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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Shuzhi Ma ◽  
Zhen Guo ◽  
Bo Wang ◽  
Min Yang ◽  
Xuelian Yuan ◽  

Background: Recurrence is still a major obstacle to the successful treatment of gliomas. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of recurrence may help for developing new drugs to combat gliomas recurrence. This study provides a strategy to discover new drugs for recurrent gliomas based on drug perturbation induced gene expression changes.Methods: The RNA-seq data of 511 low grade gliomas primary tumor samples (LGG-P), 18 low grade gliomas recurrent tumor samples (LGG-R), 155 glioblastoma multiforme primary tumor samples (GBM-P), and 13 glioblastoma multiforme recurrent tumor samples (GBM-R) were downloaded from TCGA database. DESeq2, key driver analysis and weighted gene correlation network analysis (WGCNA) were conducted to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs), key driver genes and coexpression networks between LGG-P vs LGG-R, GBM-P vs GBM-R pairs. Then, the CREEDS database was used to find potential drugs that could reverse the DEGs and key drivers.Results: We identified 75 upregulated and 130 downregulated genes between LGG-P and LGG-R samples, which were mainly enriched in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, Wnt signaling pathway, and ECM-receptor interaction. A total of 262 key driver genes were obtained with frizzled class receptor 8 (FZD8), guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit gamma-12 (GNG12), and G protein subunit β2 (GNB2) as the top hub genes. By screening the CREEDS database, we got 4 drugs (Paclitaxel, 6-benzyladenine, Erlotinib, Cidofovir) that could downregulate the expression of up-regulated genes and 5 drugs (Fenofibrate, Oxaliplatin, Bilirubin, Nutlins, Valproic acid) that could upregulate the expression of down-regulated genes. These drugs may have a potential in combating recurrence of gliomas.Conclusion: We proposed a time-saving strategy based on drug perturbation induced gene expression changes to find new drugs that may have a potential to treat recurrent gliomas.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Dongdong Xiao ◽  
Jingnan Wu ◽  
Hongyang Zhao ◽  
Xiaobing Jiang ◽  
Chuansheng Nie

RPP25, a 25 kDa protein subunit of ribonuclease P (RNase P), is a protein-coding gene. Disorders associated with RPP25 include chromosome 15Q24 deletion syndrome and diffuse scleroderma, while systemic sclerosis can be complicated by malignancy. However, the functional role of RPP25 expression in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is unclear. In this study, comprehensive bioinformatics analysis was used to evaluate the impact of RPP25 on GBM occurrence and prognosis. Differential analysis of multiple databases showed that RPP25 was commonly highly expressed in multiple cancers but lowly expressed in GBM. Survival prognostic results showed that RPP25 was prognostically relevant in six tumors (CESC, GBM, LAML, LUAD, SKCM, and UVM), but high RPP25 expression was significantly associated with poor patient prognosis except for CESC. Analysis of RPP25 expression in GBM alone revealed that RPP25 was significantly downregulated in GBM compared with normal tissue. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) combined with Kaplan-Meier (KM) analysis and Cox regression analysis showed that high RPP25 expression was a prognostic risk factor for GBM and had a predictive value for the 1-year, 2-year, and 3-year survival of GBM patients. In addition, the expression of RPP25 was correlated with the level of immune cell infiltration. The gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) results showed that RPP25 was mainly associated with signalling pathways related to tumor progression and tumor metabolism.

2022 ◽  
Niphat Jirapongwattana ◽  
Suyanee Thongchot ◽  
Wannasiri Chiraphapphaiboon ◽  
Thaweesak Chieochansin ◽  
Doonyapat Sa-nguanraksa ◽  

Abstract Purpose Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is deficient in targeted treatment resulting in poor prognosis. Targeting overexpressed mesothelin (MSLN) using MSLN-specific T cells is an attractive treatment approach.Methods The immunohistochemistry of MSLN in TNBC tissues were performed. A lentiviral vector harboring granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and MSLN cDNAs was constructed to generate self-differentiated myeloid-derived antigen-presenting-cells reactive against tumor expressing MSLN dendritic cells (MSLN-SmartDC) for MSLN-specific T cell activation. The antigen specificity and cancer killing of activated T cells were accessed.Results The high expression of MSLN was found in 32.8% all breast cancer subtypes and 57% in TNBC. High MSLN was significantly associated with the TNBC subtype and the absence of ER, PR and HER2. MSLN-SmartDC exhibited comparable phenotype to DC generated by exogenous cytokine treatment; addition of 40s ribosomal protein subunit 3 (RPS3), a toll-like receptor 4 ligand, enhanced DC maturation and function by upregulation of CD40, CD80 and CD83 expression and IL-12p70 secretion. MSLN-specific CD8+CD69+ IFN-γ+ T cells were detected in T cells activated by both MSLN-SmartDC and RPS3-MSLN-SmartDC. MSLN-specific T cells activated by these DCs showed more specific killing capability against naturally expressed MSLN-HCC70 and artificially MSLN-overexpressing MDA-MB-231 compared to parental MDA-MB-231 in both 2 dimensional (2D)- and 3D-culture systems. Conclusion High MSLN was observed in TNBC patients, a potential target for TNBC treatment. MSLN-SmartDC could promote MSLN-specific T cell response against TNBC and RPS3 can enhance the cytolytic activity of these T cells providing an alternative treatment approach for TNBC patients.

Biomolecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 65
Zhitao Mao ◽  
Xin Zhao ◽  
Xue Yang ◽  
Peiji Zhang ◽  
Jiawei Du ◽  

Genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) have been widely used for the phenotypic prediction of microorganisms. However, the lack of other constraints in the stoichiometric model often leads to a large metabolic solution space being inaccessible. Inspired by previous studies that take an allocation of macromolecule resources into account, we developed a simplified Python-based workflow for constructing enzymatic constrained metabolic network model (ECMpy) and constructed an enzyme-constrained model for Escherichia coli (eciML1515) by directly adding a total enzyme amount constraint in the latest version of GEM for E. coli (iML1515), considering the protein subunit composition in the reaction, and automated calibration of enzyme kinetic parameters. Using eciML1515, we predicted the overflow metabolism of E. coli and revealed that redox balance was the key reason for the difference between E. coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in overflow metabolism. The growth rate predictions on 24 single-carbon sources were improved significantly when compared with other enzyme-constrained models of E. coli. Finally, we revealed the tradeoff between enzyme usage efficiency and biomass yield by exploring the metabolic behaviours under different substrate consumption rates. Enzyme-constrained models can improve simulation accuracy and thus can predict cellular phenotypes under various genetic perturbations more precisely, providing reliable guidance for metabolic engineering.

Marzieh Rezaei ◽  
Mahboobeh Nazari

At present, effective vaccines have been developed as the most successful approaches for preventing widespread infectious disease. The global efforts are focusing with the aim of eliminating and overcoming the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and are developing vaccines from the date it was announced as a pandemic disease. In this study, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library,, WHO reports, Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Springer databases were searched for finding the relevant studies about the COVID-19 vaccines. This article provides an overview of multiple vaccines that have been manufactured from December 2020 up to April 2021 and also offers a perspective on their efficacy, safety, advantages, and limitations. Currently, there are several categories of COVID-19 vaccines based on Protein Subunit (PS), Inactivated Virus (IV), Virus Like Particle (VLP), Live Attenuated Virus (LAV), Viral Vector (replicating) (VVr) and Viral Vector (non-replicating) (VVnr) in progress or finalized as indicated by the WHO reporting of April 1, 2020.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 368
Jana Fulnečková ◽  
Ladislav Dokládal ◽  
Karolína Kolářová ◽  
Martina Nešpor Dadejová ◽  
Klára Procházková ◽  

Telomerase, an essential enzyme that maintains chromosome ends, is important for genome integrity and organism development. Various hypotheses have been proposed in human, ciliate and yeast systems to explain the coordination of telomerase holoenzyme assembly and the timing of telomerase performance at telomeres during DNA replication or repair. However, a general model is still unclear, especially pathways connecting telomerase with proposed non-telomeric functions. To strengthen our understanding of telomerase function during its intracellular life, we report on interactions of several groups of proteins with the Arabidopsis telomerase protein subunit (AtTERT) and/or a component of telomerase holoenzyme, POT1a protein. Among these are the nucleosome assembly proteins (NAP) and the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) system, which reveal new insights into the telomerase interaction network with links to telomere chromatin assembly and replication. A targeted investigation of 176 candidate proteins demonstrated numerous interactions with nucleolar, transport and ribosomal proteins, as well as molecular chaperones, shedding light on interactions during telomerase biogenesis. We further identified protein domains responsible for binding and analyzed the subcellular localization of these interactions. Moreover, additional interaction networks of NAP proteins and the DOMINO1 protein were identified. Our data support an image of functional telomerase contacts with multiprotein complexes including chromatin remodeling and cell differentiation pathways.

2021 ◽  
Xun Wang ◽  
Xiaoyu Zhao ◽  
Jieyu Song ◽  
Jing Wu ◽  
Yuqi Zhu ◽  

The massive and rapid transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has led to the emergence of several viral variants of concern (VOCs), with the most recent one, B.1.1.529 (Omicron), which accumulated a large number of spike mutations, raising the specter that this newly identified variant may escape from the currently available vaccines and therapeutic antibodies. Using VSV-based pseudovirus, we found that Omicron variant is markedly resistant to neutralization of sera form convalescents or individuals vaccinated by two doses of inactivated whole-virion vaccines (BBIBP-CorV). However, a homologous inactivated vaccine booster or a heterologous booster with protein subunit vaccine (ZF2001) significantly increased neutralization titers to both WT and Omicron variant. Moreover, at day 14 post the third dose, neutralizing antibody titer reduction for Omicron was less than that for convalescents or individuals who had only two doses of the vaccine, indicating that a homologous or heterologous booster can reduce the Omicron escape from neutralizing. In addition, we tested a panel of 17 SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Omicron resists 7 of 8 authorized/approved mAbs, as well as most of the other mAbs targeting distinct epitopes on RBD and NTD. Taken together, our results suggest the urgency to push forward the booster vaccination to combat the emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.

2021 ◽  
Jie Hu ◽  
Pai Peng ◽  
Kang Wu ◽  
Quan-xin Long ◽  
Juan Chen ◽  

A new detected SARS-CoV-2 variant Omicron (B.1.1.529) had reported from more than 80 countries. In the past few weeks, a new wave of infection driven by Omicron is in progress. Omicron Spike (S) protein pseudotyped virus was used to determine the effect of S mutations on its capacity of infectivity and immune evasion. Our results showed the lower entry efficiency and less cleavage ability of Omicron than D614G variant. Pseudotype-based neutralizing assay was performed to analyze neutralizing antibodies elicited by previously infection or the RBD-based protein subunit vaccine ZF2001 against the Omicron variant. Sera sampled at around one month after symptom onset from 12 convalescents who were previously infected by SARS-CoV-2 original strain shows a more than 20-fold decrease of neutralizing activity against Omicron variant, when compared to D614G variant. Among 12 individuals vaccinated by RBD subunit vaccine, 58.3% (7/12) sera sampled at 15-60 days after 3rd-dose vaccination did not neutralize Omicron. Geometric mean titers (GMTs, 50% inhibitory dose [ID50]) of these sera against Omicron were 9.4-fold lower than against D614G. These results suggested a higher risk of Omicron breakthrough infections and reduced efficiency of the protective immunity elicited by existing vaccines. There are important implications about the modification and optimization of the current epidemic prevention and control including vaccine strategies and therapeutic antibodies against Omicron variant.

Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 35
Hao Chen ◽  
Hongwu Ji ◽  
Chuang Pan ◽  
Di Zhang ◽  
Weiming Su ◽  

Pigment proteins play a vital role in the red colour change of the red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) shell after cooking. In this study, two red-change-related pigment proteins with molecular weights of approximately 170 and 43 kDa—denoted as F1 and F2, respectively—were purified by ammonium sulphate salting-out and size exclusion chromatography. F1 and F2 entirely comprised homomultimeric protein complexes composed of 21 kDa subunits. LC-MS/MS analysis showed that the 21 kDa protein subunit belonged to the crustacyanin family, named P. clarkii crustacyanin A2 (PcCRA2). The full-length cDNA of PcCRA2 was cloned, which encoded 190 amino acid residues and was highly homologous (91.58%) with Cherax quadricarinatus crustacyanin A. The predicted 3D structure showed that PcCRA2 had a β-barrel structure for pigment encapsulation. The colour change of F1 was first detected at 40 °C, and the red change occurred upon heating above 60 °C. Additionally, with increasing temperature, its β-sheet content increased, and its α-helix content reduced. Correlation analysis showed that the redness value of F1 was significantly related to the heating temperature and the β-sheet content.

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