Effective Time
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Marek Mazurek ◽  
Małgorzata Szlendak ◽  
Alicja Forma ◽  
Jacek Baj ◽  
Ryszard Maciejewski ◽  

Gastric cancer (GC) patients with peritoneal metastasis tend to achieve poor clinical outcomes. Until recently, the treatment options were limited mainly to either palliative chemotherapy or radiation therapy in exceptional cases. Currently, these patients benefit from multimodal treatment, such as cytoreductive surgery (CRS) with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). Despite good overall results, this treatment modality is still widely debated. The following study is designed to assess the papers about the possible application and utility of HIPEC in GC. A search in the PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases was performed to assess the papers devoted to the role of HIPEC in GC treatment; a literature search was performed until March 21st; and, finally, 50 studies with a total number of 3946 patients were analyzed. According to the most recent data, it seems to be reasonable to limit the duration of HIPEC to the shortest effective time. Moreover, the drugs used in HIPEC need to have equal concentrations and the same solvent. Perioperative chemotherapy needs to be reported in detail and, furthermore, the term “morbidity” should be defined more clearly by the authors.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Philipp Dijkstal ◽  
Alexander Malyzhenkov ◽  
Paolo Craievich ◽  
Eugenio Ferrari ◽  
Romain Ganter ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (2) ◽  
Ira Septira Aripin ◽  
Tias Safira Handayani ◽  
Wilma Zuarko Adji

Department of employment Cianjur District is a government agency that provides yellow card making service using online administration procedures, where the public required to be able mastering technology that are always changing. The research aimed to find effective yellow card making online, improving service quality is the main goal in the policy. The writer does the research used quantitative and descriptive. The research conducted against yellow card makers and employees department of employment Cianjur districk, The technique data collection used with observation, dokumentation, written interview also literature review which has close relationship from the subject matter, the data is processed using descriptive analysis. From this research the results is that yellow card making online 99% can be effective time and cost also makes it easier for the public making yellow card.

Shay I. Duvdevani ◽  
Hadas Knoller ◽  
Noa Rozendorn ◽  
Eran E. Alon ◽  
Ory Madgar

AbstractCongenital ear anomalies are associated with psychological morbidity. Ear deformities can usually be corrected by nonsurgical techniques such as splinting or molding in the neonatal period, initiated before 6 weeks. Without early corrections, many will require otoplasty during childhood. We introduce a novel silicone-based custom mold technique for congenital ear anomalies. The highly malleable silicone was pushed into every part of the auricle, enabling the auricle to remain in the desired shape, with new molds made weekly. Of 31 newborns (18 males, 13 females), 54 ears were treated. Average age at treatment initiation was 26.8 days. The mean treatment duration was 43.2 days, with a median of 28 days. Normal appearance and parent's satisfaction were achieved in 30 patients with 49 deformed ears and also in four newborns older than 6 weeks. Three concha type microtia in two patients achieved great improvements and parents' satisfaction. No complications were reported. Marked aesthetic improvements and normal appearance were achieved for all deformed auricles treated, and improvements in the concha type microtia will partially alleviate future surgical corrections. The results are not inferior to other techniques. The advantages are as follows: cost-effective, time-saving, simple to master, no need for hair shaving, and easy use for parents. Patients older than 6 weeks of age achieved normal auricle appearance, enabling the correction in older newborns. Custom made silicone auricle molding offers a simple nonsurgical technique for correcting congenital ear anomalies, alleviating the need for future surgical corrections.

Jens Trautmann ◽  
Arthur Beckers ◽  
Lennert Wouters ◽  
Stefan Wildermann ◽  
Ingrid Verbauwhede ◽  

Locating a cryptographic operation in a side-channel trace, i.e. finding out where it is in the time domain, without having a template, can be a tedious task even for unprotected implementations. The sheer amount of data can be overwhelming. In a simple call to OpenSSL for AES-128 ECB encryption of a single data block, only 0.00028% of the trace relate to the actual AES-128 encryption. The rest is overhead. We introduce the (to our best knowledge) first method to locate a cryptographic operation in a side-channel trace in a largely automated fashion. The method exploits meta information about the cryptographic operation and requires an estimate of its implementation’s execution time.The method lends itself to parallelization and our implementation in a tool greatly benefits from GPU acceleration. The tool can be used offline for trace segmentation and for generating a template which can then be used online in real-time waveformmatching based triggering systems for trace acquisition or fault injection. We evaluate it in six scenarios involving hardware and software implementations of different cryptographic operations executed on diverse platforms. Two of these scenarios cover realistic protocol level use-cases and demonstrate the real-world applicability of our tool in scenarios where classical leakage-detection techniques would not work. The results highlight the usefulness of the tool because it reliably and efficiently automates the task and therefore frees up time of the analyst.The method does not work on traces of implementations protected by effective time randomization countermeasures, e.g. random delays and unstable clock frequency, but is not affected by masking, shuffling and similar countermeasures.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
pp. 47-52
Irinka Hristova ◽  
Greta Koleva ◽  
Despina Georgieva

Introduction: Time is one of the basic resources in each human activity. It holds a special place in health care. Either its deficiency or underestimation may lead to the negative and even fatal aftermath for human life. Objective: The purpose of this report is to identify the reasons for poor time management of student nurses. Methods: A standardized questionnaire was answered by a total of 89 student nurses from the 1st year and 3rd year courses, in the nursing bachelor degree from the Ruse University of Angel Kanchev, Bulgaria. The questionnaire was held in January 2021. Results: From this study we have determined that those who are capable of managing their time and always plan well are just 26%(23n) of all respondents, more than a half of them only sometimes plan their tasks, 61%(54n), whereas 13%(12n) never do. As for the compliance of the deadlines, only 31.5% (28n) of them always manage to do so, while the rest of the students only sometimes do so. Conclusions: The inability of student nurses to plan their time is just one of the reasons for concern. It was determined that the lack of training for effective time management, intense workload in higher education, not realizing they have to manage their time and their young age, significantly affect the student nurses’ proper management of time. UDC Classification: 37.04, DOI: https://doi.org/10.12955/pmp.v2.170

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Zhenghua Hu ◽  
Kejie Huang ◽  
Enyou Zhang ◽  
Qi’ang Ge ◽  
Xiaoxue Yang

Traveling by bike-sharing systems has become an indispensable means of transportation in our daily lives because green commuting has gradually become a consensus and conscious action. However, the problem of “difficult to rent or to return a bike” has gradually become an issue in operating the bike-sharing system. Moreover, scientific and systematic schemes that can efficiently complete the task of rebalancing bike-sharing systems are lacking. This study aims to introduce the basic idea of the k-divisive hierarchical clustering algorithm. A rebalancing strategy based on the model of level of detail in combination with genetic algorithm was proposed. Data were collected from the bike-sharing system in Ningbo. Results showed that the proposed algorithm could alleviate the problem of the uneven distribution of the demand for renting or returning bikes and effectively improve the service from the bike-sharing system. Compared with the traditional method, this algorithm helps reduce the effective time for rebalancing bike-sharing systems by 28.3%. Therefore, it is an effective rebalancing scheme.

Biology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (10) ◽  
pp. 960
Tarek Zieneldien ◽  
Janice Kim ◽  
Jessica Cao ◽  
Chuanhai Cao

It has been over a year since SARS-CoV-2 was first reported in December of 2019 in Wuhan, China. To curb the spread of the virus, many therapies and cures have been tested and developed, most notably mRNA and DNA vaccines. Federal health agencies (CDC, FDA) have approved emergency usage of these S gene-based vaccines with the intention of minimizing any further loss of lives and infections. It is crucial to assess which vaccines are the most efficacious by examining their effects on the immune system, and by providing considerations for new technological vaccine strategies in the future. This paper provides an overview of the current SARS-CoV-2 vaccines with their mechanisms of action, current technologies utilized in manufacturing of the vaccines, and limitations in this new field with emerging data. Although the most popular COVID-19 vaccines have been proven effective, time will be the main factor in dictating which vaccine will be able to best address mutations and future infection.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Kotaro Tokuda ◽  
Yoshiaki Yamanaka ◽  
Yosuke Mano ◽  
Manabu Tsukamoto ◽  
Takafumi Tajima ◽  

AbstractJoint contracture leads to major patient discomfort. Metformin, one of the most extensively used oral drugs against type 2 diabetes has recently been found to suppress tissue fibrosis as well. However, its role in suppressing tissue fibrosis in joint contractures remains unknown. In this study, we examined the role of metformin treatment in suppressing joint capsular fibrosis and the most effective time of its administration. Joint capsular fibrosis was induced by immobilizing the knee joints of mice using splints and tapes. Metformin was administered intraperitoneally every alternate day after immobilization. Histological and immunohistochemical changes and expression of fibrosis-related genes were evaluated. Metformin treatment significantly suppressed fibrosis in joint capsules based on histological and immunohistochemical evaluation. Joint capsular tissue from metformin-treated mice also showed decreased expression of fibrosis-related genes. Early, but not late, metformin administration showed the same effect on fibrosis suppression in joint capsule as the whole treatment period. The expression of fibrosis-related genes was most suppressed in mice administered with metformin early. These studies demonstrated that metformin treatment can suppress joint capsular fibrosis and the most effective time to administer it is early after joint immobilization; a delay of more than 2 weeks of administration is less effective.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (17) ◽  
pp. 3397
Dandan Xu ◽  
Jeff K. Harder ◽  
Weixin Xu ◽  
Xulin Guo

Great efforts have been made to manage and restore native prairies to protect native species, enrich biodiversity, protect ecological resilience, and maintain ecosystem services. Much of this has been focused on preventing degradation from overgrazing and crop conversion. Understanding the consequences of management polices is important to identify best practices. Previous research has compared restoration outcomes from variable intensity grazing, prescribed fire, and grazing removal. However, few studies have explored the optimal durations of management practices and variation in restoration outcomes among vegetation communities. This study evaluates whether the impact of grazing cessation and reintroduction varies among native vegetation communities and measures the effective time periods of grazing cessation and reintroduction. Restoration outcomes were evaluated using four biophysical indicators (fresh biomass, soil organic matter, green cover, and litter cover) and two vegetation indices (normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and normalized difference water index (NDWI)) measured from Landsat images using seasonal Kalman filter and raster time series analysis. The results show that: (i) Grazing cessation increased soil organic matter and green cover while decreasing fresh biomass compared to moderate grazing management, while grazing reintroduction influences those indicators in an opposite direction; (ii) The effective time period for prairie conservation is about 11–14 years and varies among vegetation communities and biophysical indicators; (iii) The effective intensity of grazing cessation is highest in valley grassland, moderate in upland grassland, and mildest in sloped grassland; (iv) Grazing reintroduction returned the three native vegetation communities to the initial condition (i.e., the stage in 1985 before large grazers were removed), with less time than the time consumed for grazing cessation to restore the prairie ecosystem to the maximum changes; (v) Grazing reintroduction effectively influences upland and valley grasslands for 7 to 9 years, varying from different indicators, while it continuously affected sloped grassland with no clear time lag; (vi) The intensity of grazing reintroduction was strongest in sloped grassland, moderate in upland grassland, and mildest in valley grassland. The results of this study suggest expected time periods for prairie management methods to achieve results.

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