threonine kinases
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2022 ◽  
Vol 479 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-22
Johanna Kliche ◽  
Ylva Ivarsson

Cellular function is based on protein–protein interactions. A large proportion of these interactions involves the binding of short linear motifs (SLiMs) by folded globular domains. These interactions are regulated by post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, that create and break motif binding sites or tune the affinity of the interactions. In addition, motif-based interactions are involved in targeting serine/threonine kinases and phosphatases to their substrate and contribute to the specificity of the enzymatic actions regulating which sites are phosphorylated. Here, we review how SLiM-based interactions assist in determining the specificity of serine/threonine kinases and phosphatases, and how phosphorylation, in turn, affects motif-based interactions. We provide examples of SLiM-based interactions that are turned on/off, or are tuned by serine/threonine phosphorylation and exemplify how this affects SLiM-based protein complex formation.

Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 3565
Yiling Wang ◽  
Audrey Minden

P21-activated kinases (PAKs) are serine/threonine kinases involved in the regulation of cell survival, proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis, and the regulation of cell morphology. Some members of the PAK family are highly expressed in several types of cancer, and they have also been implicated in several other medical disorders. They are thus considered to be good targets for treatment of cancer and other diseases. Although there are several inhibitors of the PAKs, the utility of some of these inhibitors is reduced for several reasons, including limited metabolic stability. One way to overcome this problem is the use of nanoparticles, which have the potential to increase drug delivery. The overall goals of this review are to describe the roles for PAK kinases in cell signaling and disease, and to describe how the use of nanomedicine is a promising new method for administering PAK inhibitors for the purpose of disease treatment and research. We discuss some of the basic mechanisms behind nanomedicine technology, and we then describe how these techniques are being used to package and deliver PAK inhibitors.

2021 ◽  
Tess E. Brewer ◽  
Andreas Wagner

AbstractRapid bacterial growth depends on the speed at which ribosomes can translate mRNA into proteins. mRNAs that encode successive stretches of proline can cause ribosomes to stall, substantially reducing translation speed. Such stalling is especially detrimental for species that must grow and divide rapidly. Here we focus on di-prolyl motifs (XXPPX) and ask whether their incidence varies with growth rate. To find out we conducted a broad survey of such motifs in >3000 bacterial genomes across 36 phyla. Indeed, fast-growing species encode fewer motifs than slow-growing species, especially in highly expressed proteins. We also found many di-prolyl motifs within thermophiles, where prolines can help maintain proteome stability. Moreover, bacteria with complex, multicellular lifecycles also encode many di-prolyl motifs. This is especially evident in the slow-growing phylum Myxococcota. Bacteria in this phylum encode many serine-threonine kinases, and many di-prolyl motifs at potential phosphorylation sites within these kinases. Serine-threonine kinases are involved in cell signaling and help regulate developmental processes linked to multicellularity in the Myxococcota. Altogether, our observations suggest that weakened selection on translational rate, whether due to slow or thermophilic growth, may allow di-prolyl motifs to take on new roles in biological processes that are unrelated to translational rate.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xinru Xue ◽  
Lingling Zhang ◽  
Yajuan Li ◽  
Huilan Wei ◽  
Shaoxuan Wu ◽  

Members of the testis-specific serine/threonine kinases (Tssk) family play critical roles in spermatogenesis in vertebrates. But in mollusks, research on Tssk family is still lagging. In this study, we systematically identified Tssk family based on the genomic and transcriptomic data from a commercially important scallop Argopecten irradians and detected the spatiotemporal expression in adult gonads. Five members were identified, with the gene length varying from 1,068 to 10,729 bp and the protein length ranging from 294 to 731 aa. All the Tssks possess a serine/threonine protein kinase catalytic (S_TKc) domain. Phylogenetic analysis revealed existence of four homologs of vertebrate Tssk1/2, Tssk3, Tssk4, Tssk5, and absence of Tssk6 in the scallop. The remaining gene (Tssk7) formed an independent clade with Tssks of other mollusks and arthropods, indicating that it may be a new member of Tssk family unique to protostomes. By investigating the expression of Tssks in four developmental stages of testes and ovaries, we found all five Tssks were primarily expressed in mature testis. In situ hybridization experiment revealed the five Tssks were localized in the spermatids and spermatozoa. The testis-predominant expression of Tssk family suggests Tssks may play pivotal roles in spermiogenesis in the scallop. Our study provides basic information on the characteristics and expression profiles of Tssk family of A. irradians. To our knowledge, it represents the first comprehensive analysis of Tssk family in mollusks.

Gao Chen ◽  
Yuelei Cao ◽  
Huairong Zhong ◽  
Xiaodong Wang ◽  
Yanle Li ◽  

Serine/threonine kinases (STKs) play important roles in prokaryotic cellular functions such as growth, differentiation, and secondary metabolism. When the external environment changes, prokaryotes rely on signal transduction systems, including STKs that quickly sense these changes and alter gene expression to induce the appropriate metabolic changes. In this study, we examined the roles of the STK genes spkD and spkG in fatty acid biosynthesis in the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, using targeted gene knockout. The linoleic acid (C18: 2), γ-linolenic acid (C18: 3n6), α-linolenic acid (C18: 3n3), and stearidonic acid (C18: 4) levels were significantly lower in spkD and spkG gene knockout mutants than in the wild type at a culture temperature of 30°C and a light intensity of 40 μmol⋅m–2⋅s–1. The expression levels of fatty acid desaturases and STK genes differed between the spkD and spkG gene knockout mutants. These observations suggest that spkD and spkG may directly or indirectly affect the fatty acid composition in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 by regulating the expression of fatty acid desaturases genes. Therefore, the STK genes spkD and spkG play important roles in polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. These findings could facilitate the development of cyanobacteria germplasm resources that yield high levels of fatty acids. In addition, they provide a theoretical basis for the genetic engineering of cyanobacteria with improved yields of secondary metabolites and increased economic benefits.

BMC Genomics ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Chunfang Xiao ◽  
Mengling Huang ◽  
Jianhua Gao ◽  
Zhen Wang ◽  
Denghong Zhang ◽  

Abstract Background Late blight disease (LBD) caused by the pathogen Phytophthora infestans (PI), is the most devastating disease limiting potato (Solanum tuberosum) production globally. Currently, this disease pathogen is re-emerging and appearing in new areas at a very high intensity. A better understanding of the natural defense mechanisms against PI in different potato cultivars especially at the protein level is still lacking. Therefore, to elucidate potato proteome response to PI, we investigated changes in the proteome and leaf morphology of three potato cultivars, namely; Favorita (FA), Mira (MA), and E-malingshu N0.14 (E14) infected with PI by using the iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics analysis. Results A total of 3306 proteins were found in the three potato genotypes, and 2044 proteins were quantified. Cluster analysis revealed MA and E14 clustered together separately from FA. The protein profile and related functions revealed that the cultivars shared a typical hypersensitive response to PI, including induction of elicitors, oxidative burst, and suppression of photosynthesis in the potato leaves. Meanwhile, MA and E14 deployed additional specific response mechanism different from FA, involving high induction of protease inhibitors, serine/threonine kinases, terpenoid, hormone signaling, and transport, which contributed to MA tolerance of LBD. Furthermore, inductions of pathogenesis-related proteins, LRR receptor-like kinases, mitogen-activated protein kinase, WRKY transcription factors, jasmonic acid, and phenolic compounds mediate E14 resistance against LBD. These proteins were confirmed at the transcription level by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction and at the translation level by western-blot. Conclusions We found several proteins that were differentially abundant among the cultivars, that includes common and cultivar specific proteins which highlighted similarities and significant differences between FA, MA, and E14 in terms of their defense response to PI. Here the specific accumulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase, Serine/threonine kinases, WRKY transcription played a positive role in E14 immunity against PI. The candidate proteins identified reported in this study will form the basis of future studies and may improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of late blight disease resistance in potato.

Blood ◽  
2019 ◽  
Vol 134 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. 4143-4143
Sylwia Flis ◽  
Ewelina Bratek ◽  
Tomasz Chojnacki ◽  
Marlena Piskorek ◽  
Tomasz Skorski

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) revolutionized the treatment of BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase - positive chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP). However, it is unlikely that TKIs will "cure" the disease in majority of patients because CML-CP cells are elusive targets even for the most advanced therapies employing second and third generation of TKIs. Therefore, new treatment modalities are necessary to improve therapeutic outcomes. We showed before that class I p21-activated serine/threonine kinases (PAKs) remained active in TKI-naive and TKI-treated CML-CP leukemia stem and early progenitor cells. The aim of the study was to test whether simultaneous inhibition of signaling pathways activated by BCR-ABL1 and PAK kinases may improve the treatment of CML. Special attention was focused on PAK1 and PAK2, which are expressed in hematopoietic cells and can play an important role in the promotion of CML cells proliferation and survival. PAK kinases were targeted by small molecule inhibitor IPA-3 (inhibitor of PAK1) and shRNA construct for PAK2, BCR-ABL1 kinase was inhibited by imatinib. The studies were carried out using (i) primary CML-CP stem/early progenitor cells and normal hematopoietic counterparts isolated from the bone marrow of newly diagnosed CML-CP patients and healthy donors, respectively, (ii) CML-blast phase cell lines (K562 and KCL-22), and (iii) BCR-ABL1-transformed 32Dcl3 cell line cells. We show here that inhibition of PAK1 or/and PAK2 kinases activity enhanced the effect of IM against CML cells without affecting normal counterparts. We observed that the combined use of IM with IPA-3 increased growth inhibition and apoptosis of leukemia cells. To evaluate the type of drugs interaction median effect analysis method was used. The studies revealed that the type and strength of drug interaction depend on drug concentration. Generally, combination of IM with IPA-3 at the 50% of the cell kill level (EC50) generated synergistic effect. Altogether, we postulate that BCR-ABL1 kinase inhibitor should be combined with PAK1/2 inhibitor to facilitate eradication of CML cells. Disclosures No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.

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