complex molecule
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Olga Yu. Vassilyeva ◽  
Elena A. Buvaylo ◽  
Vladimir N. Kokozay ◽  
Sergey L. Studzinsky ◽  
Brian W. Skelton ◽  

The new molecular nickel(II) complex, namely, {4-bromo-2-[({N′-[(2-oxidobenzylidene)amino]carbamimidoyl}imino)methyl]phenolato}nickel(II) N,N-dimethylformamide solvate monohydrate, [Ni(C15H11BrN4O2)]·C3H7NO·H2O, (I), crystallizes in the triclinic space group P\overline{1} with one molecule per asymmetric unit. The guanidine ligand is a product of Schiff base condensation between aminoguanidine, salicylaldehyde and 5-bromosalicylaldehyde templated by Ni2+ ions. The chelating ligand molecule is deprotonated at the phenol O atoms and coordinates the metal centre through the two azomethine N and two phenolate O atoms in a cis-NiN2O2 square-planar configuration [average(Ni—N/O) = 1.8489 Å, cis angles in the range 83.08 (5)–95.35 (5)°, trans angles of 177.80 (5) and 178.29 (5)°]. The complex molecule adopts an almost planar conformation. In the crystal, a complicated hydrogen-bonded network is formed through N—H...N/O and O—H...O intermolecular interactions. Complex (I) was also characterized by FT–IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. It undergoes an NiII ↔ NiIII redox reaction at E 1/2 = +0.295 V (vs Ag/AgCl) in methanol solution. In a thin film with a free surface, complex (I) shows a fast photoelectric response upon exposure to visible light with a maximum photovoltage of ∼178 mV.

2022 ◽  
Quang H Luu ◽  
Junqi Li

Advances in site-selective functionalization reactions have enabled single atom changes on the periphery of a complex molecule, but reaction manifolds that enable such changes on the core framework of the...

Amino Acids ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vebjørn Martinsen ◽  
Petri Kursula

AbstractMyelin basic protein (MBP) is an abundant protein in central nervous system (CNS) myelin. MBP has long been studied as a factor in the pathogenesis of the autoimmune neurodegenerative disease multiple sclerosis (MS). MS is characterized by CNS inflammation, demyelination, and axonal loss. One of the main theories on the pathogenesis of MS suggests that exposure to foreign antigens causes the activation of cross-reactive T cells in genetically susceptible individuals, with MBP being a possible autoantigen. While a direct role for MBP as a primary antigen in human MS is unclear, it is clear that MBP and its functions in myelin formation and long-term maintenance are linked to MS. This review looks at some key molecular characteristics of MBP and its relevance to MS, as well as the mechanisms of possible molecular mimicry between MBP and some viral antigens. We also discuss the use of serum anti-myelin antibodies as biomarkers for disease. MBP is a prime example of an apparently simple, but in fact biochemically and structurally complex molecule, which is closely linked to both normal nervous system development and neurodegenerative disease.

Synthesis ◽  
2021 ◽  
Yuri Katayama ◽  
Harunobu Mitsunuma ◽  
Motomu Kanai

Organochromium(III) species are versatile nucleophiles in complex molecule synthesis due to their high functional group tolerance and chemoselectivity for aldehydes. Traditionally, carbonyl addition reactions of organochromium(III) species were performed through reduction of organohalides either using stoichiometric chromium(II) salts or catalytic chromium salts in the presence of stoichiometric reductants (such as manganese(0)). Recently, alternative methods emerged involving organoradical formation from readily available starting materials (e.g. N-hydroxyphthalimide esters, alkenes, and alkanes), followed by trapping the radical with stoichiometric or catalytic chromium(II) salts. Such methods, especially using catalytic chromium(II) salts, will lead to the development of sustainable chemical processes minimizing salt wastes and number of synthetic steps. In this review, we describe methods for generation of organochromium(III) species for addition reactions to carbonyl compounds, classified by nucleophiles.

2021 ◽  
Yuanyuan Zhong ◽  
Lingli Hu ◽  
Wenjing Chen ◽  
Bin Wang ◽  
Jingcheng Dong ◽  

Abstract Backgrounds. Asthma and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are common chronic diseases of the respiratory system in clinical practice. However, the relationship and molecular links between them remain unclear, and the current treatment's efficacy is disappointing. Bu-Shen-Yi-Qi (BSYQ) decoction has clinically proved to be effective in treating various chronic airway inflammatory diseases, including asthma and IPF. But the underlying pharmacological mechanisms are still to be elucidated. Methods. This study searched the proteins related to asthma and IPF via TTD, CTD, and DisGeNET database. We then submitted them to the STRING database to establish the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. The co-bioinformatics analysis was conducted by Metascape. The active ingredients of BSYQ decoction were screened from TCMSP,ETCM,BATMAN-TCM database and HPLC/MS experiment. Then we predicted the corresponding targets based on TCMSP,ETCM, and BATMAN-TCM database. The common targets for asthma and IPF treatment were recognized, and further GO and KEGG analyses were conducted with the DAVID platform. Finally, molecule docking via Autodock Vina was employed to predict the potential binding mode between core potential compounds and targets.Results. One thousand three hundred thirty-three asthma-related targets and 404 IPF-related proteins were retrieved, 120 were overlapped between them, and much of the asthma-related proteins fall into the same statistically significant GO terms with IPF. One hundred sixteen active ingredients of BSYQ decoction were acquired, and 1535 corresponding targets were retrieved. Eighty-three potential compounds and 56 potential targets were recognized for both asthma and IPF treatment. GO and KEGG analysis indicated that the inflammation response, cytokine production, leukocyte differentiation, oxygen level response, etc., were the common pathological processes in asthma and IPF, which were regulated by BSYQ decoction. Molecule docking further predicted the potential binding modes between the core potential compounds and targets.Conclusion. The current study successfully clarified the complex molecule links between asthma and IPF and found the potential common targets between them. Then we demonstrated the efficacy of BSYQ decoction for asthma and IPF treatment from the angle of network pharmacology, which may provide valuable references for further studies and clinical use.

2021 ◽  
Vol 08 ◽  
Yogesh B. Wagh ◽  
Dipak S. Dalal

Background: Microwave-assisted domino cyclization reactions have attracted great interest for researchers to synthesize complex compounds in shorter times with increase yields. The domino reactions were used in various synthetic approaches and many drug deliveries in medicinal chemistry with microwave assisted approach. Methods: Microwave irradiation has been applied for the various domino reactions. The research related to microwave assisted domino cyclization was reviewed and the important methodologies are collected from 2011-2021. Results: Only those methodologies that involve microwave-assisted domino cyclization reactions during synthesis in a related manner have been reviewed. Along with some recent syntheses that are microwave-assisted regarding new heterocyclic moieties are summarized. Conclusion: Microwave-assisted domino cyclization reactions can be employed to quickly explore and increase molecular diversity in synthetic chemistry. We hope that this review will be helpful to find out complex molecule synthesis by microwave-assisted domino cyclization reactions. This review aimed to explain the applications of microwaves for the domino reactions from 2011-2021. In this respect, the microwave mediated methods help researchers to make helpful studies.

Antioxidants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (10) ◽  
pp. 1536
Christopher A. Adin

There is strong evidence that serum free bilirubin concentration has significant effects on morbidity and mortality in the most significant health conditions of our times, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity/metabolic syndrome. Supplementation of bilirubin in animal and experimental models has reproduced these protective effects, but several factors have slowed the application bilirubin as a therapeutic agent in human patients. Bilirubin is poorly soluble in water, and is a complex molecule that is difficult to synthesize. Current sources of this molecule are animal-derived, creating concerns regarding the risk of virus or prion transmission. However, recent developments in nanoparticle drug delivery, biosynthetic strategies, and drug synthesis have opened new avenues for applying bilirubin as a pharmaceutical agent. This article reviews the chemistry and physiology of bilirubin, potential clinical applications and summarizes current strategies for safe and efficient drug delivery.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (8) ◽  
pp. e1009308
Vincent Rocher ◽  
Matthieu Genais ◽  
Elissar Nassereddine ◽  
Raphael Mourad

DNA is a complex molecule carrying the instructions an organism needs to develop, live and reproduce. In 1953, Watson and Crick discovered that DNA is composed of two chains forming a double-helix. Later on, other structures of DNA were discovered and shown to play important roles in the cell, in particular G-quadruplex (G4). Following genome sequencing, several bioinformatic algorithms were developed to map G4s in vitro based on a canonical sequence motif, G-richness and G-skewness or alternatively sequence features including k-mers, and more recently machine/deep learning. Recently, new sequencing techniques were developed to map G4s in vitro (G4-seq) and G4s in vivo (G4 ChIP-seq) at few hundred base resolution. Here, we propose a novel convolutional neural network (DeepG4) to map cell-type specific active G4 regions (e.g. regions within which G4s form both in vitro and in vivo). DeepG4 is very accurate to predict active G4 regions in different cell types. Moreover, DeepG4 identifies key DNA motifs that are predictive of G4 region activity. We found that such motifs do not follow a very flexible sequence pattern as current algorithms seek for. Instead, active G4 regions are determined by numerous specific motifs. Moreover, among those motifs, we identified known transcription factors (TFs) which could play important roles in G4 activity by contributing either directly to G4 structures themselves or indirectly by participating in G4 formation in the vicinity. In addition, we used DeepG4 to predict active G4 regions in a large number of tissues and cancers, thereby providing a comprehensive resource for researchers. Availability:

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Alina Minias ◽  
Filip Gąsior ◽  
Anna Brzostek ◽  
Tomasz Jagielski ◽  
Jarosław Dziadek

AbstractCobalamin (vitamin B12) is a structurally complex molecule that acts as a cofactor for enzymes and regulates gene expression through so-called riboswitches. The existing literature on the vitamin B12 synthesis capacity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is ambiguous, while in non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is rather marginal. Here we present the results of our investigation into the occurrence of vitamin B12 in mycobacteria. For detection purposes, immunoassay methods were applied to cell lysates of NTM and M. tuberculosis clinical and laboratory strains grown under different conditions. We show that whereas vitamin B12 is present in cells of various NTM species, it cannot be evidenced in strains of differently cultured M. tuberculosis, even though the genes responsible for vitamin B12 synthesis are actively expressed based on RNA-Seq data. In summary, we conclude that the production of vitamin B12 does occur in mycobacteria, with the likely exception of M. tuberculosis. Our results provide direct evidence of vitamin B12 synthesis in a clinically important group of bacteria.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
S. Leontica ◽  
F. Tennie ◽  
T. Farrow

AbstractSimulating the behaviour of complex quantum systems is impossible on classical supercomputers due to the exponential scaling of the number of quantum states with the number of particles in the simulated system. Quantum computers aim to break through this limit by using one quantum system to simulate another quantum system. Although in their infancy, they are a promising tool for applied fields seeking to simulate quantum interactions in complex atomic and molecular structures. Here, we show an efficient technique for transpiling the unitary evolution of quantum systems into the language of universal quantum computation using the IBM quantum computer and show that it is a viable tool for compiling near-term quantum simulation algorithms. We develop code that decomposes arbitrary 3-qubit gates and implement it in a quantum simulation first for a linear ordered chain to highlight the generality of the approach, and second, for a complex molecule. We choose the Fenna-Matthews-Olsen (FMO) photosynthetic protein because it has a well characterised Hamiltonian and presents a complex dissipative system coupled to a noisy environment that helps to improve the efficiency of energy transport. The method can be implemented in a broad range of molecular and other simulation settings.

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