human keratinocytes
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 720
Beatriz Salesa ◽  
Alberto Tuñón-Molina ◽  
Alba Cano-Vicent ◽  
Marcelo Assis ◽  
Juan Andrés ◽  

Multi-layer graphene (2–10 layers), also called graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs), is a carbon-based nanomaterial (CBN) type with excellent properties desirable for many biomedical applications. Despite the promising advantages reported of GNPs, nanoscale materials may also present a potential hazard to humans. Therefore, in this study, the in vivo toxicity of these nanomaterials at a wide range of concentrations from 12.5 to 500 µg/mL was evaluated in the Caenorhabditis elegans model for 24 h (acute toxicity) and 72 h (chronic toxicity). Furthermore, their in vitro toxicity (from 0 to 10 µg/mL for 12 and 24 h), proliferative activity at 72 and 96 h, and their effect on the expression of thirteen genes in human keratinocytes HaCaT cells were studied. The physico-chemical and morphological aspects of the GNPs used in this study were analyzed by Raman scattering spectroscopy, electron microscopy, zeta potential as a function of pH, and particle size measurements by dynamic light scattering. The results of this study showed that GNPs showed in vivo non-toxic concentrations of 25 and 12.5 µg/mL for 24 h, and at 12.5 µg/mL for 72 h. Moreover, GNPs present time-dependent cytotoxicity (EC50 of 1.142 µg/mL and 0.760 µg/mL at 12 h and 24 h, respectively) and significant proliferative activity at the non-toxic concentrations of 0.005 and 0.01 μg/mL in the HaCaT cell line. The gene expression study showed that this multi-layer-graphene is capable of up-regulating six of the thirteen genes of human keratinocytes (SOD1, CAT, TGFB1, FN1, CDH1, and FBN), two more genes than other CBNs in their oxidized form such as multi-layer graphene oxide. Therefore, all these results reinforce the promising use of these CBNs in biomedical fields such as wound healing and skin tissue engineering.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 84
Mario Abate ◽  
Cristina Pagano ◽  
Milena Masullo ◽  
Marianna Citro ◽  
Simona Pisanti ◽  

The fruit of Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen) is known in ancient traditional Asian medicine for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anticancer activities. These effects are mainly due to the action of polyphenols known as xanthones, which are contained in the pericarp of the fruit. In recent years, there has been a growing interest from pharmaceutical companies in formulating new topicals based on mangosteen full extracts to prevent skin aging. However, the molecules responsible for these effects and the mechanisms involved have not been investigated so far. Here, the arils and shells of Garcinia mangostana were extracted with chloroform and methanol, and the extracts were further purified to yield 12 xanthone derivatives. Their effects were evaluated using in vitro cultures of human epidermal keratinocytes. After confirming the absence of cytotoxicity, we evaluated the antioxidant potential of these compounds, identifying mangostanin as capable of both protecting and restoring oxidative damage induced by H2O2. We showed how mangostanin, by reducing the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), prevents the activation of AKT (protein kinase B), ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase), p53, and other cellular pathways underlying cell damage and apoptosis activation. In conclusion, our study is the first to demonstrate that mangostanin is effective in protecting the skin from the action of free radicals, thus preventing skin aging, confirming a potential toward its development in the nutraceutical and cosmeceutical fields.

Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 84
Bruno Casciaro ◽  
Francesca Ghirga ◽  
Floriana Cappiello ◽  
Valeria Vergine ◽  
Maria Rosa Loffredo ◽  

In today’s post-antibiotic era, the search for new antimicrobial compounds is of major importance and nature represents one of the primary sources of bioactive molecules. In this work, through a cheminformatics approach, we clustered an in-house library of natural products and their derivatives based on a combination of fingerprints and substructure search. We identified the prenylated emodine-type anthranoid ferruginin A as a novel antimicrobial compound. We tested its ability to inhibit and kill a panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and compared its activity with that of two analogues, vismione B and ferruanthrone. Furthermore, the capability of these three anthranoids to disrupt staphylococcal biofilm was investigated, as well as their effect on the viability of human keratinocytes. Ferruginin A showed a potent activity against both the planktonic and biofilm forms of Gram-positive bacteria (i.e., Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis) and had the best therapeutic index compared to vismione B and ferruanthrone. In conclusion, ferruginin A represents a promising scaffold for the further development of valuable antimicrobial agents.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 420
Grażyna Kubiak-Tomaszewska ◽  
Piotr Roszkowski ◽  
Emilia Grosicka-Maciąg ◽  
Paulina Strzyga-Łach ◽  
Marta Struga

Flavonoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids due to low cytotoxicity in vitro studies are suggested as potential substances in the prevention of diseases associated with oxidative stress. We examined novel 6-hydroxy-flavanone and 7-hydroxy-flavone conjugates with selected fatty acids (FA) of different length and saturation and examined their cytotoxic and antioxidant potential. Our findings indicate that the conjugation with FA affects the biological activity of both the original flavonoids. The conjugation of 6-hydroxy-flavanone increased its cytotoxicity towards prostate cancer PC3 cells. The most noticeable effect was found for oleate conjugate. A similar trend was observed for 7-hydroxy-flavone conjugates with the most evident effect for oleate and stearate. The cytotoxic potential of all tested conjugates was not specific towards PC3 because the viability of human keratinocytes HaCaT cells decreased after exposure to all conjugates. Additionally, we showed that esterification of the two flavonoids decreased their antioxidant activity compared to that of the original compounds. Of all the tested compounds, only 6-sorbic flavanone showed a slight increase in antioxidant potential compared to that of the original compound. Our data show that conjugated flavonoids are better absorbed and enhance cytotoxic effects, but the presence of FA lowered the antioxidant potential.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 110
Malgorzata Krzyzowska ◽  
Marcin Chodkowski ◽  
Martyna Janicka ◽  
Dominika Dmowska ◽  
Emilia Tomaszewska ◽  

(1) Background: Lactoferrin has been recognized as a potent inhibitor of human herpetic viruses, such as herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2). In this work, we tested if silver and gold nanoparticles modified with lactoferrin (LF-Ag/AuNPs) can become novel microbicides with additional adjuvant properties to treat genital herpes infection. (2) Methods: The antiviral and cytotoxic activities of LF-Ag/AuNPs were tested in human skin HaCaT and vaginal VK-2-E6/E7 keratinocytes. Viral titers and immune responses after treatment with LF-Ag/AuNPs were tested in murine vaginal HSV-2 infection. (3) Results: LF-Ag/AuNPs inhibited attachment and entry of HSV-2 in human keratinocytes much better than lactoferrin. Furthermore, pretreatment with LF-AgNPs led to protection from infection. Infected mice treated intravaginally with LF-Ag/AuNPs showed lower virus titers in the vaginal tissues and spinal cords in comparison to treatment with lactoferrin. Following treatment, vaginal tissues showed a significant increase in CD8+/granzyme B + T cells, NK cells and dendritic cells in comparison to NaCl-treated group. LF-Ag/AuNPs-treated animals also showed significantly better expression of IFN-γ, CXCL9, CXCL10, and IL-1β in the vaginal tissues. (4) Conclusions: Our findings show that LF-Ag/AuNPs could become effective novel antiviral microbicides with immune-stimulant properties to be applied upon the mucosal tissues.

2022 ◽  
Eva-Lena Stange ◽  
Franziska Rademacher ◽  
Katharina Antonia Drerup ◽  
Nina Heinemann ◽  
Lena Möbus ◽  

Staphylococcus (S.) aureus is an important pathogen causing various infections including - as most frequently isolated bacterium - cutaneous infections. Keratinocytes as the first barrier cells of the skin respond to S. aureus by the release of defense molecules such as cytokines and antimicrobial peptides. Although several pattern recognition receptors expressed in keratinocytes such as Toll-like and NOD-like receptors have been reported to detect the presence of S. aureus, the mechanisms underlying the interplay between S. aureus and keratinocytes are still emerging. Here we report that S. aureus induced gene expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, responsive genes of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). AhR activation by S. aureus was further confirmed by AhR gene reporter assays. AhR activation was mediated by factor(s) < 2 kDa secreted by S. aureus. Whole transcriptome analyses and real-time PCR analyses identified IL-24, IL-6 and IL-1beta as cytokines induced in an AhR-dependent manner in S. aureus-treated keratinocytes. AhR inhibition in a 3D organotypic skin equivalent confirmed the crucial role of the AhR in mediating the induction of IL-24, IL-6 and IL-1beta upon stimulation with living S. aureus. Taken together, we further highlight the important role of the AhR in cutaneous innate defense and identified the AhR as a novel receptor mediating the sensing of the important skin pathogen S. aureus in keratinocytes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Ji-Ae Hong ◽  
Donghyuk Bae ◽  
Kyo-Nyeo Oh ◽  
Dool-Ri Oh ◽  
Yujin Kim ◽  

Abstract Background Quercus acuta Thunb. (Fagaceae) or Japanese evergreen oak is cultivated as an ornamental plant in South Korea, China, Japan, and Taiwan and used in traditional medicine. The acorn or fruit of Quercus acuta Thunb. (QAF) is the main ingredient of acorn jelly, a traditional food in Korea. Its leaf was recently shown to have potent xanthine oxidase inhibitory and anti-hyperuricemic activities; however, there have been no studies on the biological activity of QAF extracts. Solar ultraviolet light triggers photoaging of the skin, which increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs), and destroys collagen fibers, consequently inducing wrinkle formation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of water extracts of QAF against UVB-induced skin photoaging and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms in human keratinocytes (HaCaT). Methods In this study, we used HPLC to identify the major active components of QAF water extracts. Anti-photoaging effects of QAF extracts were evaluated by analyzing ROS procollagen type I in UVB-irradiated HaCaT keratinocytes. Antiradical activity was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,20-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assays. The expression of MMP-1 was tested by western blotting and ELISA kits. QAF effects on phosphorylation of the MAPK (p38, JNK, and ERK) pathway and transcription factor AP-1, which enhances the expression of MMPs, were analyzed by western blots. Results We identified two major active components in QAF water extracts, gallotannic acid and ellagic acid. The QAF aqueous extracts recovered UVB-induced cell toxicity and reduced oxidative stress by inhibiting intracellular ROS generation in HaCaT cells. QAF rescued UVB-induced collagen degradation by suppressing MMP-1 expression. The anti-photoaging activities of QAF were associated with the inhibition of UVB-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and activator protein 1 (AP-1). Our findings indicated that QAF prevents UVB-induced skin damage due to collagen degradation and MMP-1 activation via inactivation of the ERK/AP-1 signaling pathway. Overall, this study strongly suggests that QAF exerts anti-skin-aging effects and is a potential natural biomaterial that inhibits UVB-induced photoaging. Conclusion These results show that QAF water extract effectively prevents skin photoaging by enhancing collagen deposition and inhibiting MMP-1 via the ERK/AP-1 signaling pathway.

2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
Anna M. Olszewska ◽  
Adam K. Sieradzan ◽  
Piotr Bednarczyk ◽  
Adam Szewczyk ◽  
Michał A. Żmijewski

Abstract Background Calcitriol (an active metabolite of vitamin D) modulates the expression of hundreds of human genes by activation of the vitamin D nuclear receptor (VDR). However, VDR-mediated transcriptional modulation does not fully explain various phenotypic effects of calcitriol. Recently a fast non-genomic response to vitamin D has been described, and it seems that mitochondria are one of the targets of calcitriol. These non-classical calcitriol targets open up a new area of research with potential clinical applications. The goal of our study was to ascertain whether calcitriol can modulate mitochondrial function through regulation of the potassium channels present in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Methods The effects of calcitriol on the potassium ion current were measured using the patch-clamp method modified for the inner mitochondrial membrane. Molecular docking experiments were conducted in the Autodock4 program. Additionally, changes in gene expression were investigated by qPCR, and transcription factor binding sites were analyzed in the CiiiDER program. Results For the first time, our results indicate that calcitriol directly affects the activity of the mitochondrial large-conductance Ca2+-regulated potassium channel (mitoBKCa) from the human astrocytoma (U-87 MG) cell line but not the mitochondrial calcium-independent two-pore domain potassium channel (mitoTASK-3) from human keratinocytes (HaCaT). The open probability of the mitoBKCa channel in high calcium conditions decreased after calcitriol treatment and the opposite effect was observed in low calcium conditions. Moreover, using the AutoDock4 program we predicted the binding poses of calcitriol to the calcium-bound BKCa channel and identified amino acids interacting with the calcitriol molecule. Additionally, we found that calcitriol influences the expression of genes encoding potassium channels. Such a dual, genomic and non-genomic action explains the pleiotropic activity of calcitriol. Conclusions Calcitriol can regulate the mitochondrial large-conductance calcium-regulated potassium channel. Our data open a new chapter in the study of non-genomic responses to vitamin D with potential implications for mitochondrial bioenergetics and cytoprotective mechanisms.

Heliyon ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. e08729
Shun Shibata ◽  
Akiko Kuwahara ◽  
Masayo Sakaki-Yumoto ◽  
Makoto Kawaguchi ◽  
Tsuyoshi Ishii ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 433
Anh Thu Ha ◽  
Laily Rahmawati ◽  
Long You ◽  
Mohammad Amjad Hossain ◽  
Jong-Hoon Kim ◽  

Quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucuronide (Q-3-G), the glucuronide conjugate of quercetin, has been reported as having anti-inflammatory properties in the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages, as well as anticancer and antioxidant properties. Unlike quercetin, which has been extensively described to possess a wide range of pharmacological activities including skin protective effects, the pharmacological benefits and mechanisms Q-3-G in the skin remained to be elucidated. This study focused on characterizing the skin protective properties, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, of Q-3-G against UVB-induced or H2O2-induced oxidative stress, the hydration effects, and antimelanogenesis activities using human keratinocytes (HaCaT) and melanoma (B16F10) cells. Q-3-G down-regulated the expression of the pro-inflammatory gene and cytokine such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in H2O2 or UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells. We also showed that Q-3-G exhibits an antioxidant effect using free radical scavenging assays, flow cytometry, and an increased expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2- related factor 2 (Nrf2). Q-3-G reduced melanin production in α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-induced B16F10 cells. The hydration effects and mechanisms of Q-3-G were examined by evaluating the moisturizing factor-related genes, such as transglutaminase-1 (TGM-1), filaggrin (FLG), and hyaluronic acid synthase (HAS)-1. In addition, Q-3-G increased the phosphorylation of c-Jun, Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase 4 (MKK4), and TAK1, involved in the MAPKs/AP-1 pathway, and the phosphorylation of IκBα, IκB kinase (IKK)-α, Akt, and Src, involved in the NF-κB pathway. Taken together, we have demonstrated that Q-3-G exerts anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, moisturizing, and antimelanogenesis properties in human keratinocytes and melanoma cells through NF-κB and AP-1 pathways.

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