antidiabetic agent
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Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 444
Author(s):  
Qirou Wang ◽  
Jia Wang ◽  
Nannan Li ◽  
Junyu Liu ◽  
Jingna Zhou ◽  
...  

(1) Background: Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. is a traditional medicine used in the treatment of diabetes and chronic renal failure in southern China, Malaysia, and Thailand. Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease and the number of diabetic patients in the world is increasing. This review aimed to systematically review the effects of O. stamineus in the treatment of diabetes and its complications and the pharmacodynamic material basis. (2) Methods: This systematic review was conducted following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), using the databases ScienceDirect, PubMed, and Web of Science. (3) Results: Thirty-one articles related to O. stamineus and diabetes were included. The mechanisms of O. stamineus in the treatment of diabetes and its complications mainly included inhibiting α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, regulating lipid metabolism, promoting insulin secretion, ameliorating insulin resistance, increasing glucose uptake, promoting glycolysis, inhibiting gluconeogenesis, promoting glucagon-likepeptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion and antiglycation activity. Phenolic acids, flavonoids and triterpenoids might be the main components for hypoglycemia effects in O. stamineus. (4) Conclusion: O. stamineus could be an antidiabetic agent to treat diabetes and its complications. However, it needs further study on a pharmacodynamic substance basis and the mechanisms of effective constituents.


2022 ◽  
pp. 672-687
Author(s):  
Akanksha Srivastava ◽  
Zoomi Singh ◽  
Vandana Verma ◽  
Tashi Choedon

Fenugreek is one of the familiar spices found in human food and has been used extensively for curing numerous disorders. It provides natural food fibers and other nutrients required in the human body. It is used in functional foods, traditional foods, and nutraceuticals as well as in physiological uses such as antidiabetic agent, antibacterial, hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic, antioxidant, enzymatic pathway, and modifier gastric stimulant. It has a valuable influence on digestion and also has the capability to modify food texture. In modern food technology, it is used as a food stabilizer, adhesive, and emulsifying agent due its fiber, protein, and gum content. Recent pharmocological exploration of the seed extract of this plant discovered anticancer properties. Although it has many potential effects, there are some side effects as well; therefore, there is a greater need to study the pharmacological and toxicological effects of fenugreek to examine its clinical efficacy and safety.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Tadesse Sheleme

Metformin, the only biguanide oral antidiabetic agent available, was first used clinically in the late 1950s. Metformin remains the first-line pharmacologic treatment for type 2 diabetes patients. It can be used as a single agent or in combination therapy with other antidiabetes agents, including insulin. Metformin is absorbed predominately from the small intestine. It is rapidly distributed following absorption and does not bind to plasma proteins. It is excreted unchanged in urine. The elimination half-life of Metformin during multiple dosages in patients with good renal function is approximately 5 hours.


2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (23) ◽  
pp. 5610
Author(s):  
Tomoyo Matsuda-Taniguchi ◽  
Masaki Takemura ◽  
Takeshi Nakahara ◽  
Akiko Hashimoto-Hachiya ◽  
Ayako Takai-Yumine ◽  
...  

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, and its immune mechanism has been profoundly elucidated. Biologics targeting interleukin (IL)-23 have prevented the development of psoriasis. As major sources of IL-23, dendritic cells (DCs) play a pivotal role in psoriasis; however, the regulatory mechanism of IL-23 in DCs remains unclear. IL-36γ was reported to reflect the disease activity of psoriasis. Therefore, we hypothesized that IL-36γ may affect IL-23 production in DCs. To reveal the mechanism by which IL-36γ controls IL-23 production in DCs, we analyzed murine bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) stimulated with IL-36γ. IL-36γ stimulation upregulated the mRNA and protein expression of Nfkbiz in BMDCs. Nfkbiz knockdown using siRNA transfection partially inhibited the upregulation of IL-23 mRNA expression induced by IL-36γ stimulation. Since NF-κB signaling regulates Nfkbiz expression and the anti-diabetic agent metformin reportedly modulates NF-κB signaling, we examined the effect of metformin treatment on IL-36γ-induced IL-23 production. Metformin treatment impaired the phosphorylation of NF-κB induced by IL-36γ stimulation with the subsequent downregulation of Nfkbiz, resulting in the inhibition of IL-23 production in BMDCs. These data provided evidence that metformin treatment can inhibit IL-36γ-mediated IL-23 production in BMDCs, which might contribute to the prevention of psoriasis.


Author(s):  
Shifa Jawahar Ali ◽  
R. V. Geetha ◽  
S. Rajeshkumar

Introduction: The field of Nanotechnology has gained importance since last century. Nanoparticles can be used in medicine due to its increased interaction with microbes and has less side effects than drugs. Antioxidant compounds scavenge free radicals and inhibit the oxidative mechanisms that lead to degenerative diseases. There is a growing number of diabetes patients all over the world. Wide varieties of synthetic drugs are being used for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus, most of them possess side effects in the long run such as hepatotoxicity, abdominal pain, flatulence and diarrhea. Therefore, there is a need for a search of an alternate antidiabetic agent Aim: The aim of the study is to synthesize Copper nanoparticles from Mucuna pruriens and to evaluate its antioxidant and antidiabetic activity. Materials and methods: Plant extract of Mucuna pruriens was prepared and filtered by Whatman No 1 filter paper. Copper sulphate was added to the plant extract and kept in a magnetic stirrer for nanoparticle synthesis. The synthesized nanoparticle was preliminarily analysed using UV visible spectroscopy. Finally the left over solution was taken to calculate antioxidant activity and antidiabetic activity. Results: Antioxidant activity was calculated by DPPH method and the percentage of inhibition of copper nanoparticles synthesised from Mucuna pruriens was 58.5% for 10µL, 59.6% for 20µL, 67.5% for 30µL, 71.4% for 40µL and 72.3% for 50µL. Antidiabetic activity was calculated by alpha-amylase inhibitory assay and the percentage of inhibition of copper nanoparticles synthesised from Mucuna pruriens was 66% for 10µL, 69% for 20µL, 73% for 30µL, 79% for 40µL and 80% for 50µL. Conclusion: We can conclude that copper nanoparticles synthesised from Mucuna pruriens are a potent antioxidant and antidiabetic agent. Since it shows a good activity in free radical scavenging, copper nanoparticles can be used in a clinical therapeutic application and also in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.


Author(s):  
Rita Marleta Dewi ◽  
Megawati Megawati ◽  
Lucia Dwi Antika

: Diabetes mellitus is the most common chronic metabolic disorder and is considered one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. The improperly-treated chronic hyperglycemia of diabetes has been related to several long-term complications and multiple organ failures, including nephropathy, which can lead to kidney failure, retinopathy with the potential loss of vision, and cardiovascular symptoms. Current commercially available synthetic glucose-lowering agents have been reported to have several adverse effects. Therefore, the search for alternative remedies such as medicinal plants and their active compounds have attracted attention. Chrysin is an active flavonoid that exists widely in various plants and diets and has been reported to possess pharmacological properties, including antidiabetic activity. Many studies have been conducted to characterize the antidiabetic of chrysin, as well as its potential pathways, in in vitro and in vivo experiments. Chrysin has shown promise as an antidiabetic agent in animal studies, thus, demonstrating its potential to be developed as an antidiabetic drug. This review discussed the antidiabetic action of chrysin and its mechanisms, including targeting different mechanisms such as stimulation of insulin signaling, blockage of endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative damage, promotion of skeletal glucose uptake, as well as modulation of apoptosis and autophagy signaling. Additionally, this review would be useful for further studies regarding the mechanism of work of plant derived-compound as a potential antidiabetic agent.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 279-283
Author(s):  
Gautam Sadawarte ◽  
Samadhan Jagatap ◽  
Mukesh Patil ◽  
Vasant Jagrut ◽  
Jamatsing Darbarsing Rajput

This research work describes the synthesis of a new series of heterocyclic compounds, namely sulfonamide derivatives. Sulfonamides are a diverse class of organic compounds having significant and potent biological activities. Diverse synthetic methods have been engaged to build up its various derivatives for different biological functions. In this study, the production of novel pyridine-based heterocyclic compounds having sulfonamide moieties has been elaborated. The obtained sulfonamide-based pyridine scaffold was used to investigate their alpha-amylase inhibition activity. The structures of freshly prepared compounds were described using 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and IR spectroscopic techniques. The molecular docking of sulfonamides performed against porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase using PDB file 1LP was used for generation of grid. All the new synthesized compounds were shown notable anti-diabetic activity.


2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 135-139
Author(s):  
Yonis Ismed

Diabetes mellitus, to this day, is still one of significant health problems and created significant morbidity and mortalityamong world populations. Current diabetic drugs still have unpleasant side effects and costly price. Seeking new diabetic drugs from natural resources is one of the practical action for alternative management of the disease. Insulin plant, originated from Andes, has been cultivated in Indonesia. Insulin plant is rich in caffeic acid, clorgenic acid, flavonoid, fenolic compound and sesquiterpenic lactone has antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effect that possibly have a role in diabetes management. Several studies have reported potential of insulin plant as antidiabetic agent. This review aims to summarize and organize current literature on effectiveness and role of insulin plant on diabetes mellitus patient


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