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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Bin Li ◽  
Xing Xie

Abstract Objective To investigate the effect of A20 and how A20 is regulated in viral myocarditis (VMC). Methods BABL/C mice, primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and H9c2 cells were infected with Coxsackie virus B3 (CVB3) to establish animal and cellular models of VMC. H&E staining revealed the pathologic condition of myocardium. ELISA measured the serum levels of creatine kinase, creatine kinase isoenzyme and cardiac troponin I. The effects of A20, miR-1a-3p and ADAR1 were investigated using gain and loss of function approaches. ELISA measured the levels of IL-6, IL-18 and TNF-α in serum or cell culture supernatant. TUNEL staining and flow cytometry assessed the apoptosis of myocardium and cardiomyocytes, respectively. RNA-binding protein immunoprecipitation and dual-luciferase reporter assays verified the binding between A20 and miR-1a-3p. Co-immunoprecipitation assay verified the binding between ADAR1 and Dicer. Results A20 was underexpressed and miR-1a-3p was overexpressed in the myocardium of VMC mice as well as in CVB3-infected cardiomyocytes. Overexpression of A20 suppressed cardiomyocyte inflammation and apoptosis in vivo and in vitro. miR-1a-3p promoted CVB3-induced inflammation and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes by binding to A20. The expression of miR-1a-3p was regulated by ADAR1. ADAR1 promoted the slicing of miR-1a-3p precursor by binding to Dicer. Conclusion A20, regulated by ADAR1/miR-1a-3p, suppresses inflammation and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in VMC.

Obesity Facts ◽  
2022 ◽  
Isabel Viola Wagner ◽  
Iuliia Savchuk ◽  
Lena Sahlin ◽  
Alexandra Kulle ◽  
Nora Klöting ◽  

Introduction: Obesity in women is often associated with hyperandrogenism but the role of adipose tissue (AT) in androgen synthesis remains unclear. Therefore, we studied whether AT could be a source of androgens promoting hyperandrogenism. Methods: Subcutaneous and visceral AT was collected from lean and obese women. Androgen levels were evaluated in serum, AT and cell culture supernatant. Gene and protein expression of steroidogenic enzymes were determined. Results: Obese subjects had elevated serum androgen levels, which reduced after weight loss. Androgens were measurable in AT and in cell culture supernatants of adipocytes. Steroids were higher in AT from obese women, with the highest difference for testosterone in visceral AT (+7.9 fold, p=0.032). Steroidogenic enzymes were expressed in human AT with depot-specific differences. Obese women showed a significantly higher expression of genes of the backdoor pathway and of CYP19 in visceral AT. Conclusion: The whole steroidogenic machinery of the classical and backdoor pathways of steroidogenesis, and the capacity for androgen biosynthesis, were found in both AT depots and cultured adipocytes. Therefore, we hypothesize that AT is a de novo site of androgen production and the backdoor pathway of steroidogenesis might be a new pathomechanism for hyperandrogenism in women with obesity.

Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 3524
Khalid Shahin ◽  
Kuttichantran Subramaniam ◽  
Alvin C. Camus ◽  
Zeinab Yazdi ◽  
Susan Yun ◽  

In spring 2019, diseased four-month-old tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) from an aquaculture farm in Southern California, USA were received for diagnostic evaluation with signs of lethargy, anorexia, abnormal swimming, and low-level mortalities. At necropsy, non-specific external lesions were noted including fin erosion, cutaneous melanosis, gill pallor, and coelomic distension. Internal changes included ascites, hepatomegaly, renomegaly, splenomegaly, and multifocal yellow-white nodules in the spleen and kidney. Cultures of spleen and kidney produced bacterial colonies identified as Francisella orientalis. Homogenized samples of gill, brain, liver, spleen, and kidney inoculated onto Mozambique tilapia brain cells (OmB) developed cytopathic effects, characterized by rounding of cells and detaching from the monolayer 6–10 days post-inoculation at 25 °C. Transmission electron microscopy revealed 115.4 ± 5.8 nm icosahedral virions with dense central cores in the cytoplasm of OmB cells. A consensus PCR, targeting the DNA polymerase gene of large double-stranded DNA viruses, performed on cell culture supernatant yielded a sequence consistent with an iridovirus. Phylogenetic analyses based on the concatenated full length major capsid protein and DNA polymerase gene sequences supported the tilapia virus as a novel species within the genus Megalocytivirus, most closely related to scale drop disease virus and European chub iridovirus. An intracoelomic injection challenge in Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) fingerlings resulted in 39% mortality after 16 days. Histopathology revealed necrosis of head kidney and splenic hematopoietic tissues.

2021 ◽  
Nicky Craig ◽  
Sarah Louise Fletcher ◽  
Alison Daniels ◽  
Caitlin Newman ◽  
Marie O'Shea ◽  

An enormous global effort is being made to study SARS-CoV-2 and develop safe and effective treatments. Studying the entire virus replication cycle of SARS-CoV-2 is essential to identify host factors and treatments to combat the infection. However, quantification of released virus often requires lengthy procedures, such as endpoint dilution assays or reinfection with engineered reporter viruses. Quantification of viral RNA in cell supernatant is faster and can be performed on clinical isolates. However, viral RNA purification is expensive in time and resources and often unsuitable for high-throughput screening. Here, we show a direct lysis RT-qPCR method allowing sensitive, accurate, fast, and cheap quantification of SARS-CoV-2 in culture supernatant. During lysis, the virus is completely inactivated, allowing further processing in low containment areas. This protocol facilitates a wide array of high- and low-throughput applications from basic quantification to studying the biology of SARS-CoV-2 and to identify novel antiviral treatments in vitro.

Biology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 1212
Takahiro Shimazaki ◽  
Nobuhiro Noro ◽  
Kazuhiro Hagikura ◽  
Taro Matsumoto ◽  
Chikako Yoshida-Noro

(1) Background: The control of angiogenesis is essential in disease treatment. We investigated angiogenesis-promoting or -suppressing factors and their molecular mechanisms. (2) Methods: Angiogenesis from HUVECs was quantitatively analyzed using the Angiogenesis Analysis Kit (Kurabo, Osaka, Japan). Human rAng-1-producing 107-35 CHO cells or mouse DFAT-D1 cells were co-cultured with HUVEC. Antioxidant polyphenols were added to the culture. Gene expression was analyzed by RT-PCR. (3) Results: The addition of rAng-1-producing cells, their culture supernatant, or commercially available rAng-1 showed a promoting effect on angiogenesis. The co-culture of DFAT-D1 cells promoted angiogenesis. Polyphenols showed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on angiogenesis. Luteolin and quercetin showed remarkable anti-angiogenic effects. The expression of vWF, Flk1, and PECAM-1 was increased by adding rAng-1-producing cell culture supernatant. Polyphenols suppressed these genes. Apigenin and luteolin markedly suppressed α-SMA and Flk1. Resveratrol and quercetin enhanced the expression of PPARγ, and luteolin suppressed the expression of COX-1. The expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), an oxidative stress-related gene, was slightly increased by luteolin. These results suggest that polyphenols induce ROS reduction. (4) Conclusions: We showed the promoting effect of Ang-1 or DFAT and the suppressing effect of polyphenols on angiogenesis and studied their molecular mechanisms. These results help control angiogenesis in regenerative therapy.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Nele Alexandra ten Hagen ◽  
Friederike Twele ◽  
Sebastian Meller ◽  
Paula Jendrny ◽  
Claudia Schulz ◽  

Background: Testing of possibly infected individuals remains cornerstone of containing the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Detection dogs could contribute to mass screening. Previous research demonstrated canines' ability to detect SARS-CoV-2-infections but has not investigated if dogs can differentiate between COVID-19 and other virus infections.Methods: Twelve dogs were trained to detect SARS-CoV-2 positive samples. Three test scenarios were performed to evaluate their ability to discriminate SARS-CoV-2-infections from viral infections of a different aetiology. Naso- and oropharyngeal swab samples from individuals and samples from cell culture both infected with one of 15 viruses that may cause COVID-19-like symptoms were presented as distractors in a randomised, double-blind study. Dogs were either trained with SARS-CoV-2 positive saliva samples (test scenario I and II) or with supernatant from cell cultures (test scenario III).Results: When using swab samples from individuals infected with viruses other than SARS-CoV-2 as distractors (test scenario I), dogs detected swab samples from SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals with a mean diagnostic sensitivity of 73.8% (95% CI: 66.0–81.7%) and a specificity of 95.1% (95% CI: 92.6–97.7%). In test scenario II and III cell culture supernatant from cells infected with SARS-CoV-2, cells infected with other coronaviruses and non-infected cells were presented. Dogs achieved mean diagnostic sensitivities of 61.2% (95% CI: 50.7–71.6%, test scenario II) and 75.8% (95% CI: 53.0–98.5%, test scenario III), respectively. The diagnostic specificities were 90.9% (95% CI: 87.3–94.6%, test scenario II) and 90.2% (95% CI: 81.1–99.4%, test scenario III), respectively.Conclusion: In all three test scenarios the mean specificities were above 90% which indicates that dogs can distinguish SARS-CoV-2-infections from other viral infections. However, compared to earlier studies our scent dogs achieved lower diagnostic sensitivities. To deploy COVID-19 detection dogs as a reliable screening method it is therefore mandatory to include a variety of samples from different viral respiratory tract infections in dog training to ensure a successful discrimination process.

Blood ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 138 (Supplement 1) ◽  
pp. 1108-1108
Moonjung Jung ◽  
Isaac Ilyashov ◽  
Danielle Keahi ◽  
Tom Wiley ◽  
Sunandini Sridhar ◽  

Abstract Fanconi anemia (FA) is the most common inherited bone marrow failure (BMF) syndrome and is caused by impaired DNA interstrand crosslink repair. FA patients usually develop BMF during the first decade of life, prior to any known exposure to exogenous crosslinking agents. Therefore, endogenous sources of DNA damage likely play an important role in the pathogenesis of FA. We previously identified loss of ALDH9A1 as a significant source of endogenous DNA damage using a metabolism-focused CRISPR knockout (KO) screen. This finding was validated using Jurkat cells as well as human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Here, we present updates of our project. To determine whether endogenous DNA damage was induced by the combined loss of FANCD2 and ALDH9A1, we investigated markers of DNA damage in bulk-edited cells. We found that the numbers of chromosomal breaks, 53BP1 foci, and gamma-H2AX foci were increased in FANCD2-/-ALDH9A1-/- cells, compared with single KO or wildtype (WT) controls, in the absence of an exogenous DNA damaging agent. These findings are consistent with spontaneously increased basal levels of DNA damage in FANCD2-/-ALDH9A1-/- cells. To study in vivo BMF and tumorigenesis phenotypes of ALDH9A1 deficiency in the setting of FA, we generated a mouse model. Fanca-/-Aldh9a1-/- mice showed the lowest frequency of long-term hematopoietic stem cells and lineage-negative Sca-1-positive cKit-positive cells, however the differences were not significant compared with control groups. While we did not observe aplastic anemia or leukemia, we found a higher incidence of solid tumors, most notably ovarian tumors and hepatocellular carcinoma in aged Fanca-/-Aldh9a1-/- mice. This suggests that the level of endogenous reactive aldehydes created by ALDH9A1 deficiency in mouse is not high enough to cause full-blown hematopoietic phenotypes, most likely due to redundant detoxification pathways. However, in tissues where ALDH9A1 is active and non-redundant, the low level of endogenous DNA damage accumulating over time causes solid tumors. To identify the specific reactive aldehydes responsible for DNA damage in ALDH9A1 deficiency, we performed a growth selection screen using FANCD2-/-ALDH9A1-/- cells. We found that the loss of ATP13A3 conferred survival advantage to FANCD2-/-ALDH9A1-/- cells. ATP13A3 transports endocytosed polyamines into the cytosol where polyamines can be metabolized by serum amine oxidases into 3-aminopropanal, a reactive aminoaldehyde. 3-aminopropanal also undergoes spontaneous decomposition to acrolein, a well-known reactive aldehyde carcinogen. Finding that the loss of ATP13A3 rescues that FANCD2-/-ALDH9A1-/- cells indicates that 3-aminopropanal and/or acrolein induces endogenous DNA damage requiring the Fanconi anemia pathway function for repair. Finally, to determine the contribution of ALDH9A1 variants to clinical manifestations of FA patients, we performed targeted sequencing of DNA from FA patients. We identified five missense variants, four of which had high CADD scores (>20). ALDH9A1 cDNA containing missense variants with high CADD scores expressed in ALDH9A1-/- Jurkat cells resulted in lower protein expression than the WT cDNA. Cell culture supernatant from cells expressing the variant cDNAs also had increased aldehyde levels as assessed by fluorometric assays, suggesting decreased enzymatic activity of the variant proteins. The patients with ALDH9A1 missense variants with high CADD scores had either early hematologic onset of FA (n=3; two patients before age 1 and one patient before age 4) or AML (n=1). In conclusion, we showed that the loss of ALDH9A1 generates endogenous DNA damage necessitating the FA pathway for its repair. Synthetic lethality caused by the combined loss of FANCD2 and ALDH9A1 was rescued by the loss of ATP13A3, which suggests that 3-aminopropanal is the culprit aminoaldehyde that accumulates in ALDH9A1-deficient cells and results in DNA damage. Functionally deleterious ALDH9A1 variants were observed in some FA patients with early onset of disease suggesting that ALDH9A1 could be a modifier of FA in humans. Disclosures Sridhar: Deciphera Pharmaceuticals: Current Employment; CRISPR Therapeutics: Ended employment in the past 24 months. White: Regeneron Pharmaceuticals: Current Employment. Smogorzewska: Rocket Pharmaceuticals: Research Funding.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (Supplement_6) ◽  
pp. vi34-vi34
Gabriele Stephan ◽  
Joshua Frenster ◽  
Niklas Ravn-Boess ◽  
Devin Bready ◽  
Jordan Wilcox ◽  

Abstract We recently demonstrated that GPR133 (ADGRD1), a member of the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor (aGPCR) family, is necessary for growth of glioblastoma (GBM) and is de novo expressed in GBM relative to normal brain tissue. We therefore postulate that GPR133 represents a novel target in GBM, which merits development of therapeutics. Like most aGPCRs, GPR133 is characterized by an intracellular C-terminus, 7 plasma membrane-spanning α-helices and a large extracellular N-terminus. The N-terminus possesses a conserved GPCR autoproteolysis-inducing (GAIN) domain that catalyzes cleavage at a GPCR proteolysis site (GPS), resulting in a C-terminal fragment (CTF) and an N-terminal fragment (NTF). We showed that dissociation of the cleaved NTF and CTF at the plasma membrane increases canonical signaling of GPR133, which is mediated by coupling to Gs and increase in cytosolic cAMP. Toward characterizing the effect of biologics on GPR133 function, we overexpressed wild-type or mutant forms of GPR133 in HEK293T cells and patient-derived GBM cells lines. Treatment of these cells with antibodies specifically targeting the NTF of GPR133 increased receptor activation in a dose-dependent manner. No effects were elicited with an antibody against the receptor’s intracellular C-terminus. Interestingly, cells overexpressing a cleavage-deficient mutant GPR133 (H543R) did not respond to antibody stimulation, suggesting that the effect is cleavage-dependent. Following antibody treatment, co-purification of the GPR133 NTF and the N-terminal antibody from the cell culture supernatant indicated the formation of antibody-NTF complexes. Analysis of these complexes suggested that antibody binding stimulated the dissociation of the NTF from the CTF. However, the increased flexibility of the GAIN domain and NTF after cleavage, independently of dissociation, may also endow the receptor with responsiveness to the effects of the antibodies. These data constitute a proof-of-concept paradigm of modulation of GPR133 function with antibodies. This work provides rationale for pursuing development of biologics targeting GPR133 in GBM.

Joseph A. Ayariga ◽  
Logan Gildea ◽  
Robert Villafane

Salmonella can cause acute and chronic infections in humans. Salmonella species are known to cause food poisoning and other diseases in developing countries. Their role in the pathogenesis of these diseases has received increased international attention. Despite numerous advances in sanitation, they still can infect humans and cause outbreaks in developed countries. For example, Salmonella causes about 1.2 million illnesses in the US each year with over 450 deaths. Additionally, Salmonella outbreaks cause significant losses to chicken producers globally. The Salmonella species is also prone to acquiring resistance to various classes of antibiotics. Hence, the need for a paradigm shift from antibiotics to bacteriophages to manage, control and treat bacterial infections. The ɛ34 phage belongs to Podoviruses and categorized into the P22-like phages. The P22-like phages include ɛ34, ES18, P22, ST104, and ST64T. In this work, we investigated the antibacterial property of ɛ34 phage tailspike protein against Salmonella newington (S. newington). We demonstrate here that, the phage’s tailspike protein enzymatic property as a LPS hydrolase synergizes with Vero Cell culture supernatant in killing S. newington. Using decellularized cartilage scaffold as an ex vivo tissue model, the ɛ34 TSP protected the scaffold from S. newington biofilm formation. Computational analysis of the ɛ34 TSP interaction with membrane proteins of S. newington demonstrated a higher probability (0.7318) of binding to ompA of S. newington, and when docked to ompA extracellular component, it produced a high free energy of -11.3kcal/mol. We also demonstrate the resistance/sensitivity of the tailspike to the digestive enzyme trypsin. The data obtained in this work indicates that the trypsin resistant tailspike protein of Ɛ34 phage can be formulated as a novel antibacterial agent against S. newington.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Olus Uyar ◽  
Pier-Luc Plante ◽  
Jocelyne Piret ◽  
Marie-Christine Venable ◽  
Julie Carbonneau ◽  

AbstractHerpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is responsible for herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE), associated with a 70% mortality rate in the absence of treatment. Despite intravenous treatment with acyclovir, mortality remains significant, highlighting the need for new anti-herpetic agents. Herein, we describe a novel neurovirulent recombinant HSV-1 (rHSV-1), expressing the fluorescent tdTomato and Gaussia luciferase (Gluc) enzyme, generated by the Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)—CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) (CRISPR-Cas9) system. The Gluc activity measured in the cell culture supernatant was correlated (P = 0.0001) with infectious particles, allowing in vitro monitoring of viral replication kinetics. A significant correlation was also found between brain viral titers and Gluc activity in plasma (R2 = 0.8510, P < 0.0001) collected from BALB/c mice infected intranasally with rHSV-1. Furthermore, evaluation of valacyclovir (VACV) treatment of HSE could also be performed by analyzing Gluc activity in mouse plasma samples. Finally, it was also possible to study rHSV-1 dissemination and additionally to estimate brain viral titers by in vivo imaging system (IVIS). The new rHSV-1 with reporter proteins is not only as a powerful tool for in vitro and in vivo antiviral screening, but can also be used for studying different aspects of HSE pathogenesis.

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