extracellular matrix components
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2022 ◽  
Ana N Strat ◽  
Alexander Kirschner ◽  
Hannah Yoo ◽  
Ayushi Singh ◽  
Tyler Bague ◽  

In glaucoma, astrocytes within the optic nerve head (ONH) rearrange their actin cytoskeleton, while becoming reactive and upregulating intermediate filament glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Increased transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGFβ2) levels have been implicated in glaucomatous ONH dysfunction. A key limitation of using conventional 2D culture to study ONH astrocyte behavior is the inability to faithfully replicate the in vivo ONH microenvironment. Here, we engineer a 3D ONH astrocyte hydrogel to better mimic in vivo mouse ONH astrocyte (MONHA) morphology, and test induction of MONHA reactivity using TGFβ2. Primary MONHAs were isolated from C57BL/6J mice and cell purity confirmed. To engineer 3D cell-laden hydrogels, MONHAs were mixed with photoactive extracellular matrix components (collagen type I, hyaluronic acid) and crosslinked for 5 minutes using a photoinitiator (0.025% riboflavin) and UV light (405-500 nm, 10.3 mW/cm2). MONHA-encapsulated hydrogels were cultured for 3 weeks, and then treated with TGFβ2 (2.5, 5.0 or 10 ng/ml) for 7 days to assess for reactivity. Following encapsulation, MONHA retained high cell viability in hydrogels and continued to proliferate over 4 weeks as determined by live/dead staining and MTS assays. Sholl analysis demonstrated that MONHAs within hydrogels developed increasing process complexity with longer process length over time. Cell processes connected with neighboring cells, coinciding with Connexin43 expression within astrocytic processes. Treatment with TGFβ2 induced reactivity in MONHA-encapsulated hydrogels as determined by altered F-actin cytoskeletal morphology, increased GFAP expression, and elevated fibronectin and collagen IV deposition. Our data sets the stage for future use of this 3D biomimetic ONHA-encapsulated hydrogel to investigate ONHA behavior in response to glaucomatous insult.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 520
Matúš Soták ◽  
Meenu Rohini Rajan ◽  
Madison Clark ◽  
Christina Biörserud ◽  
Ville Wallenius ◽  

Obesity is associated with extensive expansion and remodeling of the adipose tissue architecture, including its microenvironment and extracellular matrix (ECM). Although obesity has been reported to induce adipose tissue fibrosis, the composition of the ECM under healthy physiological conditions has remained underexplored and debated. Here, we used a combination of three established techniques (picrosirius red staining, a colorimetric hydroxyproline assay, and sensitive gene expression measurements) to evaluate the status of the ECM in metabolically healthy lean (MHL) and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) subjects. We investigated ECM deposition in the two major human adipose tissues, namely the omental and subcutaneous depots. Biopsies were obtained from the same anatomic region of respective individuals. We found robust ECM deposition in MHL subjects, which correlated with high expression of collagens and enzymes involved in ECM remodeling. In contrast, MUO individuals showed lower expression of ECM components but elevated levels of ECM cross-linking and adhesion proteins, e.g., lysyl oxidase and thrombospondin. Our data suggests that subcutaneous fat is more prone to express proteins involved in ECM remodeling than omental adipose tissues. We conclude that a more dynamic ability to deposit and remodel ECM may be a key signature of healthy adipose tissue, and that subcutaneous fat may adapt more readily to changing metabolic conditions than omental fat.

2021 ◽  
Mahsa Haseli ◽  
Luis Pinzon-Herrera ◽  
Jorge Almodovar

Human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) are multipotent cells that have been proposed for the treatment of immune-mediated diseases. Culturing hMSCs on tissue culture plastic reduces their therapeutic potential in part due to the lack of extracellular matrix components. The aim of this study is to evaluate multilayers of heparin and poly(L-lysine) (HEP/PLL) as a bioactive surface for hMSCs stimulated with soluble interferon gamma (IFN‐γ). Multilayers were formed, via layer-by-layer assembly, with HEP as the final layer and supplemented with IFN-γ in the culture medium. Multilayer construction and chemistry were confirmed using Azure A staining, quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. hMSCs adhesion, viability, and differentiation, were assessed. Results showed that (HEP/PLL) multilayer coatings were poorly adhesive for hMSCs. However, performing chemical crosslinking using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide and N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) significantly enhanced hMSCs adhesion and viability. The immunosuppressive properties of hMSCs cultured on crosslinked (HEP/PLL) multilayers were confirmed by measuring the level of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) secretion. Lastly, hMSCs cultured on crosslinked (HEP/PLL) multilayers in the presence of soluble IFN- γ successfully differentiated towards the osteogenic and adipogenic lineages as confirmed by Alizarin red, and oil-red O staining, as well as alkaline phosphatase activity. This study suggests that crosslinked (HEP/PLL) films can modulate hMSCs response to soluble factors, which may improve hMSCs-based therapies aimed at treating several immune diseases.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (12) ◽  
pp. 4550
Jacqueline Lena Boyajian ◽  
Merry Ghebretatios ◽  
Sabrina Schaly ◽  
Paromita Islam ◽  
Satya Prakash

The role of the microbiome in human aging is important: the microbiome directly impacts aging through the gastrointestinal system. However, the microbial impact on skin has yet to be fully understood. For example, cellular senescence is an intrinsic aging process that has been recently associated with microbial imbalance. With age, cells become senescent in response to stress wherein they undergo irreversible growth arrest while maintaining high metabolic activity. An accumulation of senescent cells has been linked to various aging and chronic pathologies due to an overexpression of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) comprised of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, proteases, lipids and extracellular matrix components. In particular, dermatological disorders may be promoted by senescence as the skin is a common site of accumulation. The gut microbiota influences cellular senescence and skin disruption through the gut-skin axis and secretion of microbial metabolites. Metabolomics can be used to identify and quantify metabolites involved in senescence. Moreover, novel anti-senescent therapeutics are warranted given the poor safety profiles of current pharmaceutical drugs. Probiotics and prebiotics may be effective alternatives, considering the relationship between the microbiome and healthy aging. However, further research on gut composition under a senescent status is needed to develop immunomodulatory therapies.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Fausta Natella ◽  
Barbara Guantario ◽  
Roberto Ambra ◽  
Giulia Ranaldi ◽  
Federica Intorre ◽  

Hamamelis virginiana L. a rich source of both condensed and hydrolyzable tannins, utilized to treat dermatological disorders. Since no experimental and clinical data is available for its use as oral formulation in skin related disorders, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Hamaforton™ (Hamamelis virginiana extract) metabolites on gene dysregulation induced by ultraviolet A radiation in cultured human dermal fibroblasts. A combination of in vivo and ex vivo experimental designs has been exploited in order to take into account the polyphenol metabolic transformation that occurs in humans. 12 healthy volunteers received either a capsule of Hamaforton™ or a placebo in a randomized, blinded crossover trial. After Hamaforton™ ingestion, the kinetic of appearance of galloyl derivatives was measured in plasma. Then, in the ex vivo experiment, the serum isolated after supplementation was used as a source of Hamaforton™ metabolites to enrich the culture medium of dermal fibroblasts exposed to ultraviolet A radiation. Three different gallic acid metabolites (4-O-methyl gallic acid, 4-O-methyl gallic acid sulphate and trimethyl gallic acid glucuronide) were identified in volunteer plasma. While, ultraviolet A irradiation of dermal fibroblasts affected the expression of extracellular matrix genes, the presence of Hamaforton™ metabolites in the culture media did not affect the expression of most of those genes. However, the activation of the expression of 10 different genes involved in repair processes for the maintenance of skin integrity, suggest that the metabolites can play a role in damage recovery. To our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates the bioavailability of Hamaforton™ phenolic compounds, and the effects of its metabolites on cultured dermal fibroblast response to ultraviolet A irradiation.

2021 ◽  
pp. 088532822110543
Nisa İrem Büyük ◽  
Kardelen Tüfekçi ◽  
Alev Cumbul ◽  
Erhan Ayşan ◽  
Gamze Torun Köse

This study aimed to generate a novel biomatrix from the decellularized human parathyroid capsule using different methods and to compare the efficiency of decellularization in the means of cell removal, structural integrity and extracellular matrix preservation. The parathyroid capsules, which were carefully dissected from the parathyroid tissue, were randomly divided into four groups and then decellularized using three different protocols: freeze-thaw only, sodium dodecyl sulphate and Triton X-100 treatments after freeze-thawing. Quantitative DNA analysis, agarose gel electrophoresis, sulphated glycosaminoglycan assay, histological analysis, immunohistochemistry and scanning electron microscopy were used to observe the efficiency of parathyroid capsule decellularization and preservation of extracellular matrix components. Considering all the results, it can be said that only freeze-thawing is not an effective method in parathyroid capsule decellularization. When the tissue was treated with a detergent agent in addition to freeze-thawing, the amount of DNA decreased by 90% while sulphated glycosaminoglycan amount maintained 50% compared to untreated tissue. Comparing the effects of the two detergents on the preservation of extracellular matrix such as collagen and sulphated glycosaminoglycan, it was seen that the integrity of tissues treated with Triton X-100 was preserved more than tissues treated with sodium dodecyl sulphate. It is concluded that Triton X-100 treatment with freeze-thawing is the most suitable and effective method for decellularizing the human parathyroid capsule. The biomatrix obtained with this method can be applied in the transplantation of parathyroid tissue and other endocrine tissue types in the body.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Sunmin Lee ◽  
Chagam Koteswara Reddy ◽  
Jeoung Jin Ryu ◽  
Seoyeon Kyung ◽  
Yonghwan Lim ◽  

A metabolomics approach was used to profile metabolites of Panax notoginseng fermented with Aspergillus cristatus in two ways, liquid-state fermentation (LF-P) and solid-state fermentation (SSF-P) and examine metabolite markers representing antioxidant activity and skin anti-aging. Protopanaxadiol (PPD) and protopanaxatriol (PPT) contents were higher in SSF-P than in LF-P and showed a multiplicative increase over the fermentation period of four days. PPD and PPT levels also correlated with antioxidant and anti-aging effects in skin, based on the mRNA expression of dermal extracellular matrix components. In the bioactivity validation assays, PPD and PPT significantly improved the expression of type-I collagen, fibrillin-1, and elastin in human dermal fibroblasts from both young and old subjects; these were comparable with the effects of the SSF-P extracts. Overall, our results suggest that changes in the metabolites of P. notoginseng fermented with A. cristatus enhance the quality and availability of bioactive compounds associated with skin anti-aging.

2021 ◽  
Wen Shi ◽  
Fang Fang ◽  
Yunfan Kong ◽  
Sydney E Greer ◽  
Mitchell A Kuss ◽  

Abstract Cartilage tissue engineering has arisen as a promising therapeutic option for degenerative joint diseases, such as osteoarthritis, in the hope of restoring the structure and physiological functions. Hydrogels are promising biomaterials for developing engineered constructs for cartilage regeneration. However, such cell-laden constructs could be exposed to elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the inflammatory microenvironment after being implanted into injured joints, which may affect their phenotype and normal functions and thereby hinder the regeneration efficacy. To attenuate ROS induced side effects, a multifunctional hydrogel with an innate anti-oxidative ability was produced in this study. The hydrogel was rapidly formed through a dynamic covalent bond between phenylboronic acid grafted hyaluronic acid (HA-PBA) and poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and was further stabilized through a secondary crosslinking between the acrylate moiety on HA-PBA and the free thiol group from thiolated gelatin. The hydrogel is cyto-compatible and injectable and can be used as a bioink for 3D bioprinting. The viscoelastic properties of the hydrogels could be modulated through the hydrogel precursor concentration. The presence of dynamic covalent linkages contributed to its shear-thinning property and thus good printability of the hydrogel, resulting in the fabrication of a porous grid construct and a meniscus like scaffold at high structural fidelity. The bioprinted hydrogel promoted cell adhesion and chondrogenic differentiation of encapsulated rabbit adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells. Meanwhile, the hydrogel supported robust deposition of extracellular matrix components, including glycosaminoglycans and type II collagen, by embedded mouse chondrocytes in vitro. Most importantly, the hydrogel could protect encapsulated chondrocytes from ROS induced downregulation of cartilage-specific anabolic genes (ACAN and COL2) and upregulation of a catabolic gene (MMP13) after incubation with H2O2. Furthermore, intra-articular injection of the hydrogel in mice revealed adequate stability and good biocompatibility in vivo. These results demonstrate that this hydrogel can be used as a novel bioink for the generation of 3D bioprinted constructs with anti-ROS ability to potentially enhance cartilage tissue regeneration in a chronic inflammatory and elevated ROS microenvironment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 2569
Manasi Sawant ◽  
Sadia Benamrouz-Vanneste ◽  
Anthony Mouray ◽  
Peggy Bouquet ◽  
Nausicaa Gantois ◽  

Cryptosporidium spp. are enteric protozoa parasites that infect a variety of vertebrate hosts. These parasites are capable of inducing life-threatening gastrointestinal disease in immunocompromised individuals. With the rising epidemiological evidence of the occurrence of Cryptosporidium infections in humans with digestive cancer, the tumorigenic potential of the parasite has been speculated. In this regard, Cryptosporidium parvum has been reported to induce digestive adenocarcinoma in a rodent model of chronic cryptosporidiosis. However, the processes by which the parasite could induce this carcinogenesis are still unknown. Therefore, the transcriptomes of C. parvum infected ileo-cecal regions of mice developing tumors were analyzed in the current study. For the first time, downregulation of the expression of α-defensin, an anti-microbial target of the parasite in response to C. parvum infection was observed in the transformed tissues. This phenomenon has been speculated to be the result of resistance of C. parvum to the host defense through the upregulated expression of interferon γ-stimulated genes. The inflammatory response generated as result of attenuated expression of anti-microbial peptides highlights the role of immune evasion in the C. parvum-induced tumorigenesis. The study has also succeeded in the characterization of the tumor microenvironment (TME) which is characterized by the presence of cancer associated fibroblasts, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, tumor-associated macrophages and extracellular matrix components. Identification of immune suppressor cells and accumulation of pro-inflammatory mediators speculates that chronic inflammation induced by persistent C. parvum infection assists in development of an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Bo Yang ◽  
Haisheng Huang ◽  
Qisong He ◽  
Wei Lu ◽  
Lu Zheng ◽  

Oxidative stress-induced chondrocyte apoptosis and degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) play an important role in the progression of osteoarthritis (OA). In addition, tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) is an activator of the nuclear factor erythroid derived-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of TBHQ in preventing the apoptosis of chondrocytes and degradation of the extracellular matrix, induced by oxidative stress, in vitro. Therefore, rat chondrocytes were exposed to 20 μM tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) for 24 h to establish an oxidative damage model, in vitro. Thereafter, cell viability was evaluated using the Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. Moreover, the level of ROS was determined through 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate staining. The mitochondrial membrane potential of chondrocytes was also measured using JC-1. Furthermore, cell apoptosis was assessed through Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining. The study also performed Western blotting and qPCR to evaluate the expression of extracellular matrix components, matrix catabolic enzymes, and changes in signalling pathways. The results showed that 2.5 and 5 μM of TBHQ reduced the TBHP-induced generation of excessive ROS and improved cell viability. Additionally, 2.5 and 5 μM of TBHQ prevented mitochondrial damage and apoptosis in rat chondrocytes. Treatment with TBHQ also increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of aggrecan and collagen II. However, TBHQ reduced the mRNA and protein expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) and matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13) in rat chondrocytes. In addition, treatment with TBHQ enhanced the protein expression levels of Nrf2, NADPH quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO-1), and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) in rat chondrocytes. The current study showed that TBHQ was not only effective in protecting against TBHP-induced oxidative stress but also inhibited the apoptosis of rat chondrocytes and degradation of the ECM by activating the Nrf2 pathway. The results therefore suggest that TBHQ holds potential for use in the treatment of OA.

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