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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yichi Zhang ◽  
Haige Zhao ◽  
Qun Su ◽  
Cuili Wang ◽  
Hongjun Chen ◽  
...  

Introduction:Acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery is independently associated with a prolonged hospital stay, increased cost of care, and increased post-operative mortality. Delayed elevation of serum creatinine (SCr) levels requires novel biomarkers to provide a prediction of AKI after cardiac surgery. Our objective was to find a novel blood biomarkers combination to construct a model for predicting AKI after cardiac surgery and risk stratification.Methods:This was a case-control study. Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) was applied to Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) dataset GSE30718 to seek potential biomarkers associated with AKI. We measured biomarker levels in venous blood samples of 67 patients with AKI after cardiac surgery and 59 control patients in two cohorts. Clinical data were collected. We developed a multi-biomarker model for predicting cardiac-surgery-associated AKI and compared it with a traditional clinical-factor-based model.Results:From bioinformatics analysis and previous articles, we found 6 potential plasma biomarkers for the prediction of AKI. Among them, 3 biomarkers, such as growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (ST2, IL1RL1), and soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) were found to have prediction ability for AKI (area under the curve [AUC] > 0.6) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. They were then incorporated into a multi-biomarker model for predicting AKI (C-statistic: 0.84, Brier 0.15) which outperformed the traditional clinical-factor-based model (C-statistic: 0.73, Brier 0.16).Conclusion:Our research validated a promising plasma multi-biomarker model for predicting AKI after cardiac surgery.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0259638
Author(s):  
Jae-Man Lee ◽  
Hyun-Bin Park ◽  
Jin-Eun Song ◽  
In-Cheol Kim ◽  
Ji-Hun Song ◽  
...  

Background Sudden cardiac death (SCD) and stroke-related events accompanied by atrial fibrillation (AF) can affect morbidity and mortality in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). This study sought to evaluate a scoring system predicting cardio-cerebral events in HCM patients using cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Methods We investigated the role of a previous prediction model based on CPET, the HYPertrophic Exercise-derived Risk score for Heart Failure-related events (HyperHF), which is derived from peak circulatory power ventilatory efficiency and left atrial diameter (LAD), for predicting a composite of SCD-related (SCD, serious ventricular arrhythmia, death from cardiac cause, heart failure admission) and stroke-related (new-onset AF, acute stroke) events. The Novel HyperHF risk model using left atrial volume index (LAVI) instead of LAD was proposed and compared with the previous HCM Risk-SCD model. Results A total of 295 consecutive HCM patients (age 59.9±13.2, 71.2% male) who underwent CPET was included in the present study. During a median follow-up of 742 days (interquartile range 384–1047 days), 29 patients (9.8%) experienced an event (SCD-related event: 14 patients (4.7%); stroke-related event: 17 patients (5.8%)). The previous model for SCD risk score showed fair prediction ability (AUC of HCM Risk-SCD 0.670, p = 0.002; AUC of HyperHF 0.691, p = 0.001). However, the prediction power of Novel HyperHF showed the highest value among the models (AUC of Novel HyperHF 0.717, p<0.001). Conclusions Both conventional HCM Risk-SCD score and CPET-derived HyperHF score were useful for prediction of overall risk of SCD-related and stroke-related events in HCM. Novel HyperHF score using LAVI could be utilized for a better prediction power.


Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 566
Author(s):  
Nicolette Formosa ◽  
Mohammed Quddus ◽  
Alkis Papadoulis ◽  
Andrew Timmis

With the ever-increasing advancements in the technology of driver assistant systems, there is a need for a comprehensive way to identify traffic conflicts to avoid collisions. Although significant research efforts have been devoted to traffic conflict techniques applied for junctions, there is dearth of research on these methods for motorways. This paper presents the validation of a traffic conflict prediction algorithm applied to a motorway scenario in a simulated environment. An automatic video analysis system was developed to identify lane change and rear-end conflicts as ground truth. Using these conflicts, the prediction ability of the traffic conflict technique was validated in an integrated simulation framework. This framework consisted of a sub-microscopic simulator, which provided an appropriate testbed to accurately simulate the components of an intelligent vehicle, and a microscopic traffic simulator able to generate the surrounding traffic. Results from this framework show that for a 10% false alarm rate, approximately 80% and 73% of rear-end and lane change conflicts were accurately predicted, respectively. Despite the fact that the algorithm was not trained using the virtual data, the sensitivity was high. This highlights the transferability of the algorithm to similar road networks, providing a benchmark for the identification of traffic conflict and a relevant step for developing safety management strategies for autonomous vehicles.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Qiang Zhang ◽  
Natalie Fragnito ◽  
Jason R. Franz ◽  
Nitin Sharma

Abstract Background: Improving the prediction ability of a human-machine interface (HMI) is critical to accomplish a bio-inspired or model-based control strategy for rehabilitation interventions, which are of increased interest to assist limb function post neurological injuries. A fundamental role of the HMI is to accurately predict human intent by mapping signals from a mechanical sensor or surface electromyography (sEMG) sensor. These sensors are limited to measuring the resulting limb force or movement or the neural signal evoking the force. As the intermediate mapping in the HMI also depends on muscle contractility, a motivation exists to include architectural features of the muscle as surrogates of dynamic muscle movement, thus further improving the HMI's prediction accuracy. Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate a non-invasive sEMG and ultrasound (US) imaging-driven Hill-type neuromuscular model (HNM) for net ankle joint plantarflexion moment prediction. We hypothesize that the fusion of signals from sEMG and US imaging results in a more accurate net plantarflexion moment prediction than sole sEMG or US imaging. Methods: Ten young non-disabled participants walked on a treadmill at speeds of 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, and 1.50 m/s. The proposed HNM consists of two muscle-tendon units. The muscle activation for each unit was calculated as a weighted summation of the normalized sEMG signal and normalized muscle thickness signal from US imaging. The HNM calibration was performed under both single-speed mode and inter-speed mode, and then the calibrated HNM was validated across all walking speeds. Results: On average, the normalized moment prediction root mean square error was reduced by 14.58 % (p = 0.012) and 36.79 % (p < 0.001) with the proposed HNM when compared to sEMG-driven and US imaging-driven HNMs, respectively. Also, the calibrated models with data from the inter-speed mode were more robust than those from single-speed modes for the moment prediction.Conclusions: The proposed sEMG-US imaging-driven HNM can significantly improve the net plantarflexion moment prediction accuracy across multiple walking speeds. The findings imply that the proposed HNM can be potentially used in bio-inspired control strategies for rehabilitative devices due to its superior prediction.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-17
Author(s):  
Zhihong Chen ◽  
Yiping Zou ◽  
Yuanpeng Zhang ◽  
Zhenrong Chen ◽  
Fan Wu ◽  
...  

Background. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), an aggressive malignant tumor, has a high incidence and unfavorable prognosis. Recently, the synergistic effect of pyroptosis in antitumor therapy and regulation of tumor immune microenvironment has made it possible to become a novel therapeutic method, but its potential mechanism still needs further exploration. Methods. Differentially expressed genes with prognostic value in Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma Project of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA-LIHC) cohort were screened and incorporated into the risk signature by Cox proportional hazards regression model and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator. Kaplan-Meier (KM) curves and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were applied to conduct survival comparisons and estimate prediction ability. The dataset of Liver Cancer-RIKEN, Japan Project from International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC-LIRI-JP) cohort was used to verify the reliability of the signature. Correlation analysis between clinicopathological characteristics, immune infiltration, drug sensitivities, and risk scores was conducted. Functional annotation analyses were performed for the genes differentially expressed between high-risk and low-risk groups. Results. A risk signature consisting of 6 pyroptosis-related genes in HCC was developed and validated. KM curves and ROC curves revealed its considerable predictive accuracy. Higher risk scores meant more advanced grade, higher alpha-fetoprotein level, and stronger invasive ability. Overexpressed genes in high-risk population were more enriched in the immune-associated pathways, and these patients might be more sensitive to immune checkpoint inhibitors instead of Sorafenib. Intriguingly, 6 identified genes were promising to be prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets of HCC. Conclusions. The signature may have crucial clinical significance in predicting survival prognosis, immune infiltration, and drug efficacy based on pyroptosis-related genes.


Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 494
Author(s):  
Erin McGowan ◽  
Vidita Gawade ◽  
Weihong (Grace) Guo

Physics-informed machine learning is emerging through vast methodologies and in various applications. This paper discovers physics-based custom loss functions as an implementable solution to additive manufacturing (AM). Specifically, laser metal deposition (LMD) is an AM process where a laser beam melts deposited powder, and the dissolved particles fuse to produce metal components. Porosity, or small cavities that form in this printed structure, is generally considered one of the most destructive defects in metal AM. Traditionally, computer tomography scans measure porosity. While this is useful for understanding the nature of pore formation and its characteristics, purely physics-driven models lack real-time prediction ability. Meanwhile, a purely deep learning approach to porosity prediction leaves valuable physics knowledge behind. In this paper, a hybrid model that uses both empirical and simulated LMD data is created to show how various physics-informed loss functions impact the accuracy, precision, and recall of a baseline deep learning model for porosity prediction. In particular, some versions of the physics-informed model can improve the precision of the baseline deep learning-only model (albeit at the expense of overall accuracy).


Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 447
Author(s):  
Hsuan-Yu Chen ◽  
Chiachung Chen

A calibration curve is used to express the relationship between the response of the measuring technique and the standard concentration of the target analyst. The calibration equation verifies the response of a chemical instrument to the known properties of materials and is established using regression analysis. An adequate calibration equation ensures the performance of these instruments. Most studies use linear and polynomial equations. This study uses data sets from previous studies. Four types of calibration equations are proposed: linear, higher-order polynomial, exponential rise to maximum and power equations. A constant variance test was performed to assess the suitability of calibration equations for this dataset. Suspected outliers in the data sets are verified. The standard error of the estimate errors, s, was used as criteria to determine the fitting performance. The Prediction Sum of Squares (PRESS) statistic is used to compare the prediction ability. Residual plots are used as quantitative criteria. Suspected outliers in the data sets are checked. The results of this study show that linear and higher order polynomial equations do not allow accurate calibration equations for many data sets. Nonlinear equations are suited to most of the data sets. Different forms of calibration equations are proposed. The logarithmic transformation of the response is used to stabilize non-constant variance in the response data. When outliers are removed, this calibration equation’s fit and prediction ability is significantly increased. The adequate calibration equations with the data sets obtained with the same equipment and laboratory indicated that the adequate calibration equations differed. No universe calibration equation could be found for these data sets. The method for this study can be used for other chemical instruments to establish an adequate calibration equation and ensure the best performance.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Abdelrahman A. Jamiel ◽  
Husam Ardah ◽  
Amjad M. Ahmed ◽  
Mouaz H. Al-Mallah

Abstract Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a fast-growing health problem that imposes an enormous economic burden. Several studies demonstrated the association between physical inactivity and predicting the incidence of diabetes. However, these prediction models have limited validation locally. Therefore, we aim to explore the predictive value of exercise capacity in the incidence of diabetes within a high diabetes prevalence population.Methodology: A retrospective cohort study including consecutive patients free of diabetes who underwent clinically indicated treadmill stress testing. Diabetic patients at baseline or patients younger than 18 years of age were excluded. Incident diabetes was defined as an established clinical diagnosis post-exercise testing date. The predictive value of exercise capacity was examined using Harrell’s c-index, net reclassification index (NRI), and integrated discrimination index (IDI).Results: A total of 8,722 participants (mean age 46±12 years, 66.3% were men) were free of diabetes at baseline. Over a median follow-up period of 5.24 (2.17-8.78) years, there were 2,280 (≈26%) new cases of diabetes. In a multivariate model adjusted for conventional risk factors, we found a 12% reduction in the risk of incident diabetes for each one greater MET achieved (HR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.88–0.92; P<0.001). Using Cox regression, exercise capacity improved the prediction ability beyond the conventional risk factors (AUC=0.62 to 0.66 and c-index= 0.62 to 0.68).Conclusion: Exercise capacity improved the overall predictability of incidence diabetes. Patients with reduced exercise capacity are at high risk for developing incidence diabetes. Improvement of both physical activity and functional capacity represents a preventive measure for the general population.


Mathematics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 164
Author(s):  
Yan Li ◽  
Mengyu Zhao ◽  
Huazhi Zhang ◽  
Yuanyuan Qu ◽  
Suyu Wang

A Multi-Agent Motion Prediction and Tracking method based on non-cooperative equilibrium (MPT-NCE) is proposed according to the fact that some multi-agent intelligent evolution methods, like the MADDPG, lack adaptability facing unfamiliar environments, and are unable to achieve multi-agent motion prediction and tracking, although they own advantages in multi-agent intelligence. Featured by a performance discrimination module using the time difference function together with a random mutation module applying predictive learning, the MPT-NCE is capable of improving the prediction and tracking ability of the agents in the intelligent game confrontation. Two groups of multi-agent prediction and tracking experiments are conducted and the results show that compared with the MADDPG method, in the aspect of prediction ability, the MPT-NCE achieves a prediction rate at more than 90%, which is 23.52% higher and increases the whole evolution efficiency by 16.89%; in the aspect of tracking ability, the MPT-NCE promotes the convergent speed by 11.76% while facilitating the target tracking by 25.85%. The proposed MPT-NCE method shows impressive environmental adaptability and prediction and tracking ability.


2022 ◽  
pp. 96-113
Author(s):  
Siva Kumar M. ◽  
Rajamani D. ◽  
Balsubramanian E.

The chapter focuses on utilizing a hybrid approach of response surface methodology and dragonfly algorithm for investigations and optimization of the selective inhibition sintering (SIS) process to improve the mechanical strengths such as tensile and flexural of fabricated high density polyethylene parts. The layer thickness (LT), heater energy (HE), heater and printer feedrate (HFR & PFR) are considered as the independent variables for the investigation. The SIS experiments are planned and conducted through a response surface methodology-based box-Behnken design approach to fabricate the test specimens. The optimal SIS parameters are obtained through a swarm intelligence metaheuristic technique namely dragonfly algorithm (DFA). The optimal parameter settings of LT of 0.102 mm, HE of 28.46 J/mm2, HFR of 3.22 mm/sec, and PFR of 110.49 mm/min are achieved through DFA for improved tensile and flexural strengths of 26.21 MPa and 65.71 MPa, respectively. Further, the prediction ability of DFA was compared with particle swarm optimization algorithm.


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