Power Factor
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Kindjock J. J.

Abstract: The application of Data Technology (IT) has been growing rapidly recently. IT utilized to monitor flowing power and distributing electrical energy which is produced by thermal power plant. This project explains how to build and design interface system. Electrical energy needs to be monitored in order to keep energy following. Single Board Computer (SBC), microcontroller, sensors, and transceivers are used in logging electrical power for this project. Following to the reliable need of an efficient power supply and the concern about poor electricity power supply, deregulation, consistent overload on already existing overstressed power supply system which has become a major concern to the social economic needs. The study case system generating capacity consist of 10 units of 2000KVA (20,000VA) = 16000W for power factor of 0.8 which is tied to the exiting load demand of 30MW capacity. Research identity mischarge between the generating capacity and the load demand requirement. That the generator can only a total load capacity of 15MW at one engagement on rationalization and subsequently take the next 15MW capacity to the generator supply. This sequence of operation has put the study zone into regular percentage (blackout) there by negatively affecting the economy activities of the area. This research work has proposed for an additional capacity of 2000 KVA (20 MVA =16 MW) generating power plant for a giving power factor of 0.8 on the view to notice the existing total load of 30MW without any form of rationalization and percentage (blackout) in order to improve the power quality and voltage profile without problem in the day-to-day occurrence activities. The concern for poor power grid supply in the study case (Bertoua community) for the given load of about 16M capacity are taken due consideration with 2MWW capacity thermal power plant on the view to propose solution to improve the quality of energy supply to the Bertoua community and environ. The system is designed with electronic circuitry that can be used to sense/monitor voltage, current, frequency, temperature, pressure and cool level. The design system is modeled in proteus and matrix laboratory (MATLAB) Environment with the application of isochronous mode of control with (10 unit of 2000kVA thermal plant. The improved mode of control (Isochronous technique) was preferred over droop type of generator load sharing techniques, because the improved versus allows and maintained constants speed and frequency regardless of gradual building up of the load to the peak demand scenarios. The modeled Simulink block are configured as an intelligent system multiple generators set in parallel state to monitor and control the gradual load increase from consumer-end to the generators capacity of 2mVA thermal power plant in order to allow load of 1×2000kVA, 2×2000kVA, 3×2000kVA, 4×2000kVA, 5×2000kVA, 6×2000kVA, 7×2000kVA, 8×2000kVA, 9×2000kVA, 10×2000kVA. Since the control system will become an essential factor for reliability of power plants and electrical distribution networks consumption and electric utility at large on the view to investigate appropriate load sharing and balancing, load scheduling, load forecasting, fuel-consumption pattern, optimizing generation capacity in order to optimize energy saving, costsaving and performance. Keywords: Load-Sharing, Monitoring

This paper proposed a Transformer less Hybrid Active Filter that upgrade the power quality in single-stage frameworks with steady renewable Photo Voltaic. It strengthens basic loads and carrying on as high-consonant impedance that does not below the critical loads. Manages energy management and power quality issues identified with electric transportation and concentrate on enhancing the electric vehicle load connected to grid. The control technique was intended to anticipation of current harmonic distortions with the nonlinear loads to control the flow of utility with no standard massive and expensive transformer. Power factor alongside AC side will likewise kept up to some esteem and furthermore dispense with the voltage distortions at the Common coupling point.

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (23) ◽  
pp. 7901
Qingqing He ◽  
Lei Liu ◽  
Mingyang Qiu ◽  
Quanming Luo

Active power factor correction converters are often introduced as the front stage of power electronic equipment to improve the power factor and eliminate higher harmonics. A Boost or Buck-Boost converter operating in discontinuous current mode is always adopted to achieve high power factor correction. In addition, the input current contains a large amount of higher harmonics, and a low-pass input filter is commonly adopted to filter it out. In this paper, a single-stage high-frequency AC/AC converter is taken as an example to demonstrate the design method of a passive low-pass filter. Firstly, the input side of the grid needs to meet the power factor and harmonic requirements. The preset parameters are set to a range to characterize the performance of the LC filter. The quantitative design method of input filter is proposed and summarized. Moreover, the sensitivity of the filter parameters is analyzed, providing a direction in practical applications. Preset parameters are all proved to conform to the preset range through PSIM simulation. Finally, a 130-W prototype is established to verify the correction of proposed design method. The power factor is around 0.935 and harmonic content in the input current is about 26.4%. All requirements can be satisfied.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (3) ◽  
pp. 59-64
Sulistyowati Sulistyowati ◽  
Muhammad Fahmi Hakim ◽  
Heri Sungkowo ◽  
Ikfi Asmaul Husna

Power factor is the ratio between active power (W) and apparent power (VA). In an electrical installation, the quality of electric power can be said to be good if the value of the power factor is above a predetermined standard of 0.85 according to the Minister (ESDM) Number 30 of 2012 [1]. From the research that has been done at the Blitar Square Shopping Center, it was found that the power factor value is still below the standard with an average value of 0.711. With the low power factor value, this shopping center gets a penalty from PT. PLN (Persero) due to the use of reactive power. Therefore, it is necessary to make efforts to improve the power factor by installing a capacitor bank. The installation of this capacitor bank is expected to be able to increase the power factor value with a power factor target of 0.98 and reduce the charge for reactive power usage penalties. The calculation results show that global compensation requires 12 capacitor banks with a rating of 10.4 kVAR, while sectoral compensation on the chiller load panel requires 7 capacitor banks with a rating of 10.4 kVAR and the foodmart load panel requires a capacitor bank with a rating of 10. 4 kVAR is 6 pieces. In simulating the installation of a capacitor bank using the ETAP application, it is known that the installation of a capacitor bank can increase the power factor value. In addition, the installation of a capacitor bank also results in an increase in the voltage value in the system, this voltage increase is still below the permissible standard of ± 5%. The simulation of installing a capacitor bank on global compensation can improve the power factor value from 72.99% to 96.97%, with a voltage increase of 0.479% from the initial value of 397 V to 398.9 V, and a decrease in the current value of 24.645% from the initial value. 330.7 A to 249.2 A. While the simulation of installing a capacitor bank in sectoral compensation can improve the power factor value from 72.99% to 93.57%, with a voltage increase of 0.401% from the initial value of 397 V to 398.6 V , and a decrease in the value of current by 21.593% from the initial value of 330.7 A to 258.1 A. The cost of installing a capacitor bank in global compensation was Rp. 189,897,500 while the sectoral compensation is Rp. 211.305.600. It can be concluded that the installation of a capacitor bank using the global compensation method is more effective.

Cenk Yavuz

Abstract: Today, under the conditions where the number of office workers and artificial lighting applications have increased, although the effects of the Photometric Flicker phenomenon are serious, it is an issue that has not been understood in detail and people are not aware of it. Photometric Flicker phenomenon, which is a direct result of using ballasts or drivers with low power factor and lacking the necessary filtering features; It causes results such as decreased visual performance, loss of attention and perception. Considering that the conversion of LED luminaires is still not completed in many office buildings in the country, it is seen as an important requirement to investigate the Flicker effect in interior spaces that are considered to offer similar lighting levels and conditions, and to make a concrete due diligence by correlating this with the average age of office workers. For this reason, in this study, various tests and experiments were carried out with volunteer participants aged 18-30, 31-45 and 46 years of age and older without any significant vision problems, and the outputs of these studies were aimed to shed light on the relationship between age and lighting conditions. Keywords: Photometric Flicker, Interior lighting, Age and lighting relationship, Disruptive effects in lighting

Electricity ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (4) ◽  
pp. 554-572
António P. Martins ◽  
Pedro Rodrigues ◽  
Mahmoud Hassan ◽  
Vítor A. Morais

Unbalanced currents, low power factor and high losses contribute to increasing the bill infrastructure managers must pay to the TSO/DSO operator that supplies electric energy to the railway system. Additionally, if regenerative energy coming from braking regimes is not allowed to be injected into the grid or even is penalized when it occurs, then the optimization of those parameters must be pursued. One of the possible measures that can be taken to counteract those phenomena is the installation of electronic balancers in heavy loaded substations in order to optimize the interface to the three-phase electric grid. This paper shows the benefit of such use taking examples from real conditions and realistic simulations assumed equivalent to field measurements.

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (22) ◽  
pp. 7510
Akinyemi Ayodeji Stephen ◽  
Kabeya Musasa ◽  
Innocent Ewean Davidson

Renewable Distributed Generation (RDG), when connected to a Distribution Network (DN), suffers from power quality issues because of the distorted currents drawn from the loads connected to the network over generation of active power injection at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC). This research paper presents the voltage rise regulation strategy at the PCC to enhance power quality and continuous operation of RDG, such as Photovoltaic Arrays (PVAs) connected to a DN. If the PCC voltage is not regulated, the penetration levels of the renewable energy integration to a DN will be limited or may be ultimately disconnected in the case of a voltage rise issue. The network is maintained in both unity power factor and voltage regulation mode, depending on the condition of the voltage fluctuation occurrences at the PCC. The research investigation shows that variation in the consumer’s loads (reduction) causes an increase in the power generated from the PVA, resulting in an increase in the grid current amplitude, reduction in the voltage of the feeder impedance and an increase in the phase voltage amplitude at the PCC. When the system is undergoing unity power factor mode, PCC voltage amplitude tends to rises with the loads. Its phase voltage amplitude rises above an acceptable range with no-loads which are not in agreement, as specified in the IEEE-1547 and Southern Africa grid code prerequisite. Incremental Conduction with Integral Regulator bases (IC + PI) are employed to access and regulate PVA generation, while the unwanted grid current distortions are attenuated from the network using an in-loop second order integral filtering circuit algorithm. Hence, the voltage rise at the PCC is mitigated through the generation of positive reactive power to the grid from the Distribution Static Compensator (DSTATCOM), thereby regulating the phase voltage. The simulation study is carried out in a MATLAB/Simulink environment for PVA performance.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (21) ◽  
pp. 12317
Ahmad Zarepour ◽  
Amirhossein Rajaei ◽  
Hooman Mohammadi-Moghadam ◽  
Mahdi Shahparasti

This paper proposes a novel high-gain AC-DC converter based on the Cockcroft–Walton (CW) voltage multiplier which can be utilized in motor drive systems with low input voltage. In this topology, use of the voltage multiplier and boost circuit results in the increment of converter gain which has a significant impact on the cost and efficiency of the system. Moreover, in this converter, the AC voltage is directly changed to DC voltage using the switching method in high frequency and, as well, the power factor is corrected. Besides, this high-frequency converter contributes to the reduction of output ripple. On the other hand, cost efficiency, the low voltage stress on capacitors and diodes, compactness, and the high voltage ratio, are achieved from the Cockcroft–Walton circuit. Furthermore, the hysteresis method is presented for converter switching to correct the power factor. The converter is simulated in MATLAB software to demonstrate the effectiveness of the suggested method. Lastly, a laboratory prototype of the suggested converter is built, several tests are done in order to verify the theoretical analysis, and comprehensive comparison with the state-of-the-art converter is done.

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