liver transaminases
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 117-123
Vivek Ahuja ◽  
Raghav Singhal ◽  
Paraag Kumar

Background: Liver diseases are a cause of worldwide morbidity .The course is usually long and has no signs before the development of late stage disease. The only indicative markers are liver enzymes, such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) during asymptomatic period. There is a paucity of data from our subcontinent regarding the prevalence, risk factors and etiology of asymptomatic chronically raised liver enzymes.The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence, risk factors and etiology associated with unexplained chronically raised liver transaminases in patients attending OPD in a tertiary care hospital.Methods:This was a prospective study conducted in the Department of Gastroenterology, MMIMSR, Mullana from July 2019-Dec 2020 in 50 patients who presented with chronically raised liver enzymes. Detailed comprehensive history, physical examination and investigation was done to identify etiology and risk factors associated with raised liver enzymes.Results:566 patients were screenedfor inclusion in the study. The prevalence of raised transaminases in asymptomatic patients was 9.4%. NAFLD was the most common etiology of raised liver transaminases, seen in 70 % of patients followed by Hepatitis C and Hepatitis B. Dyslipidemia was the most important risk factor associated with NAFLD.Conclusion:NAFLD should be kept in mind while dealing patients with unexplained transaminitis. Earlier detection could help halt the progression to chronic liver disease.

2021 ◽  
Nadia Roumeliotis ◽  
Eleanor Pullenayegum ◽  
Anna Taddio ◽  
Paula Rochon ◽  
Chris Parshuram

Abstract ObjectivesDrug-associated harm is common but difficult to detect in the hospital setting. In critically ill children, we sought to evaluate drug-associated hepatic injury following enteral acetaminophen error; defined as acetaminophen dosing that exceeds daily maximum recommendations.DesignRetrospective cohort study.SettingTwo pediatric intensive care units within a pediatric hospital center.PatientsChildren (<18 years of age) admitted to the pediatric and cardiac intensive care unit between January 2008 and January 2018, and receiving enteral acetaminophen. We defined acetaminophen dosing error as exceeding daily acetaminophen dosing by > 10% the upper limit of maximum recommended dose for weight and age (>82.5mg/kg/day or > 4400mg/day).Main ResultsWe included 14,146 admissions, who received 147,485 doses of acetaminophen. Acetaminophen dosing errors occurred 1 in every 9.5 patient-days on acetaminophen. ALT and AST decreased significantly over the course of ICU admission (p<0.0001). In patients with acetaminophen errors, ALT and AST measured in the 24 to 96 hours post error were not significantly different than when measured outside this window. A sensitivity analysis using >100 mg/kg/day as the upper daily acetaminophen error cut-off did not reveal any subsequent significant increase in ALT or ALT in the 24 to 96-hour post-error window, compared to measurements taken outside the window.ConclusionsAlthough the administration of acetaminophen in critically ill children frequently exceeds the daily recommended limit and vigilance is needed, we did not find any associated increase in liver transaminases following acetaminophen errors.

Biology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 1179
Andrea N. Johnston ◽  
Tifini L. Batts ◽  
Ingeborg M. Langohr ◽  
Cambri Moeller ◽  
Chin-Chi Liu ◽  

Preeclampsia (PE) is a multisystemic disease of pregnancy affecting 2–8% of women worldwide. PE-induced liver disease is a rare but important complication of pregnancy. The pathogenesis of liver dysfunction in PE is poorly understood, but is correlated with dysregulated angiogenic, inflammatory, and hypoxic events in the early phase of placental development. Because BPH/5 mice develop the maternal and fetal hallmarks of PE during pregnancy, we hypothesized that they may also share the clinicopathologic findings of the human PE-associated hemolysis elevated liver transaminases low platelets (HELLP) syndrome. Using this model, we determined that microangiopathic hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, and elevated liver enzymes do not occur in mid to late gestation. Pregnant BPH/5 mice do not develop histologic evidence of hepatic inflammation, but they do have increased microsteatosis scores at preconception and in mid to late gestation that progress to macrosteatosis in a subset of mice in late gestation. The transcriptional upregulation of TNF-α, CXCL-10, and TLR-2 occurs in mid gestation prior to the onset of macrosteatosis. The BPH/5 female mouse is not a model of HELLP syndrome, but may be a model of fatty liver disease associated with pregnancy.

PeerJ ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
pp. e12051
Daniel Melendez-Mena ◽  
Miguel Angel Mendoza-Torres ◽  
Virginia Sedeño-Monge ◽  
Víctor Hugo García y García ◽  
Elain Rivera-García ◽  

Background Direct Acting Antivirals (DAAs) represent a large improvement in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, resulting in <90% sustained virological response (SVR). There are no reports on the real-world DAA response for Mexico and few reports exist for Latin America. The aim of the study was to report SVR, and immediate benefits with the DAA treatments sofosbuvir, ledispavir, with/without ribavirin (SOF/LDV ± RBV) and ombitasvir, paritaprevir, ritonavir, dasabuvir with/without RBV (OBV/PTV/r/DSV ± RBV) in patients with viral genotype 1a or 1b, and who did not respond to previous peginterferon/ribavirin (PegIFNα2a+RBV) therapy. Methods A descriptive, ambispective, longitudinal study was conducted. A cohort of 261 adult patients received PegIFNα2a+RBV therapy before 2014; 167 (64%) did not respond, 83 of these were subsequently treated with SOF/LDV ± RBV or OBV/PTV/r/DSV ± RBV. Child-Pugh-Score (CPS), Fibrosis-4 (FIB-4), and AST to Platelet Ratio Index (APRI) were evaluated before and after treatment. Results SVR with PegIFNα2a+RBV was 36%, and 97.5% with DAAs. CPS, FIB-4 and APRI improved significantly after DAA treatment, mainly because of liver transaminase reduction. Conclusions DAA treatment showed excellent SVR rates in Mexican patients who had not responded to PegIFNα2a+RBV therapy. Improvement in CPS, FIB-4 and APRI without improvement in fibrosis was observed in cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients, as well as considerable reduction in liver transaminases, which suggests a reduction in hepatic necroinflammation.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Heba Shawky ◽  
Reem El-Shenawy ◽  
Naiera M. Helmy

This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of baseline macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1β/IL12p40 ratio for antiviral treatment outcome in HCV genotype 4 patients. METHODS: Sera of 450 treatment-naïve chronic HCV patients and 50 healthy individuals were collected. Liver transaminases, total bilirubin and albumin were biochemically tested, viral RNA was quantified, and circulating MIP-1β and IL-12p40 were estimated using human anti-MIP-1β and IL-12p40 antibodies in Sandwich ELISA. RESULTS : No difference was observed in the baseline chemokines levels between responders and relapsers, but the later had a significantly higher MIP-1β/IL-12p40 ratio (P< 0.0001). Multivariate regression analysis of baseline characteristics showed that gender, age, viral load, albumin level and chemokine ratios can significantly predict treatment outcome (P= 0.0114, 0.0095, 0.042, 0.0004 and < 0.0001; respectively). Accordingly, a predictive threshold of baseline chemokine ratio was calculated and it showed an AUC of 0.6917 (P= 0.0108; 95% CI: 0.5566 to 0.8268). The calculated threshold for predicting virologic response was 8.245, with positive and negative predictive values of 92.98% and 100%; respectively. The chemokine ratios had significant correlations with liver transaminases in treated groups whether pre or post-treatment. CONCLUSION: Baseline MIP-1β/IL-12p40 ratio represents a non-invasive prognostic biomarker that would provide shorter treatment duration and minimizes the emergence of drug-resistant variants in HCV genotype 4-patients.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-6
Asiphas Owaraganise ◽  
Richard Migisha ◽  
Wasswa G. M. Ssalongo ◽  
Leevan Tibaijuka ◽  
Musa Kayondo ◽  

Background. Preeclampsia is a priority obstetric emergency requiring urgent diagnosis and treatment to avert poor pregnancy outcomes. Nonproteinuric preeclampsia poses even greater diagnostic challenges due to contested diagnostic criteria by the clinical practice guidelines and variable clinical presentation. Previously, preeclampsia was only diagnosed if high blood pressure and proteinuria were present. This study determined the prevalence of nonproteinuric preeclampsia and associated factors among women admitted with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy at a referral hospital in southwestern Uganda. Methods. Women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were consecutively enrolled in a cross-sectional study at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital between November 2019 and May 2020. We interviewed all pregnant women ≥20 gestation weeks presenting with hypertension and obtained their sociodemographic, medical, and obstetric characteristics. We excluded women with chronic hypertension. We measured bedside dipstick proteinuria in clean-catch urine. Preeclampsia was defined as hypertension plus any feature of severity including <100,000 platelets/ul, creatinine >1.1 g/dl, and liver transaminases ≥twice upper normal limit with or without proteinuria. We defined nonproteinuric preeclampsia in participants with <+2 urine dipstick cut-off and determined the factors associated with nonproteinuric preeclampsia using logistic regression. Results. We enrolled 134 participants. The mean age was 26.9 (SD ± 7.1) years and 51.5% were primigravid. The prevalence of nonproteinuric preeclampsia was 24.6% (95% CI: 17.9–32.7). Primigravidity (aOR 2.70 95% CI: 1.09–6.72, p  = 0.032) was the factor independently associated with nonproteinuric preeclampsia. Conclusion. Nonproteinuric preeclampsia was common, especially among primigravidae. We recommend increased surveillance for nonproteinuric preeclampsia, especially among first-time pregnant women, who may not be detected by the traditional criteria. Obstetrics care providers should emphasize laboratory testing beyond proteinuria, among all women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy to optimally diagnose and manage nonproteinuric preeclampsia.

2021 ◽  
pp. e20210012
Yaqeen Abduallah ◽  
Safaa Azzouz ◽  
Kelita Singh ◽  
Marc Deschenes ◽  
Giada Sebastiani

A sinus of Valsalva aneurysm (SOVA) is a rare cardiac defect in which the aortic root area between the aortic annulus and the sinotubular junction is dilated. We present a case of acute liver failure (ALF) in a 21-year-old man secondary to ruptured SOVA inducing severe ischemic hepatitis. The patient presented clinically with classical ALF. The liver ultrasound reported hepatomegaly with pulsatile portal flow and dilated hepatic veins. A transthoracic echocardiogram revealed focal aneurysmal dilatation of the aortic root with flow across the aneurysm toward the right atrium and elevated right chambers pressures. The surgical repair of the non-coronary SOVA was successful, and post-operatively, liver transaminases improved, and ALF resolved. Given that ruptured SOVA can be surgically repaired, hepatologists should be aware of this diagnosis in a young patient with ALF.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Henrique Pott-Junior ◽  
Natália Queiroz Prado Bittencourt ◽  
Silvana F. G. Chacha ◽  
Rafael Luís Luporini ◽  
Marcia Regina Cominetti ◽  

Liver involvement in COVID-19 is not yet well-understood, but elevations in liver transaminases have been described to occur in 14–53% of the cases and are more frequently seen in severe disease. This cross-sectional study explored the relationship between the elevations in liver transaminases and inflammatory parameters in 209 adults with COVID-19. Demographic and clinical data, serum levels of inflammatory cytokines and liver aminotransferases were analyzed. Three groups were formed according to the liver transaminase abnormalities: (I) Normal transaminases, (II) Borderline transaminases elevation, and (III) Mild to severe transaminases elevation. Altered liver transaminases were directly related to disease severity, showing association with the NEWS2 score at admission and greater need for ICU or death. Moreover, higher levels of IL-2 and CRP were associated with borderline transaminases elevations, whereas higher levels of IL-10 and Neutrophil to Lymphocyte ratio were associated with mild to severe transaminases elevation. These results reinforce the importance of liver transaminases in patients with COVID-19 as a complementary marker for disease severity and also point to them as a parameter reflecting the continuous dynamics between viral infection and the immune response.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (6) ◽  
pp. e0250368
J. Morgan Freiman ◽  
Robin Fatch ◽  
Debbie Cheng ◽  
Nneka Emenyonu ◽  
Christine Ngabirano ◽  

Background Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) reduces tuberculosis reactivation and mortality among persons living with HIV (PLWH), yet hepatotoxicity concerns exclude “regular and heavy alcohol drinkers” from IPT. We aimed to determine the prevalence of elevated liver transaminases among PLWH on antiretroviral therapy (ART) who engage in alcohol use. Setting The Immune Suppression Syndrome Clinic of Mbarara, Uganda. Methods We defined elevated liver transaminases as ≥1.25 times (X) the upper limit of normal (ULN) for alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and/or aspartate aminotransferase (AST). We evaluated the associations of current alcohol use and other variables of interest (sex, body mass index, and ART regimen) with elevated transaminases at study screening, using multivariable logistic regression to obtain adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Among 1301 participants (53% female, median age 39 years, 67.4% current alcohol use), 18.8% (95% CI: 16.8–21.1) had elevated transaminases pre-IPT, with few (1.1%) severe (≥5X the ULN). The proportion with any elevation among those currently using alcohol and those abstaining was 22.3% and 11.6%, respectively (p<0.01). In multivariable analyses, those currently using alcohol had higher odds of elevated transaminases compared to those abstaining (aOR 1.65, 95% CI 1.15–2.37) as did males compared to females (aOR 2.68, 95% CI 1.90–3.78). Conclusions Pre-IPT elevated transaminases among PLWH receiving ART were common, similar to prior estimates, but severe elevations were rare. Current drinking and male sex were independently associated with elevated transaminases. Further research is needed to determine the implications of such transaminase elevations and alcohol use on providing IPT.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (5) ◽  
pp. 193-201
Gayatri Chandrashekhar Gawade ◽  
Geeta Shripad Wadadekar ◽  
Meghana Khandu Padwal

Background: Polycystic Ovary Disease Syndrome (PCOS) and NAFLD are interlinked with the common culprit i.e. Insulin resistance (IR). The triglyceride and glucose index (TyG) has been recommended as a reliable and simple surrogate index for IR. So we evaluated TyG index, TyG–BMI index as a marker of IR and its correlation with liver transaminases (ALT, AST) to detect NAFLD in women with PCOS. Aim and Objectives: Correlation of TyG index and TyG-BMI index and liver transaminases (ALT, AST) in study groups. Materials and methods: A prospective study was done on 25 participants (14 controls and 11cases of PCOS according to Rotterdam’s criteria). The TG, FBG, ALT and AST were analyzed on autoanlyzers. TyG -BMI index was calculated by the formula and correlation was done. Result: The ROC Curve showed the optimal cut off value for TyG index as 4.55 and TyG –BMI index in PCOS as 104.76. The positive linear regression was 2.55 for TyG index indicating that test was associated with IR. TyG index has shown the better performance as compared to TyG BMI index. No significant correlation was found between TyG index, TyG BMI index and transaminases. Conclusion: TG and FBG are inexpensive and routinely performed investigations. TyG index which can be easily calculated makes it the first choice screening alternative to detect risk of IR in PCOS women. Keywords: PCOS, TyG -BMI index, Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, liver transaminases

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