Virus Spread
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2022 ◽  
Valentina Caliendo ◽  
Nicola S Lewis ◽  
Anne Pohlmann ◽  
Jonas Waldenstrom ◽  
Marielle van Toor ◽  

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the A/Goose/Guangdong/1/1996 lineage (GsGd), which threaten the health of poultry, wildlife and humans, are spreading across Asia, Europe and Africa, but are currently absent from Oceania and the Americas. In December 2021, H5N1 HPAI viruses were detected in poultry and a free-living gull in St. John, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these viruses were most closely related to HPAI GsGd viruses circulating in northwestern Europe in spring 2021. Analysis of wild bird migration suggested that these viruses may have been carried across the Atlantic via Iceland, Greenland/Arctic or pelagic routes. The here documented incursion of HPAI GsGd viruses into North America raises concern for further virus spread across the Americas by wild bird migration.

Biology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 125
Mohammad Reza Davahli ◽  
Waldemar Karwowski ◽  
Krzysztof Fiok ◽  
Atsuo Murata ◽  
Nabin Sapkota ◽  

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first discovered in China; within several months, it spread worldwide and became a pandemic. Although the virus has spread throughout the globe, its effects have differed. The pandemic diffusion network dynamics (PDND) approach was proposed to better understand the spreading behavior of COVID-19 in the US and Japan. We used daily confirmed cases of COVID-19 from 5 January 2020 to 31 July 2021, for all states (prefectures) of the US and Japan. By applying the pandemic diffusion network dynamics (PDND) approach to COVID-19 time series data, we developed diffusion graphs for the US and Japan. In these graphs, nodes represent states and prefectures (regions), and edges represent connections between regions based on the synchrony of COVID-19 time series data. To compare the pandemic spreading dynamics in the US and Japan, we used graph theory metrics, which targeted the characterization of COVID-19 bedhavior that could not be explained through linear methods. These metrics included path length, global and local efficiency, clustering coefficient, assortativity, modularity, network density, and degree centrality. Application of the proposed approach resulted in the discovery of mostly minor differences between analyzed countries. In light of these findings, we focused on analyzing the reasons and defining research hypotheses that, upon addressing, could shed more light on the complex phenomena of COVID-19 virus spread and the proposed PDND methodology.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261756
Muriel Rabilloud ◽  
Benjamin Riche ◽  
Jean François Etard ◽  
Mad-Hélénie Elsensohn ◽  
Nicolas Voirin ◽  

Background Worldwide, COVID-19 outbreaks in nursing homes have often been sudden and massive. The study investigated the role SARS-CoV-2 virus spread in nearby population plays in introducing the disease in nursing homes. Material and methods This was carried out through modelling the occurrences of first cases in each of 943 nursing homes of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes French Region over the first epidemic wave (March-July, 2020). The cumulative probabilities of COVID-19 outbreak in the nursing homes and those of hospitalization for the disease in the population were modelled in each of the twelve Départements of the Region over period March-July 2020. This allowed estimating the duration of the active outbreak period, the dates and heights of the peaks of outbreak probabilities in nursing homes, and the dates and heights of the peaks of hospitalization probabilities in the population. Spearman coefficient estimated the correlation between the two peak series. Results The cumulative proportion of nursing homes with COVID-19 outbreaks was 52% (490/943; range: 22–70% acc. Département). The active outbreak period in the nursing homes lasted 11 to 21 days (acc. Département) and ended before lockdown end. Spearman correlation between outbreak probability peaks in nursing homes and hospitalization probability peaks in the population (surrogate of the incidence peaks) was estimated at 0.71 (95% CI: [0.66; 0.78]). Conclusion The modelling highlighted a strong correlation between the outbreak in nursing homes and the external pressure of the disease. It indicated that avoiding disease outbreaks in nursing homes requires a tight control of virus spread in the surrounding populations.

Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 104
Adam A. Capoferri ◽  
Wei Shao ◽  
Jon Spindler ◽  
John M. Coffin ◽  
Jason W. Rausch ◽  

COVID-19 vaccines were first administered on 15 December 2020, marking an important transition point for the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the United States (U.S.). Prior to this point in time, the virus spread to an almost completely immunologically naïve population, whereas subsequently, vaccine-induced immune pressure and prior infections might be expected to influence viral evolution. Accordingly, we conducted a study to characterize the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the U.S. pre-vaccination, investigate the depth and uniformity of genetic surveillance during this period, and measure and otherwise characterize changing viral genetic diversity, including by comparison with more recently emergent variants of concern (VOCs). In 2020, SARS-CoV-2 spread across the U.S. in three phases distinguishable by peaks in the numbers of infections and shifting geographical distributions. Virus was genetically sampled during this period at an overall rate of ~1.2%, though there was a substantial mismatch between case rates and genetic sampling nationwide. Viral genetic diversity tripled over this period but remained low in comparison to other widespread RNA virus pathogens, and although 54 amino acid changes were detected at frequencies exceeding 5%, linkage among them was not observed. Based on our collective observations, our analysis supports a targeted strategy for worldwide genetic surveillance as perhaps the most sensitive and efficient means of detecting new VOCs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Lars-Kristian Lunde ◽  
Lise Fløvik ◽  
Jan Olav Christensen ◽  
Håkon A. Johannessen ◽  
Live Bakke Finne ◽  

Abstract Background Globalization and technological progress have made telework arrangements such as telework from home (TWFH) well-established in modern economies. TWFH was rapidly and widely implemented to reduce virus spread during the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, and will probably be widespread also post-pandemic. How such work arrangements affect employee health is largely unknown. Main objective of this review was to assess the evidence on the relationship between TWFH and employee health. Methods We conducted electronic searches in MEDLINE, Embase, Amed, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Scopus for peer-reviewed, original research with quantitative design published from January 2010 to February 2021. Our aim was to assess the evidence for associations between TWFH and health-related outcomes in employed office workers. Risk of bias in each study was evaluated by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and the collected body of evidence was evaluated using the the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Results We included 14 relevant studies (22,919 participants) reporting on 28 outcomes, which were sorted into six outcome categories (general health, pain, well-being, stress, exhaustion & burnout, and satisfaction with overall life & leisure). Few studies, with many having suboptimal designs and/or other methodological issues, investigating a limited number of outcomes, resulted in the body of evidence for the detected outcome categories being GRADED either as low or very low. Conclusions The consisting evidence on the relationship between TWFH and employee health is scarce. The non-existence of studies on many relevant and important health outcomes indicates a vast knowledge gap that is crucial to fill when determining how to implement TWFH in the future working life. Systematic review registration number PROSPERO registration ID # CRD42021233796.

2022 ◽  
Anthony Muhle ◽  
Nathan Palmer ◽  
Serge Edme ◽  
Gautam Sarath ◽  
Gary Yuen ◽  

Abstract Panicum mosaic virus (PMV), the type species of the genus Panicovirus in the family Tombusviridae, naturally infects switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.). PMV and its molecular partner, satellite panicum mosaic virus (SPMV), interact synergistically in co-infected millets with exacerbated disease phenotype and increased accumulation of PMV, compared to plants infected only by PMV. In this study, we examined the reaction of switchgrass cvs. Summer and Kanlow to PMV and PMV+SPMV infections at 24°C and 32°C. Switchgrass cv. Summer was susceptible to PMV at both temperatures. In contrast, cv. Kanlow was tolerant to PMV at 24°C but not at 32°C, suggesting that Kanlow harbors temperature-sensitive resistance against PMV. At 24°C, PMV was readily detected in inoculated leaves but not in upper non-inoculated leaves of Kanlow, suggesting that resistance to PMV was likely mediated by abrogation of long-distance virus transport. Co-infection by PMV and SPMV at 24°C and 32°C in cv. Summer but not in Kanlow caused increased symptomatic systemic infection and mild disease synergism with slightly increased PMV accumulation compared to plants infected only by PMV. These data suggest that the interaction between PMV and SPMV in switchgrass is cultivar dependent, manifested in Summer but not in Kanlow. However, co-inoculation of cv. Kanlow by PMV+SPMV caused an enhanced asymptomatic infection, suggesting a role for SPMV in enhancing symptomless infection in a tolerant cultivar. These data suggest that enhanced asymptomatic infections in virus-tolerant switchgrass cultivar could serve as a source for virus spread and play an important role in panicum mosaic disease epidemiology under field conditions. Our data revealed that cultivars, co-infection with SPMV, and temperature influenced the severity of symptoms elicited by PMV in switchgrass.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (10) ◽  
Mitra Nasiri ◽  
Zohreh Yousefi Ghalejoogh ◽  
Angila Ataei-Pirkooh ◽  
Farah Bokharaei-Salim ◽  
Seyed Hamidreza Monavari ◽  

Background: Limited sources of fresh water necessitate the application of health policies for treatment and decontamination of human sewage for further use. A wide variety of infectious agents, including bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses, can be found in sewage. Enteric viruses such as hepatitis A virus (HAV) can survive the current treatments and infect susceptible hosts. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the HAV contamination in human sewage before and after treatment in the wastewater treatment plant of Ekbatan town in Tehran, Iran, and analyze the phylogenetic properties of the identified viruses. Methods: Over a 12-month period, we collected the wastewater samples including influent, before chlorination, and effluent, from the wastewater treatment plant of Ekbatan town in Tehran, Iran. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) extraction, complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) synthesis, and semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed to identify HAV contamination. Phylogenetic analysis was performed to investigate subgenotypes of the virus. Results: HAV was detected in all influents and samples before chlorination, while the virus was detected in 50% of the effluent samples. All detected viruses belonged to subgenotype IB. Conclusions: Investigating the presence of HAV in sewage provides a general picture of the virus spread in the population of interest. HAV was detected in all influent samples, indicating that the infection is endemic in this area all year round. This also indicates the inability of the current treatment protocols in virus removal, which can be a threat to the public health.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2148 (1) ◽  
pp. 012002
Jiale Wang ◽  
Yang Liu ◽  
Xusheng Liu ◽  
Keming Shen

Abstract The analysis of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is of great importance to deeply understand the dynamics of this coronavirus spread. Based on the complexity of it, a modified susceptible-infected-removed (SIR) model is applied to analyse the time dependence of active and hospitalized cases in China. The time evolution of the virus spread in different provinces was adequately modelled. Changeable parameters among them have been obtained and turned to be not naively independent with each other. The non-extensive parameter was found to be strongly connected with the freedom of systems. Taken into the prevention and treatment of disease, more measures by the government lead to higher values of it.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 374-378
M.V. Madhav ◽  
Y. Sirisha ◽  
V. Anjaneya Prasad ◽  

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was announced in early December 2019. By genome sequencing, the virus was recognised. From Wuhan City, the virus spread globally. The pandemic situation was declared by the World Health Organization.The first case of COVID-19 in Indiawas reported in Kerala on January 27, 2020.The clinical features varied with disease severity. Most COVID-19 patients have non-severe manifestations and show a good prognosis. However, patients with severe disease may progress to pulmonary dysfunction, multiple organ dysfunction, and death. COVID-19 related to a considerable mortality rate in older patients and cases had other morbidities. Studies suggested that the inflammatory storm is a common finding in other coronaviruses.Similarly, increases in the inflammatory markers like C-reactive protein (CRP),ferritin,interleukin-6 (IL-6) and were described in COVID-19 (1). Albumin levels decreased in the inflammatory conditions reduced levels were confirmed in severe COVID-19 patients. Hypoalbuminemia and high CRP/albumin ratio were previously linked to the mortality of various clinical conditions as critically ill patients.To avoid the unnecessary or inappropriate utilisation of the healthcare resources, early prediction of the severity of COVID-19 will be helpful. Severity prediction will also improve the prognosis by reducing the mortality rate.Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the role of inflammatory markers in estimating the severity and predicting the prognosis of COVID-19. This study hypothesised that elevated values of CRP/ albumin ratio and the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis are associated with COVID-19 severity and mortality.

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