renal tubular cells
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Stefania Camastra ◽  
Ele Ferrannini

AbstractIt is well-established that adipose tissue accumulation is associated with insulin resistance through multiple mechanisms. One major metabolic link is the classical Randle cycle: enhanced release of free fatty acids (FFA) from hydrolysis of adipose tissue triglycerides impedes insulin-mediated glucose uptake in muscle tissues. Less well studied are the different routes of this communication. First, white adipose tissue depots may be regionally distant from muscle (i.e., gluteal fat and diaphragm muscle) or contiguous to muscle but separated by a fascia (Scarpa’s fascia in the abdomen, fascia lata in the thigh). In this case, released FFA outflow through the venous drainage and merge into arterial plasma to be transported to muscle tissues. Next, cytosolic triglycerides can directly, i.e., within the cell, provide FFA to myocytes (but also pancreatic ß-cells, renal tubular cells, etc.). Finally, adipocyte layers or lumps may be adjacent to, but not anatomically segregated, from muscle, as is typically the case for epicardial fat and cardiomyocytes. As regulation of these three main delivery paths is different, their separate contribution to substrate competition at the whole-body level is uncertain. Another important link between fat and muscle is vascular. In the resting state, blood flow is generally higher in adipose tissue than in muscle. In the insulinized state, fat blood flow is directly related to whole-body insulin resistance whereas muscle blood flow is not; consequently, fractional (i.e., flow-adjusted) glucose uptake is stimulated in muscle but not fat. Thus, reduced blood supply is a major factor for the impairment of in vivo insulin-mediated glucose uptake in both subcutaneous and visceral fat. In contrast, the insulin resistance of glucose uptake in resting skeletal muscle is predominantly a cellular defect.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 884
Sonja Djudjaj ◽  
Panagiotis Kavvadas ◽  
Niki Prakoura ◽  
Roman D. Bülow ◽  
Tiffany Migeon ◽  

Background: Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a genetic disorder affecting millions of people worldwide that is characterized by fluid-filled cysts and leads to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The hallmarks of PKD are proliferation and dedifferentiation of tubular epithelial cells, cellular processes known to be regulated by Notch signaling. Methods: We found increased Notch3 expression in human PKD and renal cell carcinoma biopsies. To obtain insight into the underlying mechanisms and the functional consequences of this abnormal expression, we developed a transgenic mouse model with conditional overexpression of the intracellular Notch3 (ICN3) domain specifically in renal tubules. We evaluated the alterations in renal function (creatininemia, BUN) and structure (cysts, fibrosis, inflammation) and measured the expression of several genes involved in Notch signaling and the mechanisms of inflammation, proliferation, dedifferentiation, fibrosis, injury, apoptosis and regeneration. Results: After one month of ICN3 overexpression, kidneys were larger with tubules grossly enlarged in diameter, with cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia, exclusively in the outer stripe of the outer medulla. After three months, mice developed numerous cysts in proximal and distal tubules. The cysts had variable sizes and were lined with a single- or multilayered, flattened, cuboid or columnar epithelium. This resulted in epithelial hyperplasia, which was observed as protrusions into the cystic lumen in some of the renal cysts. The pre-cystic and cystic epithelium showed increased expression of cytoskeletal filaments and markers of epithelial injury and dedifferentiation. Additionally, the epithelium showed increased proliferation with an aberrant orientation of the mitotic spindle. These phenotypic tubular alterations led to progressive interstitial inflammation and fibrosis. Conclusions: In summary, Notch3 signaling promoted tubular cell proliferation, the alignment of cell division, dedifferentiation and hyperplasia, leading to cystic kidney diseases and pre-neoplastic lesions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Juexiao Gong ◽  
Man Luo ◽  
Yonghong Yong ◽  
Shan Zhong ◽  
Peng Li

AbstractAlamandine (Ala) is a novel member of the renin–angiotensin-system (RAS) family. The present study aimed to explore the effects of Ala on hypertension and renal damage of Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats high-salt diet-induced, and the mechanisms of Ala on renal-damage alleviation. Dahl rats were fed with high-salt diets to induce hypertension and renal damage in vivo, and HK-2 cells were treated with sodium chloride (NaCl) to induce renal injury in vitro. Ala administration alleviated the high-salt diet-induced hypertension, renal dysfunction, and renal fibrosis and apoptosis in Dahl SS rats. The HK-2 cells’ damage, and the increases in the levels of cleaved (c)-caspase3, c-caspase8, and c-poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) induced by NaCl were inhibited by Ala. Ala attenuated the NaCl-induced oxidative stress in the kidney and HK-2 cells. DETC, an inhibitor of SOD, reversed the inhibitory effect of Ala on the apoptosis of HK-2 cells induced by NaCl. The NaCl-induced increase in the PKC level was suppressed by Ala in HK-2 cells. Notably, PKC overexpression reversed the moderating effects of Ala on the NaCl-induced apoptosis of HK-2 cells. These results show that Ala alleviates high-salt diet-induced hypertension and renal dysfunction. Ala attenuates the renal damage via inhibiting the PKC/reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling pathway, thereby suppressing the apoptosis in renal tubular cells.

2022 ◽  
pp. ASN.2021101293
Francesca Maremonti ◽  
Claudia Meyer ◽  
Andreas Linkermann

Understanding nephron loss is a primary strategy for preventing chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. Death of renal tubular cells may occur by apoptosis during developmental and regenerative processes. However, during acute kidney injury (AKI), the transition of AKI to CKD, sepsis-associated AKI, and kidney transplantation, ferroptosis and necroptosis, two pathways associated with the loss of plasma membrane integrity, kill renal cells. This necrotic type of cell death is associated with an inflammatory response, which is referred to as necroinflammation. Importantly, the necroinflammatory response to cells that die by necroptosis may be fundamentally different from the tissue response to ferroptosis. While mechanisms of ferroptosis and necroptosis have recently been investigated in detail, the cell death propagation during tubular necrosis, although described morphologically, remains incompletely understood. Here, we argue that a molecular switch downstream of tubular necrosis determines nephron regeneration vs. nephron loss, respectively. Unravelling the details of this "switch" must include the inflammatory response to tubular necrosis and regenerative signals potentially controlled by inflammatory cells, including the stimulation of myofibroblasts as the origin of fibrosis. Understanding in detail the molecular switch and the inflammatory responses to tubular necrosis can inform discussion of therapeutic options.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (24) ◽  
pp. 13562
Chieh Ming Liao ◽  
Tianjiao Luo ◽  
Juliane von der Ohe ◽  
Blanca de Juan Mora ◽  
Roland Schmitt ◽  

Cellular senescence of renal tubular cells is associated with chronic diseases and age-related kidney disorders. Therapies to antagonize senescence are, therefore, explored as novel approaches in nephropathy. Exosomes derived from human mesenchymal stroma-/stem-like cells (MSC) entail the transfer of multiple bioactive molecules, exhibiting profound regenerative potential in various tissues, including therapeutic effects in kidney diseases. Here, we first demonstrate that exosomes promote proliferation and reduce senescence in aged MSC cultures. For potential therapeutic perspectives in organ rejuvenation, we used MSC-derived exosomes to antagonize senescence in murine kidney primary tubular epithelial cells (PTEC). Exosome treatment efficiently reduced senescence while diminishing the transcription of senescence markers and senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) factors. Concomitantly, we observed less DNA damage foci and more proliferating cells. These data provide new information regarding the therapeutic property of MSC exosomes in the development of renal senescence, suggesting a contribution to a new chapter of regenerative vehicles in senotherapy.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Yue Zhao ◽  
Yue Lang ◽  
Mingchao Zhang ◽  
Shaoshan Liang ◽  
Xiaodong Zhu ◽  

<b><i>Background:</i></b> Mitochondria are dynamic organelles whose structure are maintained by continuous fusion and fission. During acute kidney injury (AKI) progression, mitochondrial fission in renal tubular cells was elevated, characterized by mitochondrial fragmentation. It is tightly associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, which has been proven as a critical mechanism responsible for AKI. However, the initiating factor for the disruption of mitochondrial dynamics in AKI was not well understood. <b><i>Objectives:</i></b> To explore the molecular mechanisms of mitochondrial disorders and kidney damage. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> We established cisplatin-induced AKI model in C57BL/6 mice and proximal tubular cells, and detected the expression of miR-125b by qPCR. Then we delivered miR-125b antagomir after cisplatin treatment in mice via hydrodynamic-based gene transfer technique. Subsequently, we performed luciferase reporter and immunoblotting ­assays to prove miR-125b could directly modulate mitofusin1 (MFN1) expression. We also tested the role of miR-125b in mitochondrial and renal injury through immunofluorescent staining, qPCR, and immunoblotting assays. <b><i>Results:</i></b> miR-125b levels were induced in cisplatin-challenged mice and cultured tubular cells. Anti-miR-125b could effectively alleviate cisplatin-induced mitochondrial fragmentation and kidney injury both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, miR-125b could directly regulate MFN1, which is a key regulator of mitochondrial fusion. Our study indicated that miR-125b is upregulated during cisplatin-induced AKI. Inhibition of miR-125b may suppress mitochondrial and renal damage through upregulating MFN1. This study suggests that miR-125b could be a potential therapeutic target in AKI.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (2) ◽  
pp. 51
Ricki Pratama ◽  
Eka Pramyrtha Hestianah ◽  
Thomas Valentinus Widiyatno ◽  
Dewa Ketut Meles ◽  
Rochmah Kurnijasanti

Paraquat toxicity occurs through the high production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which cause damage due to oxidative stress. Antioxidants can reduce damage through prevention of oxidative stress. Taurine has shown the ability to act as an antioxidant. The aim of this research is to find a effect of antioxidant taurine to decrease kidney damage caused by oxidative stress due to paraquat by looking at the histopathology changes. 25 male adult mices from strain DDY were used and divided into five treatment groups; C(-) (Aquadest IP), C(+) (Paraquat 30mg/kg), P1 (Paraquat 30mg/kg + Taurine 250mg/kg), P2 (Paraquat 30mg/kg + Taurine 500mg/kg) and P3 (Paraquat 30mg/kg + Taurine 1000mg/kg). All groups were given treatment intraperitoneal for twenty one days. The mices were sacrificed where kidney were collected for histopathology preparation. The parameters measured were renal histopathological changes in form of degeneration and necrosis. The results show that taurine administration had an effect on decreased degrees of damage to kidney tubular cells, with a decrease in the mean degree of renal tubular degeneration and necrosis. Degeneration of renal tubular cells in groups (P2) reduced compared to the group (C+) there were significant differences (P <0.05). Necrosis of renal tubular cells in groups (P1, P2) reduced compared to the group (C+) there were significant differences (P <0.05).  In conclusion, this research proves that administration of paraquat causes renal histopathological changes which are characterized by degeneration and necrosis. It also proves that taurine dose of 500 mg/kgBB could provided optimal effect.

Andrea M. T. Kallumadyil ◽  
Tess McClenahan ◽  
Samantha De Filippis ◽  
Ananya Vungarala ◽  
Nihal Satyadev ◽  

Abstract B.1.1.7 is a recently discovered variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) associated with increased transmissibility. Recent findings indicate that this variant has a propensity to infect adolescents and children at higher rates than adults. The virus gains entry into various body cells utilizing angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) and basigin (CD147) as receptors. The virus mainly affects type II pneumocytes of lungs, endothelial cells, enterocytes, and renal tubular cells. It is reported to affect testes, causing testicular pain, and producing histopathological changes, as observed in some autopsies. The B.1.1.7 variant can also affect various cells in the testes. This raises a major concern regarding the long-term effects of the viral infection on spermatogenesis and highlights the pressing need for a robust database of serum samples from infected male children.

2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (6) ◽  
pp. 9-15
K. A. Aitbaev ◽  
I. T. Murkamilov ◽  
V. V. Fomin ◽  
Zh. A. Murkamilova ◽  
F. A. Yusupov

Numerous studies have shown the critical role of sirtuin-1 deacetylase (SIRT1) in the protection of renal cells from endogenous and exogenous stresses. A protective role for SIRT1 has been established in both podocytes and renal tubular cells in many kidney diseases, including diabetic nephropathy (DN). SIRT1 has also been shown to have nephroprotective effects in DN, in part through the deacetylation of transcription factors involved in disease pathogenesis, such as p53, FOXO, RelA / p65NF-KB, STAT3, and PGC1a / PPARy. Recently, it was found that podocyte-specific overexpression of SIRT1 attenuates proteinuria and kidney damage in an experimental model of DN, suggesting the possibility of using SIRT1 as a potential target for the treatment of kidney disease. In addition, SIRT1 agonists such as resveratrol and BF175 have been shown to reduce diabetic kidney damage in several experimental animal models. It has also been shown that puerarin, a Chinese herbal medicine, activates SIRT1, providing nephroprotection in a mouse model of DN. In addition to SIRT1 agonists, inhibitors of bromodomain, in particular, MS417, also have a nephroprotective effect. These results suggest that SIRT1 agonists and bromodomain inhibitors may be new potential therapeutic agents that slow the progression of DN.

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