Alkaline Peroxide
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2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Agustin Krisna Wardani ◽  
Aji Sutrisno ◽  
Titik Nur Faida ◽  
Retno Dwi Yustina ◽  
Untung Murdiyatmo

Background. Oil palm trunk (OPT) with highly cellulose content is a valuable bioresource for bioethanol production. To produce ethanol from biomass, pretreatment is an essential step in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars such as glucose and xylose. Several pretreatment methods have been developed to overcome biomass recalcitrance. In this study, the effects of different pretreatment methods such as alkali pretreatment, microwave-alkali, and alkaline peroxide combined with autoclave on the lignocellulosic biomass structure were investigated. Moreover, ethanol production from the treated biomass was performed by simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF) under different temperatures, fermentation times, and cell ratios of Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCYC 479 and pentose-utilizing yeast, Pichia stipitis NCYC 1541. Results. Pretreatment resulted in a significant lignin removal up to 83.26% and cellulose released up to 80.74% in treated OPT by alkaline peroxide combined with autoclave method. Enzymatic hydrolysis of treated OPT resulted in an increase in fermentable sugar up to 93.22%. Optimization of SSCF by response surface method showed that the coculture could work together to produce maximum ethanol (1.89%) and fermentation efficiency (66.14%) under the optimized condition. Conclusion. Pretreatment by alkaline peroxide combined with autoclave method and SSCF process could be expected as a promising system for ethanol production from oil palm trunk and various lignocellulosic biomass.

Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (21) ◽  
pp. 3786
Sina Momeni ◽  
Muhammad Safder ◽  
Mohammad Abu Hasan Khondoker ◽  
Anastasia Leila Elias

Sourced from agricultural waste, hemp hurds are a low-cost renewable material with high stiffness; however, despite their potential to be used as low-cost filler in natural fiber reinforced polymer biocomposites, they are often discarded. In this study, the potential to add value to hemp hurds by incorporating them into poly(lactic acid) (PLA) biopolymer to form bio-based materials for packaging applications is investigated. However, as with many plant fibers, the inherent hydrophilicity of hemp hurds leads to inferior filler-matrix interfacial interactions, compromising the mechanical properties of the resulting biocomposites. In this study, two chemical treatments, alkaline (NaOH) and alkaline/peroxide (NaOH/H2O2) were employed to treat hemp hurds to improve their miscibility with poly(lactic acid) (PLA) for the formation of biocomposites. The effects of reinforcement content (5, 10, and 15 wt. %), chemical treatments (purely alkaline vs. alkaline/peroxide) and treatment cycles (1 and 3 cycles) on the mechanical and thermal properties of the biocomposites were investigated. The biocomposites of treated hemp hurd powder exhibited enhanced thermal stability in the temperature range commonly used to process PLA (130–180 °C). The biocomposites containing 15 wt. % hemp hurd powder prepared using a single-cycle alkaline/peroxide treatment (PLA/15APHH1) exhibited a Young’s modulus of 2674 MPa, which is 70% higher than that of neat PLA and 9.3% higher than that of biocomposites comprised of PLA containing the same wt. % of untreated hemp hurd powder (PLA/15UHH). Furthermore, the tensile strength of the PLA/15APHH1 biocomposite was found to be 62.6 MPa, which was 6.5% lower than that of neat PLA and 23% higher than that of the PLA/15UHH sample. The results suggest that the fabricated PLA/hemp hurd powder biocomposites have great potential to be utilized in green and sustainable packaging applications.

2021 ◽  
Dwini Normayulisa Putri ◽  
Meka Saima Perdani ◽  
Masafumi Yohda ◽  
Tania Surya Utami ◽  
Muhamad Sahlan ◽  

Abstract Enzymatic hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) that has been pretreated by modified pretreatment has been investigated in this study. The OPEFB used was pretreated by using sequential peracetic acid – alkaline peroxide solution. As the modification method, the assistance of pretreatment by ultrasound was conducted, in order to increase the enzyme accessibility. Therefore, it enhances the production of reducing sugar on the hydrolysis process. Prior to hydrolysis process, OPEFB was initially treated by using peracetic acid solution, comprise of CH3COOH (> 99%) and H2O2 (30% w/w), assisted by ultrasound for 3 hours at 35oC. Afterwards, OPEFB was treated by using alkaline peroxide solution, comprise of NaOH (40% w/w) and H2O2 (35% w/w), assisted by ultrasound for 10 hours at 35oC. OPEFB that has been pretreated was then subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis process using cellulase enzyme, in order to convert cellulose content into reducing sugar. Enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out at 50oC in a shaker incubator with 150 rpm for 48 hours. In this study, the effect of different enzyme concentration and hydrolysis time towards the sugar concentration in modified-pretreated OPEFB was observed and analyzed. Three different concentrations of enzyme were used, including 1.25, 2.5, and 5 g/L, and reducing sugar concentrations were analyzed at 30 and 45 minutes, and 1, 2, 4, 6, 24, 30, and 48 hours. Based on results, enzyme concentration has a significant effect to the production of reducing sugar. The reducing sugar concentrations obtained at the end of the hydrolysis process were 8.48, 11.06, 19.16 g/L, at the enzyme concentrations of 1.25, 2.5, and 5 g/L, respectively. At any hydrolysis time, the highest sugar concentration has been achieved on the highest enzyme concentration of 5 g/L. Moreover, the effective hydrolysis time were achieved at 6 hours, at all concentration of enzyme, since the production of reducing sugar were insignificant after 6 hours. This study showed an increase in reducing sugar production by 8.25% in the hydrolysis process using OPEFB pretreated by modified pretreatment compared to the non-modified pretreatment.

Beatriz Vieira dos Santos ◽  
Rodolfo Travaini ◽  
Ana Lorenzo-Hernando ◽  
Daniel Pasquini ◽  
Milla Alves Baffi

2021 ◽  
Vol 38 (1) ◽  
pp. 81-89
Augustine Omoniyi Ayeni ◽  
Oluranti Agboola ◽  
Michael Olawale Daramola ◽  
Bianca Grabner ◽  
Babalola Aisosa Oni ◽  

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