during 2014-2019. So, in 2019, these indicators reached their minimum and were equal to 57.0 and 44.0 cases per 100 thousand population. According to the data of 2019, the incidence and mortality of men from cancer of the trachea, bronchi and lungs relative to the data of 2014 decreased by 21.4 % and 25.0 %, respectively. It looks encouraging that there was relatively little fluctuation during 2014-2019 epidemiological indicators, both in general for the entire population of patients and female patients. Conclusions. The established characteristics and trends in the formation of the onco-epidemiological profile of the country's population for trachea, bronchus and lung cancer in dynamics over the years necessitate further research, taking into account changes in the main demographic indicators development of society

Alona Savych ◽  
Svitlana Marchyshyn ◽  
Roksolana Basaraba ◽  
Liubomyr Kryskiw

The aim of the study was to research the qualitative composition and to investigate the quantitative content of some carboxylic acids in the herbal mixtures with established hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activity in previous studies in vivo. Materials and methods. Studies of carboxylic acid content in the herbal mixtures were performed by HPLC analysis using Agilent Technologies 1200 liquid chromatograph (USA). Identification and quantitative analysis were performed using standard solutions of carboxylic compounds (tartaric, pyruvic, isocitric, citric, succinic and fumaric acids). Conclusions. HPLC analysis of five samples of the herbal mixture with antidiabetic activity showed the presence of six carboxylic acids. The dominant acid in all samples was isocitric acid. Among the most important for the prevention and treatment of diabetes, high levels of succinic and fumaric acids have been identified and established. The obtained data indicate a correlation between the phytochemical composition of the studied herbal mixtures and their pharmacodynamics, which was previously established

Olena Bevz ◽  
Igor Sych ◽  
Angelina Shaposhnyk ◽  
Irina Sych ◽  
Olga Kryvanych ◽  

Quetiapine fumarate (an antipsychotic) is part of numerous generic drugs that are in fairly wide demand among the population, therefore, more and more data appear on the counterfeiting and smuggling of funds, as well as non-medical use, which are life-threatening for the population and explain the high prevalence of the active ingredient as object of forensic examination. The aim. To develop an algorithm for conducting a forensic pharmaceutical examination and propose a method for determining quetiapine fumarate for forensic pharmaceutical purposes. Materials and methods. All studies were performed using reagents that meet the EP, USP and USPU requirements, Class A glassware and qualified devices. Identification by IR spectroscopy was performed in the range from 500 to 4000 cm-1 on the device “Nicolet 380 FT-IR Spectrometer by Thermo Fisher Scientific” using a prefix “Smart Perfomer” with a ZnSe crystal. The UV absorption spectra of the solutions were recorded using a Specord 205 spectrophotometer from Analytik Jena AG (Germany). TLC was performed on Merck chromatographic plates (silica gel 60G F254, Germany). The following systems were used as mobile phases: hexane – acetone – 25 % ammonia solution (60: 40: 2); methanol – 25 % ammonia solution (100: 1.5), hexane – acetone – 25 % ammonia solution (50: 45: 5). Detection was performed under UV light (254 nm), followed by spraying with Dragendorff reagent. Analysis by gas chromatography with mass detection was performed using a GC gas chromatograph with a mass spectrometric detector GCMS-QP2020. Data were analyzed using the program: GCMSsolution, LabSolutions Insight (Shimadzu Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). Results. An algorithm for conducting a forensic pharmaceutical examination in accordance with the current legislation of Ukraine has been developed, methods for determining quetiapine for forensic pharmaceutical purposes have been proposed. Conclusions. The developed methods for determining quetiapine meet the requirements of the current legislation of Ukraine and the Ministry of Justice of Ukraine. The obtained data prove the high sensitivity and reproducibility of the methods and prove the possibility of their introduction into the practice of forensic examination

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