costs of treatment
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (3) ◽  
pp. 0-0

Emergence of big data in today’s world leads to new challenges for sorting strategies to analyze the data in a better way. For most of the analyzing technique, sorting is considered as an implicit attribute of the technique used. The availability of huge data has changed the way data is analyzed across industries. Healthcare is one of the notable areas where data analytics is making big changes. An efficient analysis has the potential to reduce costs of treatment and improve the quality of life in general. Healthcare industries are collecting massive amounts of data and look for the best strategies to use these numbers. This research proposes a novel non-comparison based approach to sort a large data that can further be utilized by any big data analytical technique for various analyses.

2021 ◽  
Vol 33 (1) ◽  
pp. 40-43
Humayra Jesmin ◽  
Ahsan Aziz Sarkar ◽  
Helal Uddin Ahmed ◽  
Hasinatul Zannat

Background: Physical comorbidity is quite common in older adults. When psychiatric and medical conditions co-occur, the combination is associated with elevated symptom burden, functional impairment, decreased length and quality of life, and increased costs of treatment. To estimate the proportion and patterns of physical comorbidity in elderly psychiatric patients. Methods: A retrospective observational study was carried out in the Geriatric Clinic of National Institute of Mental Health and Hospital (NIMHH). Patient registry of the clinic was used to collect required information and 113 consecutive older adults with psychiatric disorders who attended the clinic in a three-month period, were enrolled for the study. Psychiatric diagnoses were made by psychiatrists, according to DSM-5 criteria. Medical diagnoses were made by specialist physicians by reviewing physicians’ prescriptions. Data analysis was done by using SPSS 23.0. Results: Most of the patients (58.4%) belonged to the 7th decade. Among 113 patients 90 (79.7%) had only psychiatric illness & 23 had (20.4%) comorbid physical disorders. Depressive disorders (30%) and dementia (22.1%) were the most common psychiatric reasons for consultation. Among the associated physical comorbidities hypertension (43.5%) and diabetes (34.8%) were the most commons. Conclusion: Co-occurrence of psychiatric and physical disorder conditions is very common in a clinical setting. Physical comorbidity may influence follow up consultation pattern. Bangladesh J Medicine July 2022; 33(1) : 40-43

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 149-159
Ana Vicovan

Abstract When a child is forced to begin treatment for a lifethreatening condition, both the child and his or her entire family are affected. The shock of diagnosis, the effects and the costs of treatment, can have powerful consequences on a number of levels, both immediate and long-term. Most people see the hospital as an environment that has nothing to do with creativity, imagination, or artistic activities in general. However, research shows increasing evidence that art can help cancer patients by giving them a safe space to express their emotions, relax, detach from worry and regain control. Both child patients and their parents and careers can enjoy the beneficial effects of theatre play. The approach to this social group must take into account the individual characteristics of each patient and be adapted to the emotional state of the people involved. The coordinator of these games will also fulfil to some extent a therapeutic function, and will therefore benefit from knowledge gained within other disciplines, such as psychology, but also other art forms that can be integrated and adapted according to the patient’s interests, in order to offer them a multifaceted and positive experience with therapeutic implications. In my experience working with children and adolescents in the onco-pediatric ward of the Oncology Institute in Bucharest, I have approached theatre games in pairs, puppet theatre, musical and rhythm exercises, with and without instruments. The data gathered from the observations made during these activities will contribute to the elaboration of a useful methodology for the actor coordinator of theatrical games in the hospital and to the drafting of a manual of theatrical games adapted to this unconventional environment.

Immunotherapy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Pankaj Ahluwalia ◽  
Ashis K Mondal ◽  
Nikhil S Sahajpal ◽  
Mumtaz V Rojiani ◽  
Ravindra Kolhe

Renal cancer is one of the deadliest urogenital diseases. In recent years, the advent of immunotherapy has led to significant improvement in the management of patients with renal cancer. Although cancer immunotherapy and its combinations had benefited numerous patients, several challenges need to be addressed. Apart from the high costs of treatment, the lack of predictive biomarkers and toxic side-effects have impeded its wider applicability. To address these issues, new biomarkers are required to predict responsiveness and design personalized treatment strategies. Recent advances in the field of single-cell sequencing and multi-dimensional spatial transcriptomics have identified clinically relevant subtypes of renal cancer. Furthermore, there is emerging potential for gene signatures based on immune cells, non-coding RNAs, and pathways such as metabolism and RNA modification. In this review article, we have discussed recent progress in the identification of gene signatures with predictive and prognostic potential in renal cancer.

Sanjana Naidu Gedela

Abstract: Over the last few years, there have been many significant improvements in the field of AI, machine learning, deep learning are being used in various industries and research. In order to train the deep learning models learning of parameters plays a major role, here the reduction of loss incurred during the training process is the main objective. In a supervised mode of learning, a model is given the data samples and their respective outcomes. When a model generates an output, it compares it with the desired output and then takes the difference of generated and desired outputs and then attempts to bring the generated output close to the desired output. This is achieved through optimization algorithms. Though many kinds of clinical methods have been employed to detect whether patients have heart disease or not by number of features from patients. but it’s still a challenging task due to the multitude of data elements involved. The motive of our project is to save human resources in medical centers and improve accuracy of diagnosis. In our project we used an RMS prop optimizer. The purpose is to decide how many hidden layers need to be selected and how many neurons need to be selected in each and every hidden layer by looking at the dataset and to give the application of deep learning to the health care sector so that we can minimize the costs of treatment and help in proactive actions. We want to show that we can increase the accuracy of the project by taking stability along with accuracy into consideration. Index Terms: RMS Prop, Machine Learning, Deep Learning, number of features, proactive actions

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (9) ◽  
pp. 388-395
Wojciech Wokurka ◽  
Agata Węgrzyniak ◽  
Iga Dudek ◽  
Piotr Piech

Introduction and purpose: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. There are many factors that increase the risk of its occurence. High costs of treatment, non-specific symptoms and high mortality of the disease determine the further search for new methods of treatment and diagnostics. The aim of the study is to determine the incidence of PE in patients after fracture of the proximal end of the humerus. Materials and methods: A literature search was conducted in the PubMed MEDLINE database of medical publications using the following keywords: pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, proximal humerus fracture. Results: Among the found articles, 4 original papers describing the problems of pulmonary embolism after fractures of the proximal end of the humerus were qualified for further analysis. The incidence of PE after this type of fracture is rare and ranges from 1.3% to 5.1%. Moreover, PE was not the cause of death of any patient in the analyzed literature. Conclusion: The need for further randomized controlled trials on a large group of patients operated with the same technique was demonstrated, including subgroups with and without antithrombotic chemoprophylaxis.

BMC Cancer ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Anupriya Agarwal ◽  
Ann Livingstone ◽  
Deme J. Karikios ◽  
Martin R. Stockler ◽  
Philip J. Beale ◽  

Abstract Background Optimising the care of individuals with cancer without imposing significant financial burden related to their anticancer treatment is becoming increasingly difficult. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has recommended clinicians discuss costs of cancer care with patients to enhance shared decision-making. We sought information to guide oncologists’ discussions with patients about these costs. Methods We searched Medline, EMBASE and clinical practice guideline databases from January 2009 to 1 June 2019 for recommendations about discussing the costs of care and financial burden. Guideline quality was assessed with the AGREE-II instrument. Results Twenty-seven guidelines met our eligibility criteria, including 16 from ASCO (59%). 21 of 27 (78%) guidelines included recommendations about discussion or consideration of treatment costs when prescribing, with information about actual costs in four (15%). Recognition of the risk of financial burden or financial toxicity was described in 81% (22/27) of guidelines. However, only nine guidelines (33%) included information about managing the financial burden. Conclusions Current clinical practice guidelines have little information to guide physician-patient discussions about costs of anticancer treatment and management of financial burden. This limits patients’ ability to control costs of treatment, and for the healthcare team to reduce the incidence and severity of financial burden. Current guidelines recommend clinician awareness of price variability and high costs of treatment. Clinicians are recommended to explore cost concerns and address financial worries, especially in high risk groups. Future guidelines should include advice on facilitating cost transparency discussions, with provision of cost information and resources.

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (2) ◽  
pp. 112-120
F.C. Thomas ◽  
O.O. Alarape ◽  
O.M. Oliwo ◽  
E. Omoshaba ◽  
O.E. Ojo ◽  

Mastitis, the inflammation of the mammary gland, is a major endemic disease affecting dairy production worldwide. Costs of treatment and control of mastitis contributes to major losses to the dairy industry especially if the condition is not promptly and accurately diagnosed, thus necessitating the engagement of regular and reliable means of recognising intra-mammary infections. Somatic cell counting, which has been recognized as a major standard for mastitis diagnosis in milk, was utilized in this study as a direct measure of intramammary inflammation (IMI), along with bacterial culture and isolation to establish the presence of mammary infections in cows from two nomadic herds. Milk from all four quarters (composite samples) of each of 100 cows at various stages of lactation, were obtained and subjected to Levowitz-Weber staining of duplicate smears and direct microscopic counting of somatic cells. Culture and isolation of sterile milk swabs and subsequent identification by morphology, gram staining and biochemical tests were employed to assess the presence of mastitis-causing pathogens in the samples. Using ≤100,000 cells/ml as cut off for non-mastitic milk, sub-clinical mastitis (SM), was determined in 70 (70%) of the examined samples. Contagious pathogens, namely; Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus species and others as well as environmental bacteria, E. coli and Enterococcus species amongst others, were isolated from the samples. This result circuitously indicates the level of losses to dairy production through poor milk quality and yield, costs of treatment and culling obtainable in the nomadic dairying venture. The need for routine evaluation of raw milk and other dairy products emanating from the itinerant pastoralists, using sensitive and reliable parameters to facilitate prompt diagnosis, targeted treatment and rapid control of cow to cow or herd to herd spread of IMI is highlighted in this study.

2021 ◽  
Aishatu L Adamu ◽  
Boniface Karia ◽  
Musa M Bello ◽  
Mahmoud G Jahun ◽  
Safiya Gambo ◽  

Background: Pneumococcal disease contributes significantly to childhood morbidity and mortality and treatment is costly. Nigeria recently introduced the Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV) to prevent pneumococcal disease. The aim of this study is to estimate health provider and household costs for the treatment of pneumococcal disease in children aged <5 years (U5s), and to assess the impact of these costs on household income. Methods: We recruited U5s with clinical pneumonia, pneumococcal meningitis or pneumococcal septicaemia from a tertiary and a secondary level hospital in Kano, Nigeria. We obtained resource utilisation data from medical records to estimate costs of treatment to provider, and household expenses and income loss data from caregiver interviews to estimate costs of treatment to households. We defined catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) as household costs exceeding 25% of monthly household income and estimated the proportion of households that experienced it. We compared CHE across tertiles of household income (from the poorest to least poor). Results: Of 480 participants recruited, 244 had outpatient pneumonia, and 236 were hospitalised with pneumonia (117), septicaemia (66) and meningitis (53). Median (IQR) provider costs were US$17 (US$14-22) for outpatients and US$272 (US$271-360) for inpatients. Median household cost was US$51 (US$40-69). Overall, 33% of households experienced CHE, while 53% and 4% of the poorest and least poor households, experienced CHE respectively. The odds of CHE increased with admission at the secondary hospital, a diagnosis of meningitis or septicaemia, higher provider costs, and caregiver having a non-salaried job. Conclusion: Provider costs are substantial, and households incur treatment expenses that considerably impact on their income and this is particularly so for the poorest households. Sustaining the PCV programme and ensuring high and equitable coverage to lower disease burden will reduce the economic burden of pneumococcal disease to the healthcare provider and households.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document