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PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262651
Natálie Cibulková ◽  
Klára Daďová ◽  
Kateřina Mašková ◽  
Andrew Busch ◽  
Alena Kobesová ◽  

This study aimed to analyze the changes in postural stability of individuals with obesity after bariatric surgery, and the effect of three months of regular exercise on the static postural stability. Twenty-two subjects (7 females and 15 males) aged 31 to 68 years (Body mass index 35–55 kg.m-2) completed the study. Participants were divided into two groups: one group participated in an exercise program after the bariatric surgery (n = 10; age 48.9 ± 7.5 years; Body mass index 42 ± 5.6 kg.m-2) while the second group did not exercise at all after bariatric surgery (n = 12; age 44.7 ± 13.6 years, Body mass index 42.6 ± 6.0 kg.m-2). Static postural stability was measured using a Tekscan MobileMat pressure plate before and 4 months after the bariatric surgery. The exercise program included exercising three times a week including: one hour of strengthening, one hour of aerobic group exercise and at least one session of individual exercise at home. There were no significant differences in Center of force sway, Center of force ranges and average speed before and 4 months after bariatric surgery. Also, no effect of exercise was found. Post-pre differences of some parameters were negatively related to age (r from—0.46 to—0.72). Further studies are needed to explore this topic in depth.

2022 ◽  
Vol 45 (1) ◽  
pp. 7-16

Us ~n ~ Poisson distribution the probabil.ity of cyclonic storms crossing each latitude stripon the cast coast of India In a month In a random to-year period l'i com puted and presented in the raper. v ariouscharacteristics of the cyclonic systems such as average speed of movement s, average life spa n and the averagedistan ce travelled alon gwith the coefficient s uf variation before and after crossing the coast are examined anddiscussed here.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (36) ◽  
pp. 253-258
Carlos Moacir Bonato ◽  
Beatriz Rigon ◽  
Aleandro Ferreira Souza ◽  
Carolina Bertuzzi Pereira ◽  
Bruno Reis

Introduction: In science homeopathic diseases or physiological disorders are not considered just a result of abiotic and biotic factors, but rather a consequence of loss of organic system homeostasis. Homeopathic science is currently being used efficiently in the control of plagues[1], plant diseases[2], in the increase of medicinal plants’ active principles[3] and in plant metabolism[4,5]. Although actual results, both in the academic and field-level, very little is known about physiological mechanisms action of homeopathic medicine on germination process[6]. This work aims to study the effect of M. pubescens hydrogel, on some physiological variables of sorghum germination (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). Material and methods: The experiment was conducted at Homeopathy and Plant Physiology of Biology Department at UEM in the period from 04/05/06 to 30/12/06. M. pubescens (tingui) seeds were obtained from the region of Montes Claros - Minas Gerais. The M. pubescens hidrogel was obtained from the external centrals wrappers of 4 dry seeds, after they have been disposed in petri dishes with distilled water for a period of 36 hours of soaking (25oC). The hydrogel mother tincture was prepared according to Manual of Technical Standards for Homeopathic Drugstore[7] 3rd ed (2003), in the proportion of a hidrogel part (5g) to ten parts (50g) of absolute alcohol 70% and stored in a glass amber (capped and protected from light). After 15 days of maceration, the solution was filtered and after 48h at rest, the mother tincture was considered ready for use. The dilution 1cH (Centesimal Hahnemannian) was obtained by adding 0.2 ml of the mother tincture in 19.8 ml of distilled water (1/100) and sucussioned 100 times (33 sucussions s-1) by mechanical arm dynamizer with automatic stop (Model Denise 50 - AUTIC). The subsequent dilutions (2cH to 30cH) were obtained from the same procedure, starting from the dilution 1cH. Bioassay: In petri dish containing 15 seeds of sorghum in a circular distributed were added 10 ml with their dilutions (3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 20 and 30cH) and the control containing distilled water. The petri dishes were placed in a growth chamber (type BOD), temperature of (25 ± 2)°C and photoperiod of 16h. The variables were analyzed by germination period of 73.5h as described below: · Germination (%G): %G = (∑ni.N-1)x100 , where ∑ni, is the total number of germinated seeds in relation to the number of seeds put to germinate, expressed in percentage; · Germination average time (GAT): GAT = ∑ni . ti / ∑ni , where ni is the number of germinated seeds within a certain interval of time ti-1 and ti; expressed in hours. · Germination average speed (GAS), expressed in hours): GAS = ∑ni / ∑ni . ti · Germination speed index (GSI): IVG = G1 / N1 + G2 / N2 + ........ Gn / Nn , where G1, G2....Gn is the number of germinated seeds and N1, N2, ... Nn is the number of hours after sowing. The total number of germinated seeds, at each time (12h) was also analyzed. Seeds were considered germinated when the radicle had 1 to 2 mm of lengths. Experimental design: The experimental design was randomized block with 4 replications, totaling 32 experimental units. It was adopted the double-blind methodology, to avoid possible interference or direction by the researcher. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed by ANOVA and the averages compared by Scott-Knott test (p≤0.05). The twinning combined data were analyzed for interaction germination x time (G x T) by F test to 5% of probability. Results and discussion: The homeopathy of Magonia pubescens hydrogel affected on the germination kinetic variables of sorghum seeds, when compared with the control (Fig. 1). This effect was most observed in the initial process of germination (from 13h). Research accomplished by Salgado-Labouriau (1973) [8] showed that the hydrogel formed from the external wrapper Magonia pubescens seeds, does not contain inhibiting, but contains factors that accelerate the germination process. Apparently, these results seem contradictory. However, for the homoeopathic optics, some used medicines in a considered way might have determined effect. Already in high diluted doses this behavior can be reversed, as it happens with some drugs. This behavior in pharmacokinetics is denomined Hormesis. When diluted and given dynamism, the product of hydrogel, instead of stimulating, it can delay the germination for the same phenomenon. Hormesis is not yet explained by science. Homeopathy of the Magonia pubescens gel significantly increased the germination average time (GAT) of sorghum seeds and reduced the germination average speed (GAS) and the germination speed index (GSI) (Fig. 2A, B and C). The values of these variables suggest that homeopathy, somehow slowed the speed of sorghum seeds soaking. Conclusion: The results here presented suggest that high dilutions of Magonia pubescens hidrogel can be used in future experiment such as bioherbicide.

Arsenii V Telichko ◽  
Rehman Ali ◽  
Thurston Brevett ◽  
Huaijun Wang ◽  
Jose Vilches-Moure ◽  

Abstract Objective: Speed of sound has previously been demonstrated to correlate with fat concentration in the liver. However, estimating speed of sound in the liver noninvasively can be biased by the speed of sound of the tissue layers overlying the liver. Here, we demonstrate a noninvasive local speed of sound estimator, which is based on a layered media assumption, that can accurately capture the speed of sound in the liver. We validate the estimator using an obese Zucker rat model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and correlate the local speed of sound with liver steatosis. Approach: We estimated the local and global average speed of sound noninvasively in 4 lean Zucker rats fed a normal diet and 16 obese Zucker rats fed a high fat diet for up to 8 weeks. The ground truth speed of sound and fat concentration were measured from the excised liver using established techniques. Main Results: The noninvasive, local speed of sound estimates of the livers were similar in value to their corresponding "ground truth'' measurements, having a slope ± standard error of the regression of 0.82 ± 0.15 (R2 = 0.74 and p < 0.001). Measurement of the noninvasive global average speed of sound did not reliably capture the ``ground truth'' speed of sound in the liver, having a slope of 0.35 ± 0.07 (R2 = 0.74 and p < 0.001). Decreasing local speed of sound was observed with increasing hepatic fat accumulation (approximately -1.7 m/s per 1% increase in hepatic fat) and histopathology steatosis grading (approximately -10 to -13 m/s per unit increase in steatosis grade). Local speed of sound estimates were highly correlated with steatosis grade, having Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients both ranging from -0.87 to -0.78. In addition, a lobe-dependent speed of sound in the liver was observed by the ex vivo measurements, with speed of sound differences of up to 25 m/s (p < 0.003) observed between lobes in the liver of the same animal. Significance: The findings of this study suggest that local speed of sound estimation has the potential to be used to predict or assist in the measurement of hepatic fat concentration and that the global average speed of sound should be avoided in hepatic fat estimation due to significant bias in the speed of sound estimate.

Giuseppe Guido ◽  
Sina Shaffiee Haghshenas ◽  
Sami Shaffiee Haghshenas ◽  
Alessandro Vitale ◽  
Vittorio Astarita ◽  

Evaluation of road safety is a critical issue having to be conducted for successful safety management in road transport systems, whereas safety management is considered in road transportation systems as a challenging task according to the dynamic of this issue and the presence of a large number of effective parameters on road safety. Therefore, evaluation and analysis of important contributing factors affecting the number of crashes play a key role in increasing the efficiency of road safety. For this purpose, in this research work, two machine learning algorithms including the group method of data handling (GMDH)-type neural network and a combination of support vector machine (SVM) and the grasshopper optimization algorithm (GOA) are employed for evaluating the number of vehicles involved in the accident based on the seven factors affecting transport safety including the Daylight (DL), Weekday (W), Type of accident (TA), Location (L), Speed limit (SL), Average speed (AS) and Annual average daily traffic (AADT) of rural roads of Cosenza in southern Italy. In this study, 564 data sets of rural areas were investigated and relevant effective parameters were measured. In the next stage, several models were developed to investigate the parameters affecting the safety management of road transportation for rural areas. The results obtained demonstrated that "Average speed" has the highest level and "Weekday" has the lowest level of importance in the investigated rural area. Finally, although the results of both algorithms were the same, the GOA-SVM model showed a better degree of accuracy and robustness than the GMDH model.

Buildings ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 655
Alex Yong Kwang Tan ◽  
Chi-Keong Tan

This paper examines the thermal comfort of temporary shelters under Taiwan’s subtropical summer conditions. The temperature within the tent was higher compared to the standard configuration of the temporary shelter, but its relative humidity was lower. During the time period 09:30 to 14:30, temperatures at the center of the tent at positions 0.10 m, 1.10 m and 1.70 m above ground were 3.1 °C, 5.5 °C and 6.0 °C higher, respectively, than the average ambient temperature of 36.3 °C. However, temperatures for the standard configuration at similar central positions of 0.10 m, 1.10 m and 1.70 m above ground were 1.2 °C, 0.5 °C and 0.7 °C lower, respectively, than the same average ambient. In the afternoon, the standard configuration (PMV of 3.14 and PPD of 100) performed better than the tent (PMV of 5.03 and PPD of 100), although neither achieved thermal comfort. Various experimental configurations showed that double layers of roof lowered temperatures, but the thermal comfort (PMV of 3.32 and PPD of 100) remained unchanged. Various computational configurations showed that closing the door and one window and installing a mechanical fan of average speed 2.75 m/s lowered the temperature and increased the air speed to achieve thermal comfort with PMV and PPD values of 1.49 and 50, respectively.

H Hakimzadeh ◽  
M A Badri ◽  
M Torabi Azad ◽  
F Azarsina ◽  
M Ezam

Minimizing fuel consumption is a priority for ship-owners seeking to reduce their vessel costs due to sea conditions. One of the most reliable methods used to estimate fuel consumption is to identify field investigations for future voyages. The VLCC Salina was used based on daily field data collected over a proper period and year of 2014 was identified as a period of optimal performance after its periodic dry dock repair. According to verified results for Beaufort scales of 2, 3 and 4, the vessel exhibited an average speed loss of 2.2% due to wind and wave effects for a Froude number of 0.15 while its greatest speed loss was observed at angles of 30‒60° relative to its longitudinal axis. The results were finally used to develop a methodology for estimating fuel consumption of Salina and 3 other sister-ships, during future voyages, in the fleet of the National Iranian tanker company.

Healthcare ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 1708
Hadi Nobari ◽  
João Paulo Brito ◽  
Jorge Pérez-Gómez ◽  
Rafael Oliveira

The aims of this study were to compare the external intensity between official (OMs) and friendly matches (FMs), and between first and second halves in the Iranian Premier League. Twelve players participated in this study (age, 28.6 ± 2.7 years; height, 182.1 ± 8.6 cm; body mass, 75.3 ± 8.2 kg). External intensity was measured by total duration, total distance, average speed, high-speed running distance, sprint distance, maximal speed and body load. In general, there was higher intensity in OMs compared with FMs for all variables. The first half showed higher intensities than the second half, regardless of the type of the match. Specifically, OMs showed higher values for total sprint distance (p = 0.012, ES = 0.59) and maximal speed (p < 0.001, ES = 0.27) but lower value for body load (p = 0.038, ES = −0.42) compared to FMs. The first half of FMs only showed lower value for body load (p = 0.004, ES = −0.38) than FMs, while in the second half of OMs, only total distance showed a higher value than FMs (p = 0.013, ES = 0.96). OMs showed higher demands of high intensity, questioning the original assumption of FMs demands. Depending on the period of the season that FMs are applied, coaches may consider requesting higher demands from their teams.

Amalia Meza ◽  
Bernardo Eylenstein ◽  
María Paula Natali ◽  
Guillermo Bosch ◽  
Juan Moirano ◽  

Total solar eclipses are unique opportunities to study how the ionospheric and external geomagnetic field responds to fast changes in the ionizing flux as the moon’s shadow travels through its path over the ionosphere at an average speed of 3,000 km/h. In this contribution, we describe our observing campaign in which we set up GNSS and geomagnetic stations at the city of Valcheta, Río Negro, Argentina (which was located right under the path of totality). We also describe the results obtained from the analysis of the combination of on-site data together with publicly available observations from geodetic and geomagnetic observatories. The large span in latitude of our data allowed us to analyze the different magnitudes of the drop in vertical total electron content (ΔVTEC) with varying occultation percentages. We found an expected reduction in this drop as we move away from totality path but we also detected a new increment in ΔVTEC as we got closer to Earth’s Magnetic Equator. We also compared our observations of the geomagnetic field variations with predictions that were based on the Ashour-Chapman model and we find an overall good agreement, although a ≈20 min delay with the eclipse maximum is evident beyond observing uncertainties. This suggests the presence of processes that delay the response of the lower ionosphere to the loss of the photoionization flux.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 ◽  
pp. 1-4
Mátyás Gede ◽  
Lola Varga

Abstract. The authors developed a pipeline for the automatic georeferencing of older 1 : 25 000 topographic map sheets of Hungary. The first step is the detection of the corners of the map content, then the recognition of the sheet identifier. These maps depict geographic quadrangles whose extent can be derived from the sheet ID. The sheet corners are used as GCPs for the georeference.The whole process is implemented in Python, using various open source libraries: OpenCV for image processing, Tesseract for OCR and GDAL for georeferencing.1147 map sheets were processed with an average speed of 4 seconds per sheet. False detection of the corners is automatically filtered by geometric analysis of the detected GCPs, while the sheet IDs are validated using regular expressions. The error of corner detection is under 1% of the sheet size for 89% of the sheets, under 2% for 99%. The sheet ID recognition success rate is 75.9%.Although the system is finetuned to a specific map series, it can be easily adapted to any other map series having approximately rectangular frame.

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