blending method
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2022 ◽  
Yasir Qayyum Gill ◽  
Hira Ehsan ◽  
Umer Mehmood ◽  
Muhammad Shafiq Irfan ◽  
Farhan Saeed

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Tao Wang ◽  
Yuxin Han ◽  
Liying Lin ◽  
Changlu Yu ◽  
Rong Lv ◽  

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that using some post-processing methods, such as nonlinear-blending and linear blending techniques, has potential to improve dual-energy computed (DECT) image quality. OBJECTIVE: To improve DECT image quality of hepatic portal venography (CTPV) using a new non-linear blending method with computer-determined parameters, and to compare the results to additional linear and non-linear blending techniques. METHODS: DECT images of 60 patients who were clinically diagnosed with liver cirrhosis were selected and studied. Dual-energy scanning (80 kVp and Sn140 kVp) of CTPV was utilized in the portal venous phase through a dual-source CT scanner. For image processing, four protocols were utilized including linear blending with a weighing factor of 0.3 (protocol A) and 1.0 (protocol B), non-linear blending with fixed blending width of 200 HU and set blending center of 150HU (protocol C), and computer-based blending (protocol D). Several image quality indicators, including signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and contrast of hepatic portal vein and hepatic parenchyma, were evaluated using the paired-sample t-test. A 5-grade scale scoring system was also utilized for subjective analysis. RESULTS: SNR of protocols A-D were 9.1±2.1, 12.1±3.0, 11.6±2.8 and 14.4±3.2, respectively. CNR of protocols A-D were 4.6±1.3, 8.0±2.3, 7.0±2.0 and 9.8±2.4, respectively. The contrast of protocols A-D were 37.7±11.6, 91.9±21.0, 66.2±19.0 and 107.7±21.3, respectively. The differences between protocol D and other three protocols were significant (P <  0.01). In subjective evaluation, the modes of protocols A, B, C, and D were rated poor, good, generally acceptable, and excellent, respectively. CONCLUSION: The non-linear blending technique of protocol D with computer-determined blending parameters can help improve imaging quality of CTPV and contribute to a diagnosis of liver disease.

OCL ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 29 ◽  
pp. 5
Meriem Tekaya ◽  
Mguidich Belhaj Amel ◽  
Beligh Mechri ◽  
Mohamed Ayadi ◽  
Manel Ben Slamia Aouina ◽  

Blends of olive oils obtained from four cultivars (Olea europaea L. cv. Chemlali, Chetoui, Oueslati and Koroneiki) were produced by two different methods of blending: processing fruit mixtures or mixing monovarietal oils, using the same proportions of selected cultivars. The obtained blends were biochemically characterized to evaluate quality, and the two methods were compared. The results indicated that the most successful formulations are mainly F8 (60% Chemlali × 20% Oueslati × 20% Koroneiki) characterized by the highest contents of phenols and an elevated oxidative stability, and F5 (50% Chemlali × 50% Koroneiki) containing the highest MUFA level and the highest oxidative stability. The effect of the blending process on pigments and volatiles cannot be easily regulated, unlike phenols, fatty acid composition and OS, all of which positively correlated to the fruit mass ratio in the blend. Results suggest that processing fruit mixtures of different cultivars resulted in a better oil quality than that of oils obtained by the common oil blending method. This blending procedure offers a possibility to modulate the contents of antioxidants, fatty acids and volatile compounds in virgin olive oil, and therefore, its quality and sensorial characteristics.

2022 ◽  
Vol 1217 (1) ◽  
pp. 012003
Y Y Farm ◽  
A A A Mohammad Sappa ◽  
Z Mustafa ◽  
W K Muzammil ◽  
M A Ismail ◽  

Abstract This study investigated the effect of thermal treated eggshells powder on the mechanical properties of recycled high-density polyethylene (r-HDPE) composite. Thermal treated eggshellspowder, which was labelled as carbonised eggshells powder (CESP), was prepared at a low pyrolysis temperature of 400°C for one hour. The mechanical performance of the polymer composite reinforced with CESP was compared with the untreated dried raw eggshells powder (ESP) reinforced polymer composite. Each composite sample was prepared with a weight ratio of r-HDPE/filler varied at 90/10, 80/20, and 70/30. The polymer composite was prepared through a melt blending method in an internal mixture at 175° at 32 RPM mixing rate. The composite samples were tested flexural analysis, while structure and morphology were characterised using Fourier Infrared Transformer (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Based on the finding, the interfacial adhesion of the composite between filler and matrix has improved with ESP and CESP, respectively. The composite with CESP filler at 70/30 shows the optimum flexural strength and modulus of 32.21 MPa and 2.06 GPa, respectively. Overall, the introduction of CESP offers a better performance in improving the mechanical properties of the composite as compared to ESP.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Jiale Qu ◽  
Shen Gao ◽  
Zhenghao Hou

Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) is a promising membrane material in ultrafiltration (UF) applications; its extensive application however is limited due to the disadvantage in hydrophilicity and low surface energy. Herein, a sort of TPU-modified PVDF membrane is prepared by blending method and its hydrophilicity is compared with a series of pure/modified PVDF membranes. The contact angle and pure water flux (PWF) results demonstrate that the hydrophilicity of the TPU-modified PVDF membrane is enhanced, and the performance is not inferior to that of traditional pore-modified PVDF membranes. SEM image shows that the TPU-modified PVDF membrane maintains morphology of the pure PVDF membrane, indicating that TPU molecules have excellent compatibility with PVDF molecules and can maintain the mechanical property of PVDF membrane to a certain extent. Finally, we explore the effects of TPU molecules and PVDF molecules on water molecules, respectively, from a microscopic perspective involving first principles. This investigation not only establishes that PVDF membrane has been prepared with enhanced hydrophilicity, but also provides a novel avenue for the modification of membrane properties.

Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 36
Tiefeng Zhang ◽  
Chunfeng Wang ◽  
Yongliang Wang ◽  
Lijun Qian ◽  
Zhidong Han

A polymer ceramic precursor material—polycarbosilane (PCS)—was used as a synergistic additive with magnesium hydroxide (MH) in flame-retardant ethylene–vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) composites via the melt-blending method. The flame-retardant properties of EVA/MH/PCS were evaluated by the limiting oxygen index (LOI) and a cone calorimeter (CONE). The results revealed a dramatic synergistic effect between PCS and MH, showing a 114% increase in the LOI value and a 46% decrease in the peak heat release rate (pHRR) with the addition of 2 wt.% PCS to the EVA/MH composite. Further study of the residual char by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) proved that a cohesive and compact char formed due to the ceramization of PCS and close packing of spherical magnesium oxide particles. Thermogravimetric analysis coupled with Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry (TG–FTIR) and pyrolysis–gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (Py–GC/MS) were applied to investigate the flame-retardant mechanism of EVA/MH/PCS. The synergistic effect between PCS and MH exerted an impact on the thermal degradation products of EVA/MH/PCS, and acetic products were inhibited in the gas phase.

2021 ◽  
Vol 927 (1) ◽  
pp. 012041
Aisyah ◽  
Pungky Ayu Artiani ◽  
Jaka Rachmadetin

Abstract Molybdenum-99 (99Mo) is a parent radioisotope of Technetium-99m (99mTc) widely used in nuclear diagnostics. The production of this radioisotope by PT. INUKI generated radioactive fission waste (RFW) that theoretically contains239Pu and235U, posing a nuclear proliferation risk. This paper discusses the determination of radionuclides inventory in the RFW and the proposed strategy for its management. The radionuclides inventory in the RFW was calculated using ORIGEN 2.1 code. The input parameters were obtained from one batch of 99Mo production using high enriched uranium in PT. INUKI. The result showed that the RFW contained activation products, actinides, and fission products, including239Pu and235U. This result was then used for consideration of the management of the RFW. The concentration of 235U was reduced by a down-blending method. The proposed strategy to further manage the down-blended RFW was converting it to U3O8 solid form, placed in a canister, and eventually stored in the interim storage for high-level waste located in The Radioactive Waste Technology Center.

Solar Energy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 230 ◽  
pp. 355-364
Xiankai Quan ◽  
Yinfei Du ◽  
Cong Ma ◽  
Wenhua Guo ◽  
Pusheng Liu ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 904 ◽  
pp. 207-212
Atiwat Wiriya-Amornchai ◽  
Prathumrat Nu-Yang ◽  
Phawarisa Raksawong ◽  
Phonlakrit Salakkham ◽  
Supakrid Katib ◽  

In this paper, the composites between polylactic acid (PLA) and eggshell powder (ESP) from the chicken shell were prepared by melt blending method in the internal mixer and then injection molded to produce the bio-composite specimen. The effect of the ESP concentration in the composites was investigated on the mechanical and thermal behaviors. The results indicated that the tensile strength and elongation decreased with increased ESP loading. Furthermore, the impact strength was not altered for PLA filled system with 10-30% of ESP. At the 10%wt of ESP in the PLA-composites was not significantly different of the onset (Tonset) and maximum degradation temperature (Td) from neat PLA but at higher ESP loading, Tonset and Td tend to decrease, therefore ESP could be able to accelerate degradation in the composites. The cold crystallization (Tcc) showed decreasing when the ESP was incorporate about 10-30 %wt. Otherwise, the incorporation of ESP affected on the declination of crystallinity in the PLA composites. The morphology, size and elements were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with an energy dispersive X-ray system (EDX). It was indicated that agglomeration of ESP in the PLA matrix.

2021 ◽  
li li jiang ◽  
Su Xu ◽  
Haitao Yu ◽  
Qi Cui ◽  
Rui Cao

Abstract In this study, graphene oxide (GO) was first prepared by the modified Hummer method. Then, the GO/trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCCA) composite was prepared by loading TCCA into GO with the blending method. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to characterize the composite. The results showed that TCCA was successfully loaded on the surface of GO or intercalated among GO layers. Next, the antibacterial performance of the composite against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was tested by the 96-well plate assay. A bactericidal kinetic curve, bacterial inhibition tests, and the mechanism of bacterial inhibition is discussed. The results showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration of the GO/TCCA composite (GO:TCCA ratio = 1:50) was 327.5 µg/mL against E. coli and 655 µg/mL against S. aureus. At the minimum inhibitory concentration, the inhibition rate of the GO/TCCA composite exceeded 99.46% against E. coli and 99.17% against S. aureus. The bactericidal kinetic curves indicate that the GO/TCCA composite has an excellent bactericidal effect against E. coli and S. aureus.

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