Hair Dye
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2021 ◽  
Randa H Abdelhady ◽  
heba A yassa ◽  
Marwa M Mahmoud ◽  
Eman S Shaltout

Abstract Background: The use of cosmetics is widespread around the world, particularly in Arabian countries. Some cosmetics as hair dyes are used since very young ages. Hair dye has been one of the pollution resources of heavy metals. Aim: The present study aimed to determine the percentage of para-phenylenediamine (PPD) and heavy metals in various hair dyes sold in Aswan, Egypt. Methods: The study was done on four (n = 4) types of hair dyes commonly used in Aswan. Two analytical methods were used as (GC/MS and EDX). PPD was detected using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and the metal components of these dyes were determined using energy dispersive x-ray (E.D.X.). Results: The concentration of PPD was very high in SHD (99.706%) and tancho HD (99.80%) followed by bigen cream HD (5.563%) and finally bigen powder HD (0.492% ). The heavy metals content was arranged in decreasing order as follow: Al > Ca > Zn > Cu > Cl > Pb> Fe > Sc> Cr > Mn in SHD, Si > Mg> Cu > Zn > Cl > Ca in tancho HD, Pb> Cu > Zn >Si >K > Al > Ca > Cr in bigen powder HD and Al > Cu > Cl > Si > Zn > Ca > Pb> Cr in bigen cream HD. Conclusion: Poisoning with (PPD)-containing hair dye is emerging as a method of deliberate self-harm in various developing countries including the Middle-East, and it is accompanied with high human death rate specially among females. They were also polluted with heavy metals, therefore doctors and consumers should be aware of their potential toxicity as well as the symptoms of systemic poisoning. Even if it isn't stated on the label, many hair dyes contain PPD and heavy metals.

Tadao Ooka ◽  
Sayaka Horiuchi ◽  
Ryoji Shinohara ◽  
Reiji Kojima ◽  
Yuka Akiyama ◽  

Scarce knowledge is available on the relationship between maternal chemical exposure during pregnancy and foetal deaths. We studied the association of spontaneous abortions and stillbirths with occupational or daily maternal exposure to chemicals commonly used by pregnant women. Data from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS), a nationwide prospective birth cohort study, were used. The participants of the study were asked about the frequency of their use of gasoline, pesticides, hair dye, and chlorine bleach during the first and the second to third trimesters of pregnancy. We investigated the relationship between the frequency of the use of chemicals and foetal death. Of the 104,065 foetuses, 923 (0.91%) were spontaneous abortions and 379 (0.37%) were stillbirths. Any type of exposure during the first trimester was not significantly associated with spontaneous abortions. Nevertheless, a more than weekly occupational use of hair dye from the first to the second/third trimester was significantly associated with stillbirth. The results of this study suggest that the frequent use of hair dye during pregnancy can have severe adverse effects on the foetus. These findings can help pregnant women, especially hairdressers, refrain from the continuous use of hair dyes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 40 (2_suppl) ◽  
pp. 5S-15S
Monice M Fiume ◽  
Wilma F Bergfeld ◽  
Donald V Belsito ◽  
Ronald A Hill ◽  
Curtis D Klaassen ◽  

The Expert Panel for Cosmetic Ingredient Safety (Panel) reopened the safety assessment of Acid Violet 43, a cosmetic ingredient that is an anthraquinone dye reported to function in cosmetics as a colorant. This colorant has the same chemical structure as Ext. D&C Violet No. 2, which is a certified colorant; however, Acid Violet 43 is not a certified color and it could have impurities that are not allowed in the certified color. The Panel reviewed relevant new data related to this ingredient and concluded that Acid Violet 43 is safe in the present practices of use and concentration for use in hair dye formulations. This conclusion supersedes the previous conclusion for Acid Violet 43 that included impurity specifications indicated for the certified color.

2021 ◽  
pp. 109819
Tova N. Williams ◽  
Francine I. Vacchi ◽  
Amanda dos Santos ◽  
Gisela de Aragão Umbuzeiro ◽  
Harold S. Freeman

2021 ◽  
Vol 58 (5) ◽  
pp. 342-352
Haiyan Gao ◽  
Yue Zhou ◽  
Jianguo Wang ◽  
Hujun Xu

Abstract A temperature-sensitive hair dye was prepared with a poloxamer-sodium alginate mixture. When the hair dye was applied to the hair (< 32 °C), it retained its flow dynamics. The hair dye was able to undergo a phase change and formed a solid as soon as it touched the scalp (32°C), which reduced the transdermal amount of p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and also adverse effects and toxicity. Compared to a conventional hair dye, the temperature-sensitive hair dye achieved a reduction of the transdermal amount of p-phenylenediamine by almost 65% at different concentrations. At the same time, the colouring effect was not significantly reduced. The poloxamer alginate hydrogel can be used as a novel colouring material to reduce the harm of the dye intermediate to the human body when colouring hair.

2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (4) ◽  
pp. 990-997
Se-Eun You

This study used camellia oil, a natural ingredient, to study whether camellia oil has the effect of improving the hair quality damaged by dyeing. first, In order to find out the change in chromaticity of dyed hair due to the content of camellia oil, L*, a*, and b* value measurement were performed. As a result, Through the L* value of the dyed hair according to the camellia oil content, it was found that the dyed hair containing 2 g of camellia oil had a subtle effect of color clarity and dyeability. There was also less fading. In order to determine the degree of damage to the hair, the absorbance measurement using methylene blue showed a decrease in the average in hairs dyed with 2 g of camellia oil, indicating that there was a hair improvement effect in hairs dyed with camellia oil. As a result of studying whether the hair dye containing camellia oil has the effect of improving hair quality, the absorption strength decreased and the tensile strength increased. In addition, absorbance measurement, gloss measurement, and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) experiments were conducted. As a result, It was confirmed that there is an effect of improving hair quality in terms of the constant arrangement of cuticles on the hair surface and increasing the gloss of the hair. It was found that camellia oil, a natural ingredient, has a high effect on improving hair quality of dyed hair in order to minimize damage to dyed hair.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
Ramzi Shawahna

Abstract Background Infants fed contaminated breast milk are at an increased risk of exposure to lead. Breast milk to blood (M/B) ratios have not been investigated among women in Palestine. The aim of this study was to assess blood, breast milk, and M/B lead ratios in samples collected from Palestinian breastfeeding women. Associations between sociodemographic characteristics with breast milk lead levels and M/B lead ratios were also investigated. Methods This study was conducted in a cross-sectional design in the period between October 2017 and April 2018. Breastfeeding women visiting maternity care centers in different regions of the West Bank of Palestine were recruited to the study by the nurses in the maternity care centers. Sociodemographic characteristics, venous blood, and breast milk samples were collected from each participant. Lead concentrations were analyzed using a validated inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometric method. Mann–Whitney U test, Pearson’s Chi-square, Fisher’s exact, and Spearman’s correlations were used to analyze the data. Odds ratios (OR) were computed using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results Matching blood and milk samples were collected from 80 women. Lead concentrations in 11 (13.8%) of the breast milk samples were above the World Health Organization’s recommended levels. Breast milk lead levels were more likely to be ≥5 μg/L in breastfeeding women who lived in urban areas (aOR 4.96; 95% CI 1.10, 22.38) compared to those who lived in rural areas. Breast milk to blood lead ratios were more likely to be ≥25% in breastfeeding women who lived in urban areas (aOR 7.06; 95% CI 1.68, 29.77), used eye kohl (aOR 14.29; 95% CI 1.32, 155.06), and used hair dye (aOR 5.33; 95% CI 1.58, 18.00) compared to those who lived in rural areas, did not use eye kohl, and did not use hair dye, respectively. Conclusions Higher M/B lead ratios were predicted by living in urban areas, using eye kohl, and using hair dye. Decision makers in health authorities should address sources of exposure to lead in urban areas. Cosmetics containing lead should be assessed and regulated for lead content.

2021 ◽  
Anbalagan Sriniva ◽  
Rajagopal Mayildurai ◽  
Thiyagarajan Maruthavanan ◽  
Alagunambi Ramasubbu

Abstract The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in cosmetics pose a series threat to the environment and their exposure causes a variety of ailments in human beings. The present work analyses systematically the presence of VOCs in samples of cosmetic products available in open market such as, aftershave lotion, face cream, hair dye, lipsticks, perfumes, shampoos and talcum powders by GC–MS. The investigation revealed the prevalence of more than 158 hazardous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) out of 243 organic compounds in 20 samples of the cosmetic products. The detected VOCs fall into six major groups viz., alcohols, esters, ethers, carboxylic acids and amides. Among all the VOCs detected, diethyl phthalate is found to be present in majority of the samples, which could cause mild eye and skin irritations and affect the central nervous system depending on the dosage. The samples were also found to contain certain fatty acid methyl esters. The study suggests proper instructions on the labels of such products to warn the customers. Further, finding non-toxic alternatives to existing additives has also been emphasized.

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