parallel direction
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Parmo Parmo ◽  
Jean-Luc Hanus ◽  
Naima Belayachi ◽  
Patrice Bailly

The aim of this study was to determine the compressive mechanical properties and the energy absorption characteristics of a bio-composite material based on lime, wheat straw, and additives (protein and entraining agent). The selected samples with fiber to binder ratio of 30% were subjected to compression tests at different strain rates (1 mm/min, 10 mm/min, and 100 mm/min), in the perpendicular and parallel directions to fiber orientation. Image analysis supported with Digital Image Correlation (DIC) method is performed to follow longitudinal and lateral deformations, thus making it possible to evaluate elastic properties. The results show that the highest density and compressive strength in the parallel direction are ~349 kg/m3 and ~0.101 MPa, respectively. The perpendicular specimens at 100 mm/min of speed test showed the highest values of densification strain, stress plateau, energy efficiency, and absorbed-energy of 47.27%, 0.32 MPa, 16.98 %, and 13.84 kJ/m2, respectively. The values of Young’s modulus identified with DIC are significantly different from those determined by the slope of the linear part of the stress-strain curve. A slight influence of strain rate on mechanical properties is observed.

Lubricants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 7
Parikshit Tonge ◽  
Amit Roy ◽  
Payank Patel ◽  
Charles J. Beall ◽  
Pantcho Stoyanov

Solid lubricants, such as MoS2 have been widely used in the aerospace industry with the primary purpose of reducing the friction and wear of tribological interfaces. MoS2 based solid film lubricants are generally doped with other compounds, which can help overcome some of their limitations related to environmental conditions. For instance, compounds like Sb2O3 and Pb have been traditionally used to improve the endurance life of these lubricants. However, with the recent zest in transferring to eco-friendly lubricants, there is a strong push to eliminate Pb based compounds. The main purpose of this work is to better understand the influence of Pb based compounds on the tribological behavior of MoS2 based solid film lubricants as well as to critically evaluate the performance of Pb free lubrication strategies. More specifically, the baseline ‘non-green’ lubricant was doped with Pb compound and Sb2O3 and the Pb compound in the ‘Green’ alternative lubricant was replaced by more Sb2O3. The wear test was done using a ball-on-disk tribometer for specific loads and for 5000 cycles. Ex-situ analysis was conducted using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), and micro-Raman to capture the interfacial processes of these lubricants at different loads. Overall, the non-green lubricant performed better in terms of the tribological behavior (i.e., lower friction and wear), which was attributed to the formation of a dense MoS2-based tribo-/transfer-film with the basal planes oriented in the parallel direction to the sliding. The finding on the interfacial phenomena provided critical insights into the development of novel green alternatives that may have the ability to replace Pb based compounds in the future for a sustainable environment.

Chunhong Yan ◽  
John S. Sack

The X-ray crystal structure of a human cardiac muscle troponin C/troponin I chimera has been determined in two different crystal forms and shows a conformation of the complex that differs from that previously observed by NMR. The chimera consists of the N-terminal domain of troponin C (cTnC; residues 1–80) fused to the switch region of troponin I (cTnI; residues 138–162). In both crystal forms, the cTnI residues form a six-turn α-helix that lays across the hydrophobic groove of an adjacent cTnC molecule in the crystal structure. In contrast to previous models, the cTnI helix runs in a parallel direction relative to the cTnC groove and completely blocks the calcium desensitizer binding site of the cTnC–cTnI interface.

2021 ◽  
Xiaobo Wang ◽  
Chaosheng Song ◽  
Lulu Li ◽  
Feng Jiao

Abstract Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) is a new type of composite material that is widely used in the aviation field, the influence mechanism of fiber cutting angle on cutting force is analyzed, a theoretical model of ultrasonic assisted cutting force for CFRP is established, ultrasonic assisted longitudinal-torsional cutting experiments of CFRP disc are carried out, and compared with normal cutting process. According to the experimental results, the radar map of the cutting force along the circumference of CFRP unidirectional laminates is established, which show that the cutting force can be reduced by ultrasonic assisted cutting compared with ordinary cutting. Under the three cutting modes, the fiber cutting angle has a great influence on the tangential force, and the radial force of the same fiber cutting angle is less than the tangential force, the maximum radial force appeared near the fiber cutting angle of 120°, while the minimum tangential force and the minimum radial force both appear near the parallel direction cutting at 0°. The research results can be used for reference in the processing of CFRP and other composite materials.

2021 ◽  
Vol 933 ◽  
Yongyun Hwang ◽  
Nicholas Hutchins ◽  
Ivan Marusic

The logarithmic dependence of streamwise turbulence intensity has been observed repeatedly in recent experimental and direct numerical simulation data. However, its spectral counterpart, a well-developed $k^{-1}$ spectrum ( $k$ is the spatial wavenumber in a wall-parallel direction), has not been convincingly observed from the same data. In the present study, we revisit the spectrum-based attached eddy model of Perry and co-workers, who proposed the emergence of a $k^{-1}$ spectrum in the inviscid limit, for small but finite $z/\delta$ and for finite Reynolds numbers ( $z$ is the wall-normal coordinate, and $\delta$ is the outer length scale). In the upper logarithmic layer (or inertial sublayer), a reexamination reveals that the intensity of the spectrum must vary with the wall-normal location at order of $z/\delta$ , consistent with the early observation argued with ‘incomplete similarity’. The streamwise turbulence intensity is subsequently calculated, demonstrating that the existence of a well-developed $k^{-1}$ spectrum is not a necessary condition for the approximate logarithmic wall-normal dependence of turbulence intensity – a more general condition is the existence of a premultiplied power-spectral intensity of $O(1)$ for $O(1/\delta ) < k < O(1/z)$ . Furthermore, it is shown that the Townsend–Perry constant must be weakly dependent on the Reynolds number. Finally, the analysis is semi-empirically extended to the lower logarithmic layer (or mesolayer), and a near-wall correction for the turbulence intensity is subsequently proposed. All the predictions of the proposed model and the related analyses/assumptions are validated with high-fidelity experimental data (Samie et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 851, 2018, pp. 391–415).

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 27-30
Noor Sharina Azrin Zakari ◽  
Julie Juliewatty Mohamed ◽  
Nurul Basyirah Aryani Abdul Rahman ◽  
Slina Anjang Ab Rahman ◽  
Zairul Amin Rabidin

Utilization of sandwich composite during recent year has been driven by the fact that compositematerial has ultimately high strength and stiffness by weight than any other materials. The skins ofsandwich composites technically bear most of the applied loads, however, the core materials alsoplay an important role as it functions in providing continuous support to resist the shear stress.Hence, proper selection of core materials is required to establish a sturdy sandwich compositestructure. This paper presents an experimental investigation on the sandwich structure consists offibreglass/epoxy face skins and a mahang wood core. Sandwich composite with core grain orientedin parallel and perpendicular to the flat plane direction were tested for mechanical performance intension, compression and flexure. The results indicate that sandwich composite with grain orientedin parallel direction performed better in tensile properties with strength of 201.98 MPa whereassandwich composite with perpendicular core grain produced a higher value of compressionproperties with strength of 70.11 MPa. However, no significant effect of grain orientation wasobserved in flexural strength. The strength of sandwich composite is dependent on the grainalignment of the wood core as it functions exclusively as mechanical supporting cells to supportthe wood structure.

BioResources ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (4) ◽  
pp. 6791-6798
Vedat Çavuş

Mulberry wood is used in carpentry, fences, turnery, and garden architecture. In this study, various mechanical properties (modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, Janka hardness, and screw holding resistance) of mulberry (Morus alba) wood and its weathering performance after applying 3- and 5-layer UV system parquet varnishes with different surface applications were investigated. The varnished materials were aged using UV lamps for 252 h and 504 h, and the aged specimens were compared with non-aged specimens. The results of the variance analyses found that all tests were significant. According to the results, it was found that while the yellow color (b*) tone value, lightness, and glossiness (perpendicular (⊥) and parallel (║) direction at 20°, 60°, and 85° angles) values decreased for both varnish applications, the pendulum hardness value increased. The adhesion strength (pull-off) test (MPa) to the surface first decreased and then increased.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (16) ◽  
pp. 4629
Przemysław Brzyski ◽  
Piotr Gleń ◽  
Mateusz Gładecki ◽  
Monika Rumińska ◽  
Zbigniew Suchorab ◽  

The aim of the research presented in the article was to check the differences in the hygro-thermal and mechanical properties of hemp-lime composites with different shives fractions, depending on the direction of mixture compaction. The research part of the paper presents the preparation method and investigation on the composites. Thermal conductivity, capillary uptake, as well as flexural and compressive strengths were examined. Additionally, an analysis of the temperature distribution in the external wall insulated with the tested composites was performed. The results confirm that the direction of compaction influences the individual properties of the composites in a similar way, depending on the size of the shives. The differences are more pronounced in the case of the composite containing longer fractions of shives. Both thermal conductivity of the material and the capillary uptake ability are lower in the parallel direction of the compaction process. Composites exhibit greater stiffness, but they fail faster with increasing loads when loaded in the direction perpendicular to compaction.

Water ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (16) ◽  
pp. 2224
Fujun Liu ◽  
Liu Yang ◽  
Hailiang Jia

Anisotropy in rock could significantly affect the stability and safety of rock engineering by differing physical and mechanical properties of rock in different directions. Another major factor for physical and mechanical properties of rock is moisture state, however, whether anisotropy can be altered by it remains unclear. This study investigated variation in anisotropy (by conduct-ing ultrasonic tests) with moisture state (measured by nuclear magnetic resonance) in layered sandstones, and interpreted the phenomenon from the perspective of linking dehydration with pore structure of rock. The results show that (1) sandstone with more obvious bedding bears stronger anisotropy, the P-wave velocity in the perpendicular direction is much lower than that in the parallel direction. (2) The anisotropy index fluctuates around 1 with dehydration of sandstone without obvious bedding, while the anisotropy in sandstone with obvious bedding was significantly enhanced be dehydration. (3) During dehydration bulk water escaped firstly then capillary water and bound water. (4) Dehydration is controlled by the bedding structure. The different dehydration rates of pore water in different directions inevitably lead to heterogeneity in moisture state that change the anisotropy of the rock, which is reflected by the non-synchronous changes in P-wave velocities in different directions.

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