Monocytes are leading component of the mononuclear phagocytic system that play a key role in phagocytosis and removal of several kinds of microbes from the body. Monocytes are bone marrow precursor cells that stay in the blood for a few days and migrate towards tissues where they differentiate into macrophages. Monocytes can be used as a carrier for delivery of active agents into tissues, where other carriers have no significant access. Targeting monocytes is possible both through passive and active targeting, the former one is simply achieved by enhanced permeation and retention effect while the later one by attachment of ligands on the surface of the lipid-based particulate system. Monocytes have many receptors e.g., mannose, scavenger, integrins, cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) and cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36). The ligands used against these receptors are peptides, lectins, antibodies, glycolipids, and glycoproteins. This review encloses extensive introduction of monocytes as a suitable carrier system for drug delivery, the design of lipid-based carrier system, possible ways for delivery of therapeutics to monocytes, and the role of monocytes in the treatment of life compromising diseases such as cancer, inflammation, stroke, etc.
Exosomes are extracellular vesicles (EVs) released from cells upon fusion of an
intermediate endocytic compartment with the plasma membrane. They refer to the intraluminal vesicles released
from the fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane. The contents and number of exosomes are
related to diseases such as metabolic diseases, cancer and inflammatory diseases. Exosomes have been used in
neurological research as a drug delivery tool and also as biomarkers for diseases. Recently, exosomes were observed
in the seminal plasma of the one who is asthenozoospermia, which can affect sperm motility and capacitation.
The main objective of this review is to deeply discuss the role of exosomes in spermatozoa after leaving
the seminiferous tubule.
We conducted an extensive search of the literature available on relationships between exosomes and
exosomes in spermatozoa on the bibliographic database.
: This review thoroughly discussed the role that exosomes play in the exchange of spermatozoa after
leaving the seminiferous tubule and its potential as a drug delivery tool and biomarkers for diseases as well.
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays a most hindering role in drug delivery to the brain. Recent
research comes out with the nanoparticles approach, is continuously working towards improving the delivery to the
brain. Currently, polymeric nanoparticle is extensively involved in many therapies for spatial and temporal targeted
We did a non-systematic review, and the literature was searched in Google, Science Direct and PubMed. An
overview is provided for the formulation of polymeric nanoparticles using different methods, effect of surface modification
on the nanoparticle properties with types of polymeric nanoparticles and preparation methods. An account of different
nanomedicine employed with therapeutic agent to cross the BBB alone with biodistribution of the drugs.
We found that various types of polymeric nanoparticle systems are available and they prosper in delivering
the therapeutic amount of the drug to the targeted area. The effect of physicochemical properties on nanoformulation
includes change in their size, shape, elasticity, surface charge and hydrophobicity. Surface modification of polymers
or nanocarriers is also vital in the formulation of nanoparticles to enhance targeting efficiency to the brain.
More standardized methods for the preparation of nanoparticles and to assess the relationship of surface
modification on drug delivery. While the preparation and its output like drug loading, particle size, and charge, permeation
is always conflicted, so it requires more attention for the acceptance of nanoparticles for brain delivery.
In recent years, SLNs and NLCs are among the popular drug delivery systems studied for
delivery of lipophilic drugs. Both systems have demonstrated several beneficial properties as an
ideal drug-carrier, optimal drug-loading and good long-term stability. NLCs are getting popular
due to their stability advantages and possibility to load various oil components either as an active
or as a matrix. This review screens types of oils used till date in combination with solid lipid to
form NLCs. These oils are broadly classified in two categories: Natural oils and Essential oils.
NLCs offer range advantages in drug delivery due to the formation of imperfect matrix
owing to the presence of oil. The type and percentage of oil used determines optimal drug
loading and stability. Literature shows that variety of oils is used in NLCs mainly as matrix,
which is from natural origin, triglycerides class. On the other hand, essential oils not only
serve as a matrix but as an active. In short, oil is the key ingredient in formation of NLCs,
hence needs to be selected wisely as per the performance criteria expected.