scholarly journals Protective Effects of Novel Lactobacillaceae Strains Isolated from Chicken Caeca against Necrotic Enteritis Infection: In Vitro and In Vivo Evidences

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 152
Nuria Vieco-Saiz ◽  
Yanath Belguesmia ◽  
Ruth Raspoet ◽  
Eric Auclair ◽  
Connor Padgett ◽  

The present study aimed to show the benefits of novel lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from the caeca of healthy chickens. These novel strains, identified as Limosilactobacillus reuteri and Ligilactobacillus salivarius, displayed high levels of lactic acid production, capability of biofilm formation, high aggregation and adhesion scores, and significant survival rates under conditions mimicking the chicken gastrointestinal tract (GIT). In addition, these novel Lactobacillaceae isolates were neither hemolytic nor cytotoxic. In vivo trials were able to establish their ability to reduce necrotic enteritis. Notably, a significant weight gain was registered, on day 10 of treatment, in the group of chickens fed with a mixture of L. reuteri ICVB416 and L. salivarius ICVB430 strains, as compared with the control group. This group has also shown a reduced number of lesions in the gut compared with other infected chicken groups. This study provides in vitro and in vivo evidence supporting the benefits of these novel Lactobacillaceae isolates for their use in poultry livestock as protective cultures to control the bacterial necrotic enteritis (NE) Clostridium perfringens.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Wuyang Huang ◽  
Ky Young Cho ◽  
Di Meng ◽  
W. Allan Walker

AbstractAn excessive intestinal inflammatory response may have a role in the pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in very preterm infants. Indole-3-lactic acid (ILA) of breastmilk tryptophan was identified as the anti-inflammatory metabolite involved in probiotic conditioned media from Bifidobacteria longum subsp infantis. This study aimed to explore the molecular endocytic pathways involved in the protective ILA effect against inflammation. H4 cells, Caco-2 cells, C57BL/6 pup and adult mice were used to compare the anti-inflammatory mechanisms between immature and mature enterocytes in vitro and in vivo. The results show that ILA has pleiotropic protective effects on immature enterocytes including anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, and developmental regulatory potentials in a region-dependent and an age-dependent manner. Quantitative transcriptomic analysis revealed a new mechanistic model in which STAT1 pathways play an important role in IL-1β-induced inflammation and ILA has a regulatory effect on STAT1 pathways. These studies were validated by real-time RT-qPCR and STAT1 inhibitor experiments. Different protective reactions of ILA between immature and mature enterocytes indicated that ILA’s effects are developmentally regulated. These findings may be helpful in preventing NEC for premature infants.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (3) ◽  
pp. 1222
Cristina Cuello ◽  
Cristina A. Martinez ◽  
Josep M. Cambra ◽  
Inmaculada Parrilla ◽  
Heriberto Rodriguez-Martinez ◽  

This study was designed to investigate the impact of vitrification on the transcriptome profile of blastocysts using a porcine (Sus scrofa) model and a microarray approach. Blastocysts were collected from weaned sows (n = 13). A total of 60 blastocysts were vitrified (treatment group). After warming, vitrified embryos were cultured in vitro for 24 h. Non-vitrified blastocysts (n = 40) were used as controls. After the in vitro culture period, the embryo viability was morphologically assessed. A total of 30 viable embryos per group (three pools of 10 from 4 different donors each) were subjected to gene expression analysis. A fold change cut-off of ±1.5 and a restrictive threshold at p-value < 0.05 were used to distinguish differentially expressed genes (DEGs). The survival rates of vitrified/warmed blastocysts were similar to those of the control (nearly 100%, n.s.). A total of 205 (112 upregulated and 93 downregulated) were identified in the vitrified blastocysts compared to the control group. The vitrification/warming impact was moderate, and it was mainly related to the pathways of cell cycle, cellular senescence, gap junction, and signaling for TFGβ, p53, Fox, and MAPK. In conclusion, vitrification modified the transcriptome of in vivo-derived porcine blastocysts, resulting in minor gene expression changes.

2020 ◽  
Vol 11 (8) ◽  
pp. 803-813
X. Shi ◽  
C. Hu ◽  
S. Cai ◽  
X. Tao ◽  
Y. Zhou ◽  

Phthalates are contaminants widely distributed in the food-chain, and they are considered as important environmental oestrogens in our lives. In the present study, eight strains of lactic acid bacteria were isolated for their ability to adsorb di-n-butyl-phthalate (DBP), and one of the strains, Lactobacillus plantarum strain P1, was selected for more detailed analyses of its phthalate adsorption capacity in vitro. This study also evaluated the in vivo protective effects of strain P1 against DBP toxicity in rats. Sixteen rats were divided into four groups, and animals received by oral gavage every other day for a period of one month saline with or without strain P1 at 2×1011 cfu/kg followed by maize oil with or without DBP (50 mg/kg). Strain P1 could adsorb more DBP than saline alone, and the concentration of mono-n-butyl phthalate in urine was decreased in animals receiving P1. Furthermore, oestrogenic effects of the different treatments were assessed through counting of sperm and observation of testis, and strain P1 could protect the sexual organs of male rats. Our results suggested that P1 is effective against phthalate toxicity due to its ability to adsorb DBP in vivo and could be considered as a new dietary therapeutic strategy against environmental phtalate toxicity.

Molecules ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 25 (3) ◽  
pp. 478 ◽  
Rasha Al-Rikabi ◽  
Hanady Al-Shmgani ◽  
Yaser Hassan Dewir ◽  
Salah El-Hendawy

(1) Background: Plant flavonoids are efficient in preventing and treating various diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the ability of hesperidin, a flavonoid found in citrus fruits, in inhibiting lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammation, which induced lethal toxicity in vivo, and to evaluate its importance as an antitumor agent in breast cancer. The in vivo experiments revealed the protective effects of hesperidin against the negative LPS effects on the liver and spleen of male mice. (2) Methods: In the liver, the antioxidant activity was measured by estimating the concentration of glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT), whereas in spleen, the concentration of cytokines including IL-33 and TNF-α was measured. The in vitro experiments including MTT assay, clonogenity test, and sulforhodamine 101 stain with DAPI (4′, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) were used to assess the morphological apoptosis in breast cancer cells. (3) Results: The results of this study revealed a significant increase in the IL-33 and TNF-α cytokine levels in LPS challenged mice along with a considerable elevation in glutathione (GSH); moreover, the catalase (CAT) level was higher compared to that of the control group. Cytotoxicity of the MCF-7 cell line revealed significant differences among the groups treated with different concentrations when compared to the control groups, in a concentration-dependent manner. Hesperidin significantly inhibited the colony formation of MCF7 cells when compared to that of control. Clear changes were observed in the cell shape, including cell shrinkage and chromatin condensation, which were associated with a later apoptotic stage. (4) Conclusion: The results indicate that hesperidin might be a potential candidate in preventing diseases.

2016 ◽  
Vol 2016 ◽  
pp. 1-11 ◽  
Qiang Liang ◽  
Xiaoran Li ◽  
Wangning Zhou ◽  
Yu Su ◽  
Shenbao He ◽  

Purpose. To use in vitro and in vivo models to evaluate Glechoma longituba extract to provide scientific evidence for this extract’s antiurolithic activity. Materials and Methods. Potassium citrate was used as a positive control group. Oxidative stress (OS) markers and the expression of osteopontin (OPN) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) were measured to assess the protective effects of Glechoma longituba. Multiple urolithiasis-related biochemical parameters were evaluated in urine and serum. Kidneys were harvested for histological examination and the assessment of crystal deposits. Results. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that treatment with Glechoma longituba extract significantly decreased calcium oxalate- (CaOx-) induced OPN expression, KIM-1 expression, and OS compared with the positive control group (P<0.05). Additionally, in vivo rats that received Glechoma longituba extract exhibited significantly decreased CaOx deposits and pathological alterations (P<0.05) compared with urolithic rats. Significantly lower levels of oxalate, creatinine, and urea and increased citrate levels were observed among rats that received Glechoma longituba (P<0.05) compared with urolithic rats. Conclusion. Glechoma longituba has antiurolithic effects due to its possible combined effects of increasing antioxidant levels, decreasing urinary stone-forming constituents and urolithiasis-related protein expression, and elevating urinary citrate levels.

2017 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 117906441769607 ◽  
Satya S Sadhu ◽  
Shenggang Wang ◽  
Rakesh Dachineni ◽  
Ranjith Kumar Averineni ◽  
Yang Yang ◽  

Glutathione disulfide (GSSG) is an endogenous peptide and the oxidized form of glutathione. The impacts of GSSG on cell function/dysfunction remain largely unexplored due to a lack of method to specifically increase intracellular GSSG. We recently developed GSSG liposomes that can specifically increase intracellular GSSG. The increase affected 3 of the 4 essential steps (cell detachment, migration, invasion, and adhesion) of cancer metastasis in vitro and, accordingly, produced a significant inhibition of cancer metastasis in vivo. In this investigation, the effect of GSSG liposomes on cancer growth was investigated with B16-F10 and NCI-H226 cells in vitro and with B16-F10 cells in C57BL/6 mice in vivo. Experiments were conducted to elucidate the effect on cell death through promotion of apoptosis and the effect on the cell cycle. The in vivo results with C57BL/6 mice implanted subcutaneously with B16-F10 cells showed that GSSG liposomes retarded tumor proliferation more effectively than that of dacarbazine, a chemotherapeutic drug for the treatment of melanoma. The GSSG liposomes by intravenous injection (GLS IV) and GSSG liposomes by intratumoral injection (GLS IT) showed a tumor proliferation retardation of 85% ± 5.7% and 90% ± 3.9%, respectively, compared with the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) control group. The median survival rates for mice treated with PBS, blank liposomes, aqueous GSSG, dacarbazine, GLS IV, and GLS IT were 7, 7, 7.5, 7.75, 11.5, and 16.5 days, respectively. The effective antimetastatic and antigrowth activities warrant further investigation of the GSSG liposomes as a potentially effective therapeutic treatment for cancer.

2015 ◽  
Vol 35 (2) ◽  
pp. 516-528 ◽  
Jianchun Huang ◽  
Xudong Zhang ◽  
Feizhang Qin ◽  
Yingxin Li ◽  
Xiaoqun Duan ◽  

Background: Previous studies have demonstrated that Millettia pulchra flavonoids (MPF) exhibit protective effects on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (MI/RI) in isolated rat hearts and show anti-oxidative, anti-hypoxic and anti-stress properties. Methods: In this study, the cardioprotective effects of MPF on myocardial ischemia and its underlying mechanisms were investigated by a hypoxia/ reoxygenation (H/R) injury model in vitro and a rat MI/RI model in vivo. Results: We found that the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activities were decreased in the MPF pretreatment group, whereas the activities of constructional nitric oxide synthase (cNOS), total nitric oxide synthase (tNOS), Na+-K+-ATPase and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase were significantly increased. In addition, the cardiocytes were denser in the MPF groups than in the control group. The mortality rate and apoptosis rate of cardiocytes were significantly decreased. Furthermore, pretreatment with MPF in vivo significantly improved the hemodynamics, decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) abundance, increased the activities of plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and decreased the expression of the Bax protein and ratio Bax/Bc1-2 ration. Conclusions: These results suggest that MPF is an attractive protective substance in myocardial ischemia due to its negative effects on heart rate and ionotropy, reduction of myocardial oxidative damage and modulation of gene expression associated with apoptosis.

2007 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 22
Enok Sobariah ◽  
Ali Khomsan ◽  
Ingrid S. Surono

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 12.45pt 6pt 17.85pt; text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 10pt;" lang="en-us" xml:lang="en-us">The aim of this study were  to identify the in-vitro tolerance of pro-biotic bacteria to acid and bile salt condition; and  to prove a hypothesis that the supplementation of oxygenated water has a positive effect on the body weight of rat and on viability of pro-biotic bacteria.  The first study was carried out at PAU Laboratory of Bogor Agricultural University, while the second study was conducted at Department of Community Nutrition of Bogor Agricultural University and Microbiology Laboratory of Indonesia Institute of Technology. Forty five rats aged 6 weeks were divided into three groups, i.e., control group without probiotic (a0), Lactobacillus casei Shirota (a1), and Lactobacillus IS-7257 (a2).  Each group (consisting of 5 rats each) has three different treatments, namely, control without oxygenated water (b0), 50 ppm oxygenated water (b2), and 80 ppm oxygenated water (b2). Oxygenated water was administered to the rats twice a day in the morning (3.25 ml) and afternoon (3.00 ml). Observation was carried out on the body  weight of the rats, fecal lactic acid bacteria, coliform, and anaerob bacteria by plate counting, for 4 periods, i.e, prior to the treatment (C0), after three-day treatment (C1), after seven-day treatment (C2), and on the 10<sup>th</sup> day treatment or three days after washed out period. The results indicated that probiotic bacteria are resistant to acid and bile acid condition. Oxygen concentration in water has a significant positive influence on the body weight of rats towards viability of probiotic bacteria (p-level &lt; 0.05).  The supplementation of  oxygenated water 50 ppm significantly increase the population of viable fecal lactic acid bacteria in L. casei Shirota and Lactobacillus IS-7257 groups after 3 and 7 days of treatment.  Lactobacillus IS-7257 gave better response than L. casei Shirota. The supplementation of oxygenated water 80 ppm significantly reduces the fecal coliform in-vivo in both L. casei Shirota and Lactobacillus IS-7257 groups (p-level &lt; 0.05).</span></p>

Nicholas P. Clayton ◽  
Akash Jain ◽  
Stephanie A. Halasohoris ◽  
Lisa M. Pysz ◽  
Sanae Lembirik ◽  

Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis, causative pathogens for anthrax and plague, respectively, along with Burkholderia mallei and B. pseudomallei are potential bioterrorism threats. Tebipenem pivoxil hydrobromide (TBP HBr, formerly SPR994), is an orally available prodrug of tebipenem, a carbapenem with activity versus multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative pathogens, including quinolone-resistant and extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Enterobacterales. We evaluated the in vitro activity and in vivo efficacy of tebipenem against biothreat pathogens. Tebipenem was active in vitro against 30-strain diversity sets of B. anthracis, Y. pestis, B. mallei, and B. pseudomallei with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 0.001 – 0.008 μg/ml for B. anthracis, ≤0.0005 – 0.03 μg/ml for Y. pestis, 0.25 – 1 μg/ml for B. mallei, and 1 – 4 μg/ml for B. pseudomallei. In a B. anthracis murine model, all control animals died within 52 h post challenge. The survival rates in the groups treated with tebipenem were 75% and 73% when dosed at 12 h and 24 h post challenge, respectively. The survival rates in the positive control groups treated with ciprofloxacin were 75% and when dosed 12 h and 25% when dosed 24 h post challenge, respectively. Survival rates were significantly (p=0.0009) greater in tebipenem groups treated at 12 h and 24 h post challenge and in the ciprofloxacin group 12 h post-challenge vs. the vehicle-control group. For Y. pestis, survival rates for all animals in the tebipenem and ciprofloxacin groups were significantly (p<0.0001) greater than the vehicle-control group. These results support further development of tebipenem for treating biothreat pathogens.

Molecules ◽  
2019 ◽  
Vol 24 (6) ◽  
pp. 1102 ◽  
Zhekang Cheng ◽  
Meng Zhang ◽  
Chengli Ling ◽  
Ying Zhu ◽  
Hongwei Ren ◽  

Ginseng has been used worldwide as traditional medicine for thousands of years, and ginsenosides have been proved to be the main active components for their various pharmacological activities. Based on their structures, ginsenosides can be divided into ginseng diol-type A and ginseng triol-type B with different pharmacological effects. In this study, six ginsenosides, namely ginsenoside Rb1, Rh2, Rg3, Rg5 as diol-type ginseng saponins, and Rg1 and Re as triol-type ginseng saponins, which were reported to be effective for ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) treatment, were chosen to compare their protective effects on cerebral I/R injury, and their mechanisms were studied by in vitro and in vivo experiments. It was found that all ginsenosides could reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibit apoptosis and increase mitochondrial membrane potential in cobalt chloride-induced (CoCl2-induced) PC12 cells injury model, and they could reduce cerebral infarction volume, brain neurological dysfunction of I/R rats in vivo. The results of immunohistochemistry and western blot showed that the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), silencing information regulator (SIRT1) and nuclear transcription factor P65 (NF-κB) in hippocampal CA1 region of some ginsenoside groups were also reduced. In general, the effect on cerebral ischemia of Rb1 and Rg3 was significantly improved compared with the control group, and was the strongest among all the ginsenosides. The effect on SIRT1 activation of ginsenoside Rb1 and the inhibition effect of TLR4/MyD88 protein expression of ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg3 were significantly stronger than that of other groups. The results indicated that ginsenoside Rg1, Rb1, Rh2, Rg3, Rg5 and Re were effective in protecting the brain against ischemic injury, and ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg3 have the strongest therapeutic activities in all the tested ginsenosides. Their neuroprotective mechanism is associated with TLR4/MyD88 and SIRT1 activation signaling pathways, and they can reduce cerebral ischemic injury by inhibiting NF-κB transcriptional activity and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6).

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